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Ta sch "Ngܩi ViŒt Khai-Ph M-Chu"

V Hu San

C l ngܩi ViŒt khng nhng khm-ph M-chu theo ngha thng-thܩng, h† cn gp cng khai-ph vng t ny. Ngu-nhin hay c-š, thuyŠn-nhn ViŒt ‰n Tn-th‰-gii trܧc Kha-lun-B nhiŠu trm nm hay nhiŠu ngn nm.

Chng ti xin khi u vŠ cu chuyŒn "ViŒt khai ph M-chu" ny...

Theo cc sch ViŒt-Nam m s nghin-cu cha ܮc tܩng-tn cho lm, ngܩi ViŒt u-tin ‰n M l s-gi ca vua T-c phi i: Bi-ViŒn. Theo ng Phan-Trn-Chc, h† Bi ti Hoa-K hai ln, ln u vo thi Tng-thng Abraham Lincoln, ܮc chnh-ph M ha gip ǫ. Bi-ViŒn vŠ nܧc ly quc-th v tr li M ln th hai vo nm 1873, thi Tng-Thng Ulysses S. Grant. Khi Lincoln b m-st ch‰t. NhiŒm-v ca v s-gi ViŒt-Nam l cu-viŒn nhng khng thnh-cng. Phan-trn-Chc ni ‰n hon-cnh Bi-ViŒn lc nh sau:

"...chy ngܮc chy xui mi, nhng khng c ch‡ no mi ‹ nng ta, Bi-ViŒn nh li mang tm lng trng r‡ng m bung thuyŠn vŠ nܧc..." (Bi-ViŒn vi Chnh-ph M - Lch-s ngoi-giao triŠu Nguyn, C-s xut-bn ng-Nam-, Paris 1985: 59)

Theo hu h‰t cc h†c-gi M, ti-liŒu vŠ ngܩi ViŒt-Nam u-tin ‰n Hoa-k l iŠu khng ai bi‰t ch-xc (a matter of uncertainty). ChuyŒn Bi-ViŒn gp Lincoln khng thy ghi trong s sch v cng khng nghe ai nhc nh ti. Phn sau ca cu chuyŒn khi Bi-ViŒn ‰n M ln th hai cng li ܮc ni khc i cht t. B Barbara Cohen, mt n bc-s tng phc-v ti ViŒt-Nam, cho rng khi ti Washington D.C. ‹ chuy‹n li thnh-cu gip ǫ ca vua T-c, Bi-ViŒn ܮc Tng-thng Ulysses S. Grant thun-š. Tuy vy, khi mang ra quc-hi th Š-ngh b ph-quy‰t. (The VietNam Guide Book, Boston 1991: 52).

VŠ pha h†c-gi ViŒt-Nam, ng Thi-vn-Ki‹m ngh rng v Tng-thng m Bi-ViŒn y‰t-ki‰n c hai ln l Ulysses S. Grant. ( ViŒtNam News- 1970, ti-liŒu ca Ta i-s VNCH ti Hoa-thnh-n). Trn mt bi bo ng trong tp-ch Hn-ViŒt ngy 10 thng 3/ 78, nhan-Š "Bi ViŒn, ngܩi VN u tin ti M", ng Thi-vn-Ki‹m li mt ln na c ni ‰n chuyŒn "h† Bi thi‰u quc-th" nh sau:

"...Ch Ǯi mi v cng do s vn-Ƕng ca ngܩi bn M ti Hng-Cng, (Bi) ViŒn ܮc Tng-Thng Ulysses Simpson Grant (1821-1885) thn-ti‰p mt cch nng-hu Tng-thng M ha s gip ǫ, v nhn thy tham-v†ng ca ngܩi u-chu -ng qu r rng, nhng iŠu lm cho Tng-thng ngi l cuc vi‰ng thm ca Bi-ViŒn khng chnh-thc v khng c quc-th. Th-tc ngoi-giao ny rt cn-thi‰t v Tng-thng Grant cn-c vo u ‹ gip ǫ mt nܧc nhܮc-ti‹u.

Thy quc-th l iŠu cn-thi‰t, Bi-ViŒn co-t Tng-thng M tr vŠ nܧc v ha s qua ln na vi quc-th hn hoi; nhng ti‰c thay, khi Bi-ViŒn tr li Hoa-K ln th hai nhng kh khn trong chnh-tnh Hoa-K hi by gi khng cho php Hoa-K trc-ti‰p gip ǫ ViŒt-Nam ܮc. Hy-v†ng ca Bi-ViŒn tan nh my khi. Vi tht-v†ng trn ngp tm-hn, Bi-ViŒn ln ܩng vŠ c-quc. N‰u chuy‰n i ln trܧc c quc-th th cc-diŒn nܧc ViŒt-Nam thi c l thay ǰi hn.

Li vŠ Honh-Tn, Bi-ViŒn may mn gp ngܩi s-thn c, nhng mc du ܮc bn st sng gip ǫ, Bi-ViŒn cng khng lm g ܮc vi v Tng-thng, nn nh p Tu vŠ nܧc, mang theo mt mi su v-hn".

Cn "ngܩi M ni chung hay ngܩi Hoa-k no, ni ring ‰n ViŒt-Nam ln u tin?" cng l mt cu hi cha c li gii-p chnh-xc. Tuy-nhin iŠu ng ni trܧc h‰t vŠ ngܩi M chc chn phi l mt nh hng-hi.

Qua danh-mc cc ti-liŒu trong th-viŒn, ngܩi ta bi‰t tc-gi Hoa-K u-tin c sch xut-bn m ni-dung ni vŠ sinh-hot nܧc ta l thuyŠn-trܪng John White. Cun sch mang tn "History of a Voyage to the China Sea" do nh Wells and Lilly Boston xut-bn nm 1823, sau ny Oxford University Press in li nm 1972 ly nhan-Š "A Voyage to Cochinchina". ng White cng l mt i-y trong Hi-Qun Hoa-K, li Tu S.S. Franklin ca cng-ty East India Marine Society ‰n ViŒt-Nam giao-thng vo cc nm 1819-1820. Trong , ng cho bi‰t gp nhng thng-thuyŠn M ‰n bun bn t trܧc.

Theo cc tc-gi ca sch "America in VietNam- A Documentary History" (edited with Commentaries by William Appleman Williams, Thomas McCormick, Lloyd Gardner and Walter LaFeber; Anchor Book, New York 1983: 3), ngܩi ta khng th‹ ch ch-danh ngܩi M no ‰n ViŒt-Nam trܧc h‰t nhng c th‹ yn-ch cao-on rng h† l nhng thuyŠn-trܪng hay thu›-th b cun ht trong nhng ܧc-v†ng vŠ giu sang hay mo-hi‹m, tr nn nhng th hi-tc quc-t‰ trong thi gian trn chi‰n King William (1689-1697).

Ngoi cc ti-liŒu nh ܮc k‹ trn, chng ta nn tr ngܮc li khong thi-gian trܧc na, th c tm xem c nhng lin-hŒ no gia ngܩi ViŒt v M-chu trong c-thi hay khng? Khng may l t trܧc ‰n nay chng ta cha tm thy mt cun sch hay mt tp kho-cu no bng ViŒt-ng v do mt tc-gi ViŒt ܮc vi‰t ra ...

Qua tp s-cu ny, chng ti xin ܮc mo mui trnh-by k‰t-qu ca s gp nht mt s gi-thuy‰t ng-ti trn sch v, bo-ch quc-t‰ xa nay. Da vo cc ki‰n-thc chuyn-mn thu gp ܮc t tui thanh-xun, chng ti ǥt nng s su-tm trn quan-i‹m hng-hi.

V khng phi nh nghin-cu chuyn-nghiŒp, chng ti khng kh-nng ‹ i su vo tng s kiŒn v cng khng hi‹u-bi‰t ‹ ch-trch nhng lš-thuy‰t c. Trn nhiŠu lnh-vc chng ti l mt tay m rt m m, khng dm ma ru qua mt th, nn ch xin lm chuyŒn mt ngܩi i su-tm, la l†c cc ti-liŒu no m chng ti (ch-quan) tm ngh rng ng ǡn.

Chng ti khng "hn-h†c" nh trܩng-hp ng Bnh-nguyn-Lc mt ln tht ra khi vi‰t "Ngun gc M-Lai ca Dn-tc ViŒt-Nam". Chng ti t ngh khng bi‰t g nhiŠu cho ng g†i l chnh-xc, k‹ c nhng chi-ti‰t Š-ti ang mang ra Š-cp, nn khi xin php ܮc ni cng ch xin ni nhng li nh nh. N‰u cu vn khng ܮc m du th xin ngܩi †c hi‹u cho chng ti, ch v s y‰u km nghŠ vi‰t m l li. khng phi nh vn, li khng phi nh kho-cu, cn-bn ngܩi vi‰t li ch nng vŠ khong thi-gian th u sng gn sng nܧc, ri mܩi my nm i bi‹n khi trܪng-thnh, c cuc ǩi vi 4 ln lm thuyŠn-nhn chy lon.

Nh tha trn, tuy ti-liŒu, sch v ViŒt-ng bn vŠ vai tr ngܩi ViŒt c-thi trong viŒc khai-ph M-chu khng c trong th-viŒn y, nhng ti-liŒu, sch v ngoi-ng Š-cp ‰n kh nhiŠu gi-thuy‰t lin-hŒ ‰n ngnh hng-hi ngܩi ViŒt c, li lu-tr u trong khp m†i th‹-ti nghin-cu.

ng Ty ni, ng Tu ni, ng M ni, ng M ni, ng Ba-Lan ni, cc ng y ni ... m ni vŠ nhng chuyŒn khc nhau:

- Dn ng-Nam-, trong gm thnh-phn ln ngܩi ViŒt, khai-sinh nng-nghiŒp (c l l cng ln nht). Gi-thuy‰t cha ܮc cng-nhn.

- ViŒt khi-nguyn hi-hnh vin-dng, tuy c th‹ tm g†i l quan-tr†ng m vn cha nhiŠu tc-gi ni ti.

- ViŒt khm-ph (hay khai-ph) M-chu c tht chng? Š-ti ny c g ng ni khng? Mt s bi vi‰t ri rc u a ra nhiŠu chng-c ng tin tܪng.

- Lch-ton, mu t alphabet v.v. cng c th‹ nguyn-lai xut-x t khu-vc ngܩi ViŒt-Nam chng ta sinh sng chng? Nghe ra xem l lng qu, tuy vy m cng c cht lš-l g ‹ cc nh nghin-cu a ra gi-thuy‰t m bn-lun.

C M-chu thܩng ܮc xc-nhn l M-chu trܧc thi Kha-lun-B. Cn c ViŒt l nhng ViŒt no thi c:

- ViŒt no ? ViŒt-Nam trong N v NA trong -chu.

- ViŒt t thi Bng-, hay thi "k‰t-tinh" ni vng duyn-hi phng-phiu hng mܩi my ngn nm xa, vi nhiŠu trm dm tri di ngoi khi b bi‹n hiŒn-thi. ViŒt vng vy khp i-dng khi Thi-bnh-dng cn hiŠn-ha my thin-k› trܧc hay ti‰p-tc xng-pha lc bi‹n c khi s hung-d hn mt ngn nm gn y.

- Ni ‰n chuyŒn ngܩi ViŒt, c l ta nn Š-cp ‰n mt th ngܩi ViŒt khi I trܧc c trang m u ca s Trung-Hoa. Mt s nh kho-c cho rng t-tin ngܩi ViŒt nh-c ti vng duyn-hi ng- hng chc ngn nm trܧc y, trong khi nhng ngܩi Tu (t nhn) chnh gc cn l dn du-mc vng Trung- cha di-chuy‹n ‰n Hong-H.

- ViŒt trong Yueh, ViŒt trong thi Xun-thu Chi‰n-quc, ViŒt trong vng sng Hoi, ViŒt trong Bch-ViŒt, ViŒt trong ‰-quc Nam-ViŒt, ViŒt trong Lc-ViŒt, trong Hoa-Tng, trong Mon-Khmer, trong M-Lai, trong c- (Nam-), trong M-lai /Nam-Dng, trong c-Thi (Nam-Thi). Ngܩi ViŒt l ng-chng, ng-bo hay anh em vi Mܩng, Mn, L-l, Rhad ..., thc-b vi Chm, b con vi Nht-bn, i-hn, Th-dn i-loan... m c thuy‰t ViŒt = Malaya/Altaic na v.v...

Ngay t nm 1875 ti Nancy Php-quc, khi thnh-lp t-chc "International Congress of Americanists", mt ngh-hi quc-t‰ nghin-cu vŠ vn-ha c-thi M-chu ‰n nay; nhng h†c-gi m†i chng-tc, quc-gia cng-b nhiŠu ti-liŒu minh-chng s lin-hŒ gia Tn v Cu-th‰-gii, trong c cc chng-tch lin-hŒ xa gn gia ViŒt v M-chu. Cc bn nghin-cu ca h†c-gi Php Francis A. Allen vŠ gi-thuy‰t "ngun gc vn-minh M-chu v s tng-ng vi ng-Nam-" ܮc vinh-d cng-b trong hai bui h†p u tin, sau bn bo-co ܮc ng-ti trong cng-bo chnh-thc ca t-chc ny. l cc bi:

- La trs-ancienne Amrique, o origine de la civilisation primitive du Nouveau Monde -- seconde partie -- de la parent des races civiliss de l'Amrique avec celles du sud-est de l'Asie (Proceedings of the 1st International Congress of Americanists, Nancy, France, 1875, 2: 198-243).

- De la parent des races civiliss de l'Amrique avec celle du sud-est de l'Asie (Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of Americanists, Luxembourg, 1877, 1: 79-99).

tng c c h†c-gi Ty-phng gi ti liŒu "lin-hŒ M-ViŒt" ‰n ngay t ViŒt-Nam ‹ ph-bi‰n. l ln Ti‰n-s kho-c lng-danh George F. Carter cho ng phn kho-cu ca ng trn t bo ViŒt-M, do hi ViŒt-M ti Si-Gn xut-bn thng 12 nm 1959 vŠ nh-hܪng cc nŠn vn-ha ngoi vo M-chu, trong ng Š-cp ‰n nhng s ng gp ca nŠn vn-ha ng-Dng chng ta. Bi mang tiu-Š "The Mystery of American Civilization. Did the Western Hemisphere Develop Spontaneously or Were There Outside Influences? A Fascinating Argument Rages on".

Bu-bo ca Socit des tudes Indochinoises de Saigon cng ng mt lot bi vŠ chng-tch tng-ng ca ngܩi ViŒt cng nh cc sc dn bn-o Hoa-ƒn khc, i vi c M-chu. NhiŠu ngܩi ViŒt †c nhng khng c ngܩi gp š v cc bi bo ny Šu khng c ti‰ng vang.

S ng-bo chng ta lc ny ‰n M gn mt triŒu. Cng nhiŠu ngܩi trong chng ta tng c dp ni hay nghe chuyŒn "khm-ph hay di-dn ‰n M-chu trong c-thi" nhng hi‰m ngܩi b cng ra tm ki‰m xem cu tr li : c th‹ tiŠn-nhn ca ta tng ‰n y chng?

Cng cn ni ‰n Alphonso Caso v George Kubler, nhng "cy c-th" trong rng nghin-cu-gia. N‰u bn vŠ vn-ha c M-chu khng ai rnh r hn cc ng, n‰u ni ‰n nhng s kiŒn tng-ng hay lin-hŒ Cu v Tn-th‰-gii chng my ngܩi bi‰t bng hai ng ny... Vy m cc ng vn d dt, Caso ni c lc khng tin lš-thuy‰t vn-minh phn-tn (Diffusionism) v Kubler li cn ni nh cnh co :" khng v thy hai ngܩi ging nhau m cho l anh em". Cc ng d dt l ng, v l theo š ring cc ng tin-tܪng nh vy. D š cc ng ny c ra sao chng na, vn c nhiŠu ng , ang v s nghin-cu theo chiŠu sui, trong khi nhng ngܩi khc o su theo chiŠu ngܮc hn li vi š-ki‰n ca cc ng.

C nhng gi-thuy‰t ny thun, s c nhng gi-thuy‰t khc nghch. Tuy vy, Thun v Nghch Šu gp cng cho kho-tng ki‰n-thc v mang li ti‰n-b.

Mt ng bn-lun cho th‰ ny l ng, ng khc c th‹ lš-gii theo cch ngܮc li. Ta cng nn nghe lI l c i bn.

Trong kho sch ViŒt, t c nhng cun bn vŠ lin-hŒ vn-minh; ring lin-hŒ vn-minh thi c M-ViŒt cha tng bao gi c. Chng ti thi‰t ngh rng cn mnh dn a ra nhng š-ki‰n khch-Ƕng s nghin-cu lnh-vc ny.

Cch nay khong hn ba chc nm, hi mi dn thn vo nghiŒp hi-hnh, chng ti tnh-c bt gp nhiŠu sch v ni vŠ lin-hŒ gia Cu v Tn-lc-a. Mt khi †c th b li cun vo. Nhn hi‹u ri, ci lng nh t thi-thc, thy cn ni ra. Khng bi‰t ng sai, chng ti ch xin c gng thnh-thc ghi li nhng g †c ܮc.

N‰u loi ngܩi gia-tng ܮc vn hi‹u bi‰t, s k-th s bt i v cng ng nhn-loi d dng hi‹u bi‰t nhau hn v nh vy cng ti‰n-b.

Ki‰n-thc vŠ nhng gi-thuy‰t lin-hŒ ViŒt-M ܮc chng ti thu g†n li ta nh mt thc-n di. Cng nh trn bn tiŒc ln ܮc d†n ra vi nhiŠu mn trn bn, khch ܮc ch†n mn mnh thch ty khu-v ring. Cng c mn chnh ngܩi chiu i ngh l ngon nhng thc-khch khng a. D sao th nh hng cng phi phi gi tt c n ܮc nng st.

NhiŠu khi chng ta t hi c l no cc tc-gi vi‰t na a, na tht chng? Th‰-gii ng-Ty trnh-by nhiŠu chuyŒn xem ra nh gi-tܪng. C vi iŠu cha chc l tht, v r rng hn c th‹ sai. Tuy vy, b ngoi nhng tin-ki‰n, m rng tm nhn, theo di cch-thc suy-lun mt cch khoa-h†c, ta thy hu h‰t nhng g h† a ra c nhiŠu khi-cnh hu-lš.

Thy hai ngܩi ging nhau, m v thy h† ging nhau qu trn nhiŠu phng-diŒn, nn n‰u c ai ǥt ra gi-thuy‰t h† c lin-hŒ b con hay hn cht na tܪng nh anh em cng ch l chuyŒn bnh-thܩng. Ch nh hai t khai-sinh l ta bi‰t chc h† cng b m sinh ra. Nay khng c nhng giy ... nn ta nh xem xt nhng y‰u t lin-hŒ khc. Chng ta cn thu-thp nhiŠu chi-ti‰t ti-liŒu lin-hŒ hnh-dng, tnh-tnh, thi quen ... Sau , n‰u ta phn-tch, tng-hp cho ng ǡn th c-hi tm ra k‰t-lun chnh-xc s cng nhiŠu vy.

Ngܩi vi‰t khng c š-tܪng ch-quan nht-nh, cho rng nŠn vn-minh M-chu l do nhng nŠn vn-minh bn ngoi khai-sng. Cho ‰n nay, d t-tܪng c dt d hay mnh bo, chng ta c th‹ chp-nhn quan-niŒm: Vn-minh c ca Tn-th‰-gii do th-dn gy dng v t pht-tri‹n. Chng ti ch mun a ra iŠu nhn xt rng hi‹n-nhin vng t ny khng hon ton c-lp vi Cu-th‰-gii. NhiŠu di-dn vn ti‰p-tc ‰n y sau thi-k bng , trong c th‹ c s hiŒn-diŒn ca ngܩi ViŒt chng ta, h† cng th-dn gp cng khai-ph Ty-bn-cu.

Cun sch ny hܧng s nghin-cu vŠ viŒc i bi‹n thi c ca dn ViŒt, l†c la nhng d-kin kh-hu v bc b nhng o-tܪng vŠ kh-nng, phng-tiŒn ca ngܩi xa, n‡i kh khn khi hi-hnh, s cung-n ca bi‹n c v.v... Trn quan-i‹m hng-hi, chng ti s-dng nhng chng-liŒu sn c ca cc h†c gi, phn ln thuc khi u-M m chng ti coi l c tnh-cch khoa-h†c nht.

Nhng lš-lun vŠ cng-trnh khai-ph M-chu li lin-hŒ nhiŠu t ‰n thuyŠn-nhn t-nn, thnh-phn m chng ti ngh rng khng th‹ no c t trong s lܮng nhng ngܩi di-dn ‰n y trܧc thi Kha-lun-B. Th‰-k› 20 chng-ki‰n nhiŠu Ǯt sng tn-c t t liŠn ra bi‹n qua c M-chu sau cc cuc tranh-chp gia nhng ngܩi anh em cng ni ging. Ba bn thin-k› trܧc y khi con ngܩi cn man-d, cc ln ra i t hi‹n-nhin cn h‡n-lon, khng-khi‰p hn nhiŠu v lš-do ca nhng trn tn-st m mu khi mt sc dn hi‰u-chi‰n t vng Trung- i xung thܮng-ngun Hng-h trn qua duyn-hi tn sc diŒt-chng th-dn l ging ViŒt t thu ban-s ‹ chi‰m-ot t ai, cܧp bc ti-sn. Ngܩi ta hong-ht, bng b‰ nhau chy trn ra bi‹n. V gi, v nܧc cun h† i ...

Nh th‰, sch ny mun pht-bi‹u mt gi-thuy‰t l ngܩi ViŒt di-c, dܧi nhiŠu dng-thc khc nhau vŠ tn chi-tc,chng-loi; ln c tn quc-gia ... cng tng ‰n y t thi -. H† c th‹ khng mun i nhng b tri v b c ngܩi y i; d khng mun ti tr khi b thiŒt-mng trn bi‹n, h† cng phi ti cc o Thi-bnh-Dng hay ti M-chu vy.

Trong khi cho rng thuyŠn-nhn t-nn ngܩi ViŒt khng nhng vܮt bi‹n ti M t lu, tc i trܧc Kha-lun-B nhiŠu ngn nm m cn gp cng khai-ph vng Ty-bn-cu rng ln ny. Vy gi-thuy‰t c i qu xa chng?

Ngy y, s lܮng ngܩi di-c ViŒt hn ng-o. H† c t-chc, nh-c li lp-nghiŒp lu di, trnh-Ƕ vn-ho k-thut nht-nh cao hn dn bn-x. Chc chn du v‰t khai-ph, xy-dng ca h† phi cn ghi li nhiŠu ni trn t nܧc ny cng nh qua ngܩi dn Da . Ngy nay, cc nh khoa-h†c tm ra nhng nh-hܪng ca ngܩi ViŒt c-thi trong tt c cc sinh-hot ca ngܩi th-dn M-chu nh nng-nghiŒp, hng-hi, ng-nghiŒp, ki‰n-trc, luyŒn kim, y-khoa, y-phc, nghŒ-thut, tri‰t-lš, cc niŠm tin-tܪng bnh-dn ... Mt khi cc k‰t-qu nghin-cu nh vy ܮc coi l xc-thc th ci k‰t-lun "Ngܩi ViŒt khai-ph M-chu" khng phi l iŠu vi‹n-vng.

Ta hy xem ngܩi Eskimo vi nhng con thuyŠn Ƕc-mc nh b ch ch ܮc vi ba ngܩi ti M-chu t 10,000 nm qua. Mi mt ngn nm trܧc, ngܩi Vikings ch c loi thuyŠn trn tri, khng mui che ph, dng bi cho lm li vy m cng ti vng ng-Bc M. Ngܩi ViŒt vi trnh-Ƕ k-thut hng-hi nhiŠu ngn nm tn-ti‰n hn, khng lš no khng ti ܮc. Khc vi m†i ging dn khc m cc gi-thuy‰t no c th‹ a ra, ngܩi c ViŒt li b Ƕng-lc khng-khi‰p thc y, l chi‰n-tranh, gi‰t chc, tn-ph, truy-diŒt. Trong th‰-k› ny, chng ta bao ln chy gic, b qu-hng ra I mt phng tri khng tng quen bi‰t.

Thin-thi, a-li, nhn-ha nm trong trܩng-hp ca c-nhn. Thi-th‰ thc-bch ta i. a-th‰ vn d nm cnh hi-lu, t c khng ܮc, t mi li mu m, ph-hp thy-th. B‰n pha ny y a, b bn kia cun ht nh trn mt giy truyŠn chuy‹n-vn; cng vo y‰u-t nhn-ho vi tnh on-k‰t ca nhng ngܩi ng ch-hܧng m dn ViŒt c xa i v nh chng ta ngy nay ti t ny. C th‹ ni mt cch "duy-tm" l thc-s š ngܩi v mŒnh tri ngu-nhin hi-t ni vng ng-, mang dn C ViŒt tri t ‰n lc-a xa l ny t ngn nm qua, ngy hm nay nhng thuyŠn-nhn t-nn nh chng ta li ang ti-din cnh xa.

Khoa-h†c cng-nhn l ngܩi Vikings t Bc-u ‰n Tn-th‰-gii, nh-c li, khai-khn vng Newfounland hng trm nm, nhng nh-hܪng ca h† khng cn st bao nhiu chng-tch ghi li cho ngܩi dn bn-x. ChuyŒn thc-t‰ hiŒn ra hm nay, gn triŒu ngܩi ViŒt ‰n y, thi-gian di 20 nm tri qua, ta thy thnh-tch ghi li trn t M s cn li g n‰u gi-d nh th‰-gii ny v thin-tai khng-khi‰p, tr li c-lp v sau vi ngn nm, nhng nh kho-c tng-lai thuc thin-k› th 5, th 6 ... s tm ܮc bao nhiu phn du-v‰t mang ǥc-tnh ViŒt-Nam st li t th‰-k› th 20 ?

Trong th‰-hŒ hiŒn-ti, bi‰t bao nhiu ng-bo chng ta - ba, bn ln t-nn, thng thܩng vi i ba ln vܮt thot bng ܩng thy. Ln cui cng hy-v†ng l chng cht trong cuc ǩi di-tn, k thuyŠn-nhn ‰n ܮc M-chu. Ngy xa c-nhn cng vy, cnh c ti-din hay lch-s mt ln na li xy ra.

H†c-gi Hong-vn-Ch c th‹ l ngܩi ViŒt-Nam u tin ngh ‰n nhng bi‰n-c tng-t khi c b qu miŠn Bc, di-c vo Nam nm 1954. Hi‹n-nhin sau , nh mt li tin-on, h†c-gi ‰n Hoa-k v lp-nghiŒp y cho ‰n ngy cui ca cuc ǩi. Tm-s mt ngܩi v hon-cnh t nܧc -- trn chy x Bc dng Tu v Nam, ri tri dt sang b M-chu -- ܮc trnh by trong "From Migration 1954 to Evacuation 1975", xut-bn ti ... M...1980 (?).

Kinh-nghiŒm ca c Hong cng l kinh-nghiŒm hng triŒu ngܩi ViŒt t-nn v rt c th‹ l kinh-nghiŒm ca thuyŠn-nhn Ha-Bnh / ng-Sn ti "Tn-th‰-gii" ngy xa. Tri‰t-lš ca h†c-gi ny hi‹n-nhin mang li nhiŠu an-i cho nhng ngܩi nh chng ta. Hy tܪng-tܮng rng nhiŠu triŒu bc tܮng Pht, hiŒn-thn ca nhng ngܩi ra i, nh lm bng g‡ m ni tri ܮc theo dng nܧc thi gian v khng-gian. Khi i t Dng-t, Hng-h, C-long; nhng bc tܮng quš ny vn ti‰p-tc tp vo b b‰n mi ny, khng ngng ngh t ba, bn, nm ngn nm qua.

Chng ta khng c-Ƕc v gp li c-nhn, cng ng-š trn mt quan-niŒm: lng th chu au kh la xa qu-hng ra i ‹ lnh xa phܩng cung bo, lm li cuc ǩi mi; cn hn li qu c thn yu nhng phi chu cnh tan-tnh ging nh nhng bc tܮng t v nܧc lt m r tan... Nhng tܮng Pht hiŒn-ti l chng ta, gp li nhng tܮng Pht qa-kh l tiŠn-nhn ... v sau y, nhiŠu tܮng Pht v-lai s ti‰p-tc theo dng nܧc c tri dt ‰n nhng b p, b‰n trong nh vy.

Mt thn cy g‡ tri ni trn bi‹n ng-, n‰u khng chm, cng c c-hi tp vo b M-Chu. Cho d m†i lš-l tng-ng -M khng minh-chng rng con ngܩi thi c vܮt Thi-bnh-Dng nhng dng hi-lu vn hiŒn-hu vnh-vin. Thc-th‹ ny khng th‹ chi ci ܮc. Xc-sut ngܩi c ViŒt ‰n M khng th‹ l mt con s khng v gi-thuy‰t vŠ "mt con ܩng bi‹n ViŒt-M c hay khng c" nn ܮc gii khoa-h†c lu-tm nghin-cu.

Nh gio-s Phm-hong-H tng ni, chng ti cng thu-t ܮc nhng niŠm vui trong khi i tm hi‹u nhng chuyŒn "xa xi" ny: th-viŒn ra, m‡i ngy m‡i thch th v thy thm nhng hi‹u-bi‰t mi, ki‰m thm nhng š-ki‰n l m ln u tin trong cuc ǩi chng ti ܮc †c ti.

Chng ti thi‰t ngh khng nn d dt qu khi vi‰t. Gi-thuy‰t a ra hm nay, c th‹ ܮc ki‹m-chng xc-nh ngy mai, li cng c th‹ dn-chng ‹ ph-nhn ngy mt... N‰u gi-thuy‰t ng ǡn th hi‹n-nhin l c li-ch m n‰u sai lm th cng chng v-ch v gi-thuy‰t ch l chܧng-ngi cn vܮt. M khi vܮt qua, ngܩi ta li ti‰p-tc ti‰n. S hi‹u bi‰t cn xa hn chn tri, v cng tn.

V mang tnh-cch liŒt-k s-kiŒn hn l i su xa vo chi-ti‰t cng minh-chng nhng s-kiŒn ring r nn sch ny ܮc vi‰t mt cch c-†ng, i khi qu g†n cho ‰n Ƕ kh hi‹u. B-khuy‰t vo , hnh v em dng ‹ minh-chng thay cho li vi‰t. V chng, ch trnh-by nh vy m khun kh cun sch hi ln. Nm trong mc-ch i tin-phong ‹ ku g†i nhng s nghin-cu hon-b hn, thi‰t-tܪng cng-viŒc mt c-nhn ring r nh chuyŒn chng ti ang lm cng l tm . Cng-trnh ch-thc ng vinh-danh vŠ nghin-cu "ViŒt khai-ph" xin dnh cho nhng v chuyn-mn, cao-ki‰n hay cc t-chc chuyn-mn trnh-by c hŒ-thng v mch-lc hn. Ngܩi vi‰t xin thnh-thc co l‡i cng quš-v Ƕc-gi dnh th-gi theo di nhng li vi‰t kh khan ny.

Trong khi s-cu, nhm lܮc-k cho ܮc nhiŠu s-kiŒn, ngܩi vi‰t dnh ton th‹ sch ny cho s trnh-by cc gi-thuy‰t, tuy c th‹ ghi ni xut-x nhng khng km phn ph-ch. Nhng ti-liŒu tham-kho xa gn lin-hŒ ‰n Š-ti ܮc thu-nht li v trnh-by trong cc a iŒn-ton. C chng 3,500 Š-mc c th‹ tham-kho km theo mt s chi-ti‰t vŠ ni-dung cc ti-liŒu m chng ti mi ch mang ra dn-chng mt phn rt t. Cc a ny, n‰u in thnh sch s chi‰m hng ngn trang giy. Ngoi phn ti-liŒu ti‰ng ViŒt, mt s ti-liŒu Php-ng v tt c cc ti-liŒu mi (xut-bn t 1989 tr li y) do chng ti su-tm, x‰p ǥt; phn ln ti-liŒu cn li ܮc rt ra t pho sch tiu-Š Pre-Columbian Contact with the Americas Across the Oceans (Research Press in Provo, Utah 1989). Quš-v no cn dng tra-cu thm, c th‹ tm mua hay ki‰m †c trong th-viŒn cun sch "Pre-Columbia Contact ..." k‹ trn hay lin-lc vi "Lܧt Sng", chng ti xin gi bi‰u nhu-liŒu . a iŒn-ton c th‹ dng ‹ †c trn my, c th‹ in ra hay cng c th‹ ci-bi‰n ‹ tiŒn trong viŒc tra-cu ring ca quš-v.

NhiŠu ngܩi thi c ra i cho chng thuyŠn b hu h‰t l nhng thy-th cng gia-nh v thn-hu ca h†. Thng-thܩng th phn k‰t-thc s-phn dnh cho nhng ngܩi i bi‹n tng-t nh h† khng c g ng ni, hay i khi ܮm cht xt xa. Theo mt vn-s Php "Trn m ngܩi thy-th khng c a hng n".

Thng thay, khng ngi m, chng a hoa no m cng khng cn li v‰t tch no h‰t. Chng l thi-gian c quyŠn-lc xa nho tt c ? D th‰ no, cng c th o bi li xem sao v chng ti hng-hi khi-s. Чc mong ti‰p theo s "o bi sch v" ny l nhng o bi thc-s trn t M-chu mang li chng-tch tng-t nh "Newfoundland vi ngܩi Vikings".

Sch ny vi‰t nhm ghi li k›-niŒm 39/4/75, ngy xa bi‹n ca hng chc ngn lnh thy cng on-vin hng-hi, ng-nghiŒp ViŒt-Nam v quc-bi‰n b nghiŒp hi-h, nhiŠu ngܩi ra i theo "nghiŒp-d" ca nhng bc tܮng g‡ tri ni mun phng. Ngܩi vi‰t hy-v†ng mang cht tm-tnh ca mt thuyŠn-nhn cui th‰-k› 20 dng tng nhng ngܩi i trܧc. Bng hng ny khng bi‰t ti p, xng-ng tng nhng thuyŠn-nhn nm ba ngn nm xa c hay khng, nhng lng ngܩi vi‰t tht chn-thnh !

V Hu San