Make your own free website on Tripod.com

a-lš Bi‹n ng vi Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa

(y phn bi vi‰t, ch thi‰u hnh v)

V-Hu-San

1- Bi‹n ng ca bu nܧc ta.

Nܧc ViŒt-Nam nm cnh Bi‹n ng. Lnh-th v hi-phn Bi‹n ng l ti-sn tiŠn-nhn ‹ li cho dn-tc ta.

1.1- Ca bu ca mt nܧc.

"Ca bu ca mt nܧc, khng g quš bng t ai: nhn-dn v ca ci Šu do y m sinh ra". l cu s-gia Phan-Huy-Ch dng m u cho "Quy‹n 1 - a-d-Ch". Ton tp sch c nhiŠu quy‹n, ܮc hon-thnh nm 1820 mang tn l "Lch-TriŠu Hi‰n-chng Loi-ch". Ngy nay, danh-t ܮc ni mt cch tng-qut l "t ai" nh vy cn k‹ thm c vng tri v nht l vng bi‹n bao la rng ln vy quanh na.

Hong-Sa mt, Trܩng-Sa ang b xm-lng

Nm 1974, qun-o Hong-Sa l†t hon-ton vo tay Trung-Cng. Nm 1988, tc l sau 14 nm, nhiŠu vng ca Trܩng-Sa b ngoi-lai xua qun xm-ln trng trn, nh chm tu ViŒt-Nam, chi‰m c hng lot hi-o ca ta.

Nm 1994, Trung-Cng ngang ngܮc ngn-chn c viŒc khai-thc du kh ngay trn thŠm lc-a ViŒt-Nam, chn p phi-on ViŒt-Nam vo nhng tho-ܧc song-phng c li cho chng.

Nm nay 1995, c-nguy hon-ton mt tt c cc o ngoi Bi‹n ng cng c th‹ khng cn xa!

V nܧc no c a-phn nܧc y, ngܩi dn c bn-phn gi gn lnh-th cho ܮc nguyn vn. B ci nܧc ta xa nay bao gm hai qun-o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa. Chnh-quyŠn no ca ViŒt-Nam cng phi dn n‡-lc cho cng-tc bo-vŒ di-sn ca tiŠn-nhn. Ngoi viŒc phng-th nhng o cn li, quc-sch cn bao gm cc k‰-hoch ti-lp ch-quyŠn quc-gia trn cc o mt. Phn chnh k‰-hoch ny ܮc bo-mt nhng phn chun-b cho k‰-hoch nh hun-luyŒn, iŠu-hnh, ti‰p-vn, tm-lš-chi‰n, tnh-bo, vn-Ƕng ngoi-giao v.v... phi ph-bi‰n ‰n m†i lc-lܮng qun-s, dn-s, cc c-s ngoi-giao, hnh-chnh... lin-hŒ ‹ tt c sn sng phi-hp thi-hnh ngay khi c c-hi thun-tiŒn.

D sao chng na, i trܧc tt c nhng k‰-sch , m†i ngܩi ViŒt-Nam chng ta cn ܮc "trang-b" ngay nhng ki‰n-thc a-d cn-bn vŠ hai qun-o trn. -ngh sp-x‰p cng viŒc u-tin nh vy cng l š ca ngܩi xa. S-gia Phan-huy-Ch quy‰t-nh n-hnh chng "D-a-ch" trܧc 9 chng khc l Nhn-vt-ch, Quan-chc-ch, L-nghi-ch, Khoa-mc-ch, Quc-dng-ch, Hnh-lut-ch, Binh-ch‰-ch, Vn-tch-ch v Bang-giao-ch. ng vi‰t mt cu xc-ng nh sau: "... Vy trܧc h‰t phi kho-cu nhng iŠu ct y‰u vŠ b ci lc chia lc hp, ni sng ch‡ hi‹m, ch‡ bng, lm ra D-a-ch chp ln u".

Cng trong nhn-thc nh vy, nhiŠu h†c-gi ViŒt-Nam trܧc y tng ni l "chnh-quyŠn nn em ngay vn-Š Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa vo trong chng-trnh gio-dc h†c-ܩng, hnh-chnh v qun-s" (Nguyn-Nh, c-san S-a s 29, 1975: 9.) iŠu Š-ngh hp-lš ny ܮc a ra t hn 20 nm vŠ trܧc, xem ra chnh-quyŠn lc v c chnh-quyŠn ngy nay na cng khng my lu-tm.

Hnh 1- Bi‹n ng vi Hong-Sa, Trܩng-Sa v mt s a-danh quan-tr†ng.

Ngܩi ViŒt-Nam khng mun b ngoi-bang bt nt, xm-ln. Dn ta ch ti‰n-b v nܧc ta ch ph-cܩng vi mt nŠn gio-dc khai-phng. C l v thi‰u ti-liŒu ‹ †c, khng my ngܩi dn trong nܧc nm vng ܮc nhng din-bi‰n qun-s ngoi Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa. Tnh-trng cn mt, hi‹m-nguy ngoi Bi‹n ng n‰u b bng bt, ch c hi cho tiŠn- T-Quc m thi.

Khi vi‰t sch ny, khng nhng chng ti i ra ngoi khun-kh gio-khoa m cn mun lm-bn thm nhiŠu chuyŒn din-bi‰n cn-i. Li nhm lc khng-kh chi‰n-tranh ang e d†a bao trm Bi‹n-ng, nn d bi vi‰t mang nhan-Š "a-lš Bi‹n ng vi Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa nhng nhn c-hi, chng ti ghi thm vo vi nt "chm-ph" vŠ a-lš qun-s. Sch vi‰t cng khng nhm viŒc tranh-ci ch-quyŠn lnh-th trn trܩng quc-t‰ nhng v s tranh-chp lnh-hi hiŒn ang trong hi quy‰t-liŒt, chng ti cng ܧc-lܮng mt s ܩng ranh gii vŠ hi-phn theo vi lut-php quc-t‰ hiŒn-hnh.

Trong vi trܩng-hp š-ki‰n chng ti i hi qu xa. C th‹ nhng quan-niŒm ring r ca c-nhn nh vy s khng ܮc dng khi mang ra tranh-tng trn bn thng-tho quc-t‰. Tuy vy cc bn- vŠ ranh-gii hi-phn khng phi hon-ton gi-tܪng, t nhiŠu chi-ti‰t s l nhng mu cht suy-lun tr gip cho viŒc gii-p mt s cu hi rc ri vŠ php-lš sau ny.

1.2 - Ti-LiŒu a-d, nhng y‰u-t chnh-xc.

Ti-liŒu a-lš cng nh cc ti-liŒu khoa-h†c khc, cn chnh-xc.

1.2.1 - S chnh-xc trong ti-liŒu a-lš.

Nhng ti-liŒu vŠ a-lš k‹ c hot-Ƕng qun-s dng ni bi vi‰t ny ܮc chng ti ly t cc th-viŒn cng-cng vng Bc California, ai mun †c Šu ܮc. D sao chng ti cng rt t-ch‰ m khng bn ‰n cc y‰u-t chi‰n-lܮc, chi‰n-thut n‰u xt rng cc y‰u-t ny c th‹ nguy-hi ‰n an-ninh lnh-th, nhn-mng ViŒt-Nam...

Cho d c gng su-tm ti-liŒu, chng ti khng trnh khi khuy‰t-i‹m v nhm ln khi trnh-by nhng ki‰n-thc tng-i mi l ny, xin quš-v lܮng-th. V... nhn-tiŒn y cng xin ku g†i tt c ngܩi ViŒt chng ta cng gip nhau cn-tr†ng trong vi vn-Š nh sau:

- a-danh. VŠ phng-diŒn ny, h†c-gi V-Long-T ǥt vn-Š t hai thp-nin trܧc y (Phng-diŒn a-danh-h†c ca hai qun-o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa, S-a s 29, nm 1975: 215-220.) Nhng a-danh nh Ty-Sa, Nam-Sa, Vnh-Lc v.v... ca Trung-Hoa nn ܮc s-dng mt cch thn-tr†ng khi Š-cp ‰n ch-quyŠn ViŒt-Nam. Nh li ao-ܧc ca ng V-long-T, chng ti cng mong mi mt ngy no, s ܮc †c tt c a-danh trong Bi‹n ng theo "ǥc-danh thun ViŒt". N‰u gii hu-quyŠn ViŒt-Nam li tn-tr†ng Lut Bi‹n quc-t‰ v quy-ܧc hi-hnh m xc-nh ܮc o ra o, ra , bi nng, bi ngm v.v... th tht hay!

Nhng bn- hay hi- Bi‹n ng y a-danh ViŒt-Nam nh vy, i km vi nhng chi-ti‰t cn-thi‰t cng lm chng ta hnh-diŒn vi ngܩi nܧc ngoi v nhiŠu t ng gp thm ti-liŒu php-lš trong s tuyn-b ch-quyŠn ca dn ta trn bi‹n.

Qua cc ti-liŒu trܧc y, v chng ti nhn ra nhng con s sai-lc nn t-š dng cc hi- kh-dng ngy nay ‹ ܧc-lܮng cng sa cha li cho gn vi thc-t‰ hn. Tuy vy, vi con s m chng ti a ra trong ti-liŒu ny ch l nhng ܧc-lܮng (mt cch phng-nh) do c-nhn chng ti n-Ƕc lm ly nn c th‹ cn lm-ln. Mong rng cc c-quan thm-quyŠn vŠ o c a ra nhng con s chnh-xc lm tiu-chun sau ny. Ch bng cch cng-b nhng d-kiŒn, y‰u-t tht ng ǡn; nhng tp ti-liŒu ca chng ta mi to ܮc uy-tn cho Vit-Nam trn bn tranh ci quc-t‰ .

n-c sau y l nhng "con s" i‹n-hnh m chng ti ܧc-lܮng:

-Khong cch gn nht t qun-o Hong-Sa v t liŠn ViŒt-Nam:

a- ‰n C-lao R 123 hi-lš (hl.)

b- ‰n t liŠn Qung-Ngi 135 hi-lš.

Cc ti-liŒu ViŒt-ng Šu cho nhng khong cch ny xa hn nhiŠu. Thܩng khong cch qun-o / t liŠn hay ܮc tnh t Hong-Sa ti -Nng: l trn 200 hi-lš.

-ChiŠu di b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam thܩng ܮc ghi l 2500km, hay c khi gin-tiŒn l 2 ngn cy-s. Nhng Ƕ di ny qu ngn so vi s thc. Chng ti ܧc-lܮng li bng cch ly thܧc o ko di theo duyn-hi v thy con s t ti hn 5,000km. Lut-gia Mark J. Valencia ca East-West Center, Honolulu, khi tham-kho ti-liŒu, a ra mt con s cn ln hn na: 2,828 hi-lš tc 5,237km ܩng ven bi‹n. (Vietnam's National Interests and the Law of the Sea, bo Ocean Development and International Law, Vol 23, April/June 1994, pp 217-250.)

-V-tr bi‹n Trܩng-Sa thܩng ch k‹ ti v-Ƕ 8.00 Bc, chng ti Š-ngh ghi theo mt s cc ti-liŒu quc-t‰ cho rng xung pha Nam t nht 240 hi-lš na, ti v-Ƕ 4.00' Bc. Trung-Cng v bn- vi vng bi‹n m h† t cho l c ch-quyŠn xung ‰n v Ƕ 3.20' Bc. Tin tc nm 1993 cng loan-tin h† thm-d du-ha trn bi cn James Shoal (v-Ƕ 3.58' Bc, kinh-Ƕ 112.15' ng.)

-DiŒn-tch v chiŠu cao ca cc o. S sai biŒt c l qu ln nhng tr-s ny. Cc o thuc Hong-Sa / Trܩng-Sa thܩng ܮc ghi diŒn-tch ti nhiŠu cy s vung. S thc, cc o ngoi khi Bi‹n ng rt nh v ring vng Trܩng-Sa khng c o no ln ti na cy s vung. VŠ cao-Ƕ, cc o cng hay ܮc ghi qu cao nh o Nam-Y‰t ti 20m (hay 61 ft) chng hn. Tuy Nam-Y‰t ng l o cao nht trong qun o Trܩng-Sa nhng nh ca o cng ch vܮt ln khi mt bi‹n chng 5m m thi! C th‹ mt vi cy nhu, cy bng bi‹n vn ln trn mt o khong 5, 7 thܧc na, nhng tht ra khng th‹ lm cao-Ƕ ca o tng ln nhiŠu qu ‰n nh vy. Tu b phi ti tht gn mi nhn ra ܮc nhng hn o ngoi bi‹n ng.

-Tng-s cc o. Tng-s cc o (island), n (dune), cn (cay), (rock), bi cn, bi ngm (bank, shoal, reef.).. thuc Hong-Sa, n‰u khng ng hŒt nh sch c ViŒt-Nam ghi l 130 th cng phi k‹ ‰n con s hng trm. Khng th‹ v lš-do khng liŒt-k ܮc h‰t cc a-danh m ngܩi ta ghi mt s lܮng qu nh. Chng hn nh ni "Ty-Sa 7 o, 9 o", ki‹u nh danh-t "Tht-chu", "Cu-chu" ca Tu dng ‹ g†i qun-o Hong-Sa trܧc y. Trܩng-hp qun-o Trܩng-Sa, s lܮng n-v t nh vy cn ln hn nhiŠu. Nhng ti-liŒu a-cht vi‰t: "qun-o Trܩng-Sa gm c 9 o" (c-san S-a s 29, trang 31) a ra mt con s qu khim-tn.

Chng ti xin nghing vŠ s ܧc-lܮng "mt cch t-m" vi nhng con s ln lao hp-lš hn, thay cho cc s nh b vn dng trong cc ti-liŒu a-lš ViŒt-ng, Hoa-ng xa nay.

n-v t (land masses) ܮc mt s h†c-gi nh Michael Bennett s-dng. Con s ܧc-lܮng c ti 500 "t" cho hai qun-o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa (Stanford Journal of International Law, No 28, Spring 1992, p 423.) Trong s , khong 100 n-v ܮc ǥt tn.

1.2.2- Y‰u-t chnh-xc dng trong Lut bi‹n.

Tng-s o hay , diŒn-tch v chiŠu cao ca o hay cng nh chu-vi o, diŒn-tch lnh-th, chiŠu di b bi‹n, t›-lŒ b bi‹n/ t liŠn v.v... l nhng con s dng ‹ tnh-ton trong viŒc quy-nh cc loi hi-phn theo Lut Bi‹n LHQ ngy nay.

Trong tng-lai cn kŠ, m†i quc-gia d chng i hay ng-š viŒc thi-hnh Lut Bi‹n Lin-hiŒp-Quc cng Šu s chu nh-hܪng chi-phi trc-ti‰p hay gin-ti‰p ca nhng iŠu-lut ny. Trong cc sch vi‰t vŠ Lut Bi‹n, thܩng l rt dy, c nhng iŠu khon n-nh ranh gii hi-phn da trn v-tr v tnh-trng cc o, cn, n, ...; ngha l nhng n-v t "land masse" ph-hp theo mt s iŠu-kiŒn quy-nh.

S lܮng nhiŠu t "land masses" l mt chuyŒn, quc-gia ch-quyŠn s phi xc-nh nhng n-v no iŠu-kiŒn nh mt "hn o" v "hn ", ngha l "thܩng-trc ni ln mt bi‹n (permanently above sea level) ngay c khi thy-triŠu dng ln ti a. o ܮc k‹ theo php-lš nh t liŠn, k‹ c hi-phn kinh-t‰ 200hl.

ch c lnh-hi 12hl m thi. ging o l ni ln mt bi‹n thܩng-trc nhng nh b v cn c‡i, con ngܩi khng th‹ sinh sng ܮc. iŠu-kiŒn ny rt kh xc-nh nn gy ra nhiŠu tranh-lun.

Tng-s o hay , v-tr, diŒn-tch v chiŠu cao ca o hay cng nh chu-vi o, diŒn-tch lnh-th, chiŠu di b bi‹n, t›-lŒ t/ bi‹n v.v... l nhng con s dng ‹ tnh-ton trong viŒc quy-nh cc loi hi-phn theo Lut Bi‹n LHQ ngy nay.

Ti vng qun-o Trܩng-Sa, cc "n-v t" ܮc ܧc-lܮng trong khong t 300 ‰n 400. Da vo nhng ti-liŒu a-lš hiŒn-hu, ViŒn Nghin-Cu ng-Ty Hawaii cho rng ch c 33 n-v thܩng-trc ni ln mt bi‹n, gm c 26 o v 7 .

Bn- Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa vi a-danh cng mt s chi-ti‰t khc na xin ܮc trnh-by trong nhng phn sau.

Hnh 2 -.Bng liŒt-k cc o v thuc qun-o Trܩng-Sa.

 

2 - Bi‹n ng xa, Mai v nay.

Bi‹n ng thay hnh ǰi dng nhiŠu ln trong qu-kh.

2.1 - Bi‹n ng Qu-kh, Ci ni vn-ho, Trung-tm pht-nguyn hng-hi.

Ngy nay nhn vo bn- ng-Nam-, chng ta thy Bi‹n ng l mt vng bi‹n gn nh ni-a, diŒn-tch bng 4 phn 5 a-trung-Hi. Trong qu-kh cch nay vi chc ngn nm cho ti vi trm ngn nm l thi-gian m khoa-h†c c nhiŠu d-kiŒn tng-i chnh-xc, hnh-dng Bi‹n ng hon-ton khc hn v thng thܩng n nh b hn by gi kh nhiŠu. Mt s nh nghin-cu cho rng s thay ǰi vŠ a-lš Bi‹n ng khng nhng ch lm thay ǰi mi-trܩng sinh-sng ca sinh, thc-vt trn t, dܧi bi‹n trong vng m cn to-dng ln c mt cuc bi‰n-ǰi ln lm pht-sinh nhng nŠn vn-minh quan-tr†ng vŠ nng-ng-nghiŒp cng hng-hi c th‹ g†i l tiŠn-ti‰n vo bc nht ca nhn-loi.

c nhiŠu nh khoa-h†c c gng gii-thch s hnh-thnh nŠn vn-ha hng-hi ca dn ViŒt ni ring v ca dn ng-Nam- ni chung. Nhng sc-thi ǥc-th ny khc-biŒt hn vi sc-thi vn-ha hon-ton lc-a ca Trung-Hoa. Mt s lš-thuy‰t ܮc tm tt nh sau:

Trong lch-s tri t, mc nܧc bi‹n dng ln h xung nhiŠu ln, s sai-biŒt c ti 150m. Cch nay chng 18,000 nm, diŒn-tch Bi‹n ng ch bng phn na hiŒn nay. Khi bng hai cc a-cu tan r th nܧc bi‹n dng ln nhanh. Dn-c vng duyn-hi vn sng bng cch thu-lܮm tm c, s c phi dn vŠ nhng vng cao hn. Cho ‰n khong 4,000 nm trܧc Ty-lch (TTL), hng trm ngn dm vung lc-a b ngp dܧi Bi‹n ng. V diŒn-tch t ai b suy-gim nn mt-Ƕ dn-s gia-tng. NhiŠu s ti‰p-xc, trao ǰi, va chm gia nhng ging ngܩi khc nhau xy ra. Lc xa dn-c sng ri rc khp ni trong vng t thp rng ln Sunda, nay cng gp nhau trong mt mi-trܩng sinh-hot mi vng i ni. Ti‰n-b khi-s t .

Hnh 3- Hnh-th‹ Bi‹n ng cui thi Bng- (hay Bng-gi.) Theo š-ki‰n ca mt s nh kho-c, dn-c t vng Sunda (k‹ c Hong-Sa, Trܩng-Sa) chy ln cc vng cao.(The Southeast Asian World, Keith Buchanan, New York, 1967, trang 45

- Chester Norman cho rng nŠn Vn-minh Ha-Bnh ܮc to-dng trong thi-gian thŠm lc-a Sunda b ngp nܧc. Khi vnh Bc-phn v vnh Thi-Lan m lc trܧc l hai vng ng-bng trng, nay cng thnh-hnh.

T nhiŠu ngn nm trܧc, ngܩi dn thuc nŠn vn-ha Ho-Bnh miŠn Ty Bi‹n ng ch sng bng cch sn-bn, hi-lܮm v trng tr†t rung kh trong nhng vng thung-lng. B‡ng nhin mt-Ƕ dn-c tng ln nhanh, con ngܩi phi c phng-php mi ‹ sn-xut thm thc-phm. Loi tru, loi heo ܮc gia-sc-ha.

Ngܩi ta di-chuy‹n t thung-lng xung khai-ph ng-bng. Y‰u-t quan-tr†ng nht ca pht-tri‹n l s ra ǩi ca cc ging cy cho ht. Nhng loi ng-cc thun-ha sau ny thch-hp cho rung nܧc. Khong 5,500 nm trܧc, cy la ܮc trng tr†t. (The Hoabinhian and After: Subsistence Patterns in Southeast Asia during the Late Pleistocene and Early Periods, bo World Archaeology 2, No. 3, 1971: 300-320)

Lš-thuy‰t Norman cho rng mt s ln dn ng-Nam- khi-s trܧc h‰t bng cuc sng duyn-hi, sau ny hi-nhp vi dn-c vng cao-nguyn nhng ri tr vŠ li vng ng-bng gn bi‹n, sau na pht-tri‹n vŠ hng-hi.

- Wilheim G. Solheim cho rng 6,000 nm trܧc, dn ng-Nam- mo-hi‹m ra khi v nhu-cu di-chuy‹n. Gi bo v hi-lu ca Bi‹n ng v Thi-bnh-Dng cun tri mt s ngܩi ti Nht-Bn, trong khi cc nhm khc b qut sang Phi-lut-Tn, Nam-Dng v Melanesia. Ti‰p theo, nhng ton dn-chng di-chuy‹n ti cc o ngoi khi Thi-bnh-Dng v sang Madagascar.

Bn rng hn th‰ na, cng theo Solheim, Bi‹n ng ca ng-Nam- thi c cn l ni pht-sinh nhng ܩng hng-hi giao-ti‰p vi cc ni d†c bi‹n -chu, u-chu, Phi-chu, i-dng-chu v c M-chu. Solheim lš-lun rng ch c s kiŒn ng-Nam- gi vai-tr trung-tm phn-tn nh trc mt ci bnh xe ta nan-hoa ra khp ni mi gii-thch ܮc hiŒn-tܮng lch-s l ti sao cc chng-tc khc-biŒt ca loi ngܩi sng xa cch nhau trn khp th‰-gii li c nhiŠu s tng-ng vŠ sinh-hot vn-ha nh vy! ("World Ethnographic Sample..." A Possible Historical Explanation, bo American Anthropologist 70, 1968: 569.)

Cng nhn-nh nh Solheim nhng i trܧc ng ti 40 nm, nh ng-h†c Php Paul Rivet lm nhiŠu cuc nghin-cu v k‰t-lun rng: "T vng ng-Nam -chu, mt th ngn-ng ܮc truyŠn-b i bng ܩng hng-hi ‰n Nht-Bn, Tasmania, a-trung-hi, Phi-chu v M-chu". (Sumerien et Ocanien, Collection Linguistique, Paris, 1929.)

 

Hnh 4 - Quan-niŒm truyŠn-b ngn-ng N i khp th‰-gii theo ܩng hng-hi, khi-s t Bi‹n ng (Paul Rivet, 1929.)

- William Meacham khi nghin-cu bn- a-hnh y bi‹n, cho bi‰t lc xa b Bi‹n ng tng-i bng phng. Khong 14,000 nm trܧc y, b tre xut-hiŒn. Ri nܧc bi‹n c cao dn. Khi mc nܧc bi‹n gn t ‰n mc-Ƕ nh hiŒn nay, chng -25m, b bi‹n li su vo lc-a, gp ng ch‡ a-th‰ lm chm, li lm. NhiŠu nhm ngܩi sng trn cc hi-o. S lin lc, di-chuy‹n bng thuyŠn b tr nn cng ngy cng cn-thi‰t hn. Cc tr ngi, kh khn trn bi‹n thc-y con ngܩi phi pht-minh ra nhng cnh bum, nhng bnh li, nhng loi thuyŠn nhiŠu thn v nhng c-phn iŠu-khi‹n khc ‹ viŒc hi-hnh ܮc an-ton hn, trnh b thi ra ngoi khi. (Origins and Development of the Yueh Coastal Neolithic trong The Origins of Chinese Civilisation, University of California Press, 1983: 147-175.)

Meacham tin rng 6,000 - 4,000 nm trܧc Ty-lch, nhng nŠn vn-minh vng chu-th sng Hng bt u ny n. gm ܮc nn trn bn xoay u-Dng. Khoa kho-c cng tm thy dy cu, lܧi bt c v thuyŠn Ƕc-mc. NhiŠu dn-c sng bng ng-nghiŒp. (4,000 nm TTL..)

Hnh 5- B bi‹n lc xa phng-phiu, nay lm chm li lm.

-Carl Sauer duyŒt-xt nhng bi‰n-chuy‹n vŠ a-lš Bi‹n ng trong thi-khong mܩi my ngn nm trܧc y, a ra k‰t-lun vŠ tinh-thn ti‰n-b ca c-dn ngܩi ViŒt (Yueh) thi c nh sau: "Mc nܧc Bi‹n ng dng cao lm tng thm nhp bi-ǡp ph-sa ln nhng khu thung-lng duyn-h trong khi cc vng t thp ti‰p-tc b lt. Dn-c khi xa sng ri rc th lc ny thu li thnh cc vng c-tr d†c theo ngun nܧc... Mt th‰-gii mi thnh-hnh, s thay ǰi mi-trܩng vt-lš a-d tr thnh c-hi thun-tiŒn ti a cho nhng dn thch phiu-lu v mong ti‰n-b... Ngܩi dn b s nhn r‡i v nh tr-c t-m ‹ tm th-nghiŒm, mt cng-ng nh vy ch cn mt thi-gian ngn ‹ chuy‹n-ti‰p t ng-nghiŒp sang thng nng-nghiŒp (Environnent and Culture During the Last Deglaciation, trong Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 92.1: 65-77.)

Cng vi Meacham, Sauer š-thc tm quan-tr†ng ca ng-nghiŒp v hng-hi trong ti‰n-trnh vn-minh ng- thi c. Khc biŒt hn vi cc ni khc trn th‰ gii, Bi‹n ng v vng t chung-quanh c ti hai v gi ma trong mt nm, nn hon-cnh rt thun-li cho s pht-tri‹n cc ngnh nng-nghiŒp, ng-nghiŒp v hng-hi. (Agricultural Origins and Dispersals, Series Two, New York 1952: 24-25.)

V Bi‹n ng c hai v gi ma nn viŒc hi-hnh vin-duyn khi i cng nh khi vŠ rt tiŒn-li. Hng-hi pht-tri‹n ko theo s bnh-trܧng thng-mi. S trao ǰi hng-ha nng cao k-thut ch‰-to phm-vt.

- Charles F. Keyes vi‰t trong sch "The Golden Peninsula" (New York, 1977) rng ViŒt-Nam l ni pht-khi nŠn vn-minh Ho-Bnh tri rng khp ng-Nam-. Keyes xc-nh hai i‹m sau:

- Qu-trnh vn-ha thi tiŠn-s ca ton vng ng-Nam- thܩng ܮc chia ra lm nhng giai-on m ch-danh tng giai-on ly t a-danh cc v-tr kho-c tiu-bi‹u nht nh Ha-Bnh, Bc-Sn, ng-Sn; tt c Šu nm trong Bc-phn ViŒt-Nam (trang 182.)

- Thi-i ng xut hiŒn vo khong 3,000 ‰n 2,500 nm TTL. ng-Nam-, ngha l khi-s sm hn Trung-Hoa v ƒn-. Bi‹u-tܮng chnh ca nŠn vn-minh ny l nhng Trng ng tm thy nhiŠu ni xa xm nh Sulawesi thuc Nam-Dng qun-o. Nhng trng ng nh vy Šu ܮc c ti vng t ng-Sn nh hp ca ViŒt-Nam, t trng ܮc phn-phi i khp ng-Nam- theo ܩng hi-thng (trang 16.)

Hnh 6 - Trng ng ghi-du khp ni ng-Nam- (Trng ng-Sn, ViŒn Kho C H†c, H Ni 1987, trang 131.) Lu-š v-tr ng-Sn vi Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa.(trong hai vng trn.)

2.2 - Bi‹n ng Tng-lai, Lnh-hi thnh lnh-th.

Xem xt qua cc lš-thuy‰t nh vy, nhng nhn xt sau y ng ܮc nu ra:

-Bi‹n ng v ViŒt-Nam khng nhng ch c lin-hŒ trong thi hu-s m s lin-hŒ mt-thi‰t cn phi k‹ t thu xa xa hn vo thi tiŠn-s.

-Nܧc Bi‹n ng khi ln khi xung, tuy i lc lm ging-bo cung-lon thi tri ngܩi vt, nh ca ra bi‹n nhng lun lun l ci ni hiŠn du, thai-nghn v p- vn-minh nng-nghiŒp v hng-hi ca dn ViŒt.

Hnh 7- Mc nܧc bi‹n ln xung trong qu-kh. N‰u khng c g thay ǰi, nܧc Bi‹n ng sp bt u kh cn tr li.

-Nܧc Bi‹n ng ln ‰n mc ti-a. Khong chng ngn nm tr li y, nhiŠu ni ti vng chu-th sng Hng-H v Cu-Long-giang tng b ngp nܧc. i khi nܧc bi‹n c th‹ dng cao hn hiŒn thi.

Trong mt vi th‰-k› ti, mc nܧc c th‹ tng gim, nhng c tng ln cng mt vi thܧc l cng. Cc vng t thp ng dn-c ng lo ngi b ngp lt nhiŠu nht l khu chu-th cc ca sng Mae Nam v th- V†ng-Cc ca Thi-Lan. Sau , nܧc s phi rt xung.

Trong vng dm ba ngn nm ti, c vnh Bc-ViŒt v Thi-Lan s tr thnh kh-cn, ngܩi ViŒt chng ta khng cn c dp theo m ln ni na m li khi-s theo cha ti‰p-tc ti‰n xung Bi‹n ng.

- ThŠm lc-a chng ta bo-vŒ hm nay s l lnh-th ‹ li cho con chu chng ta sau ny. Thi-gian tuy c th‹ ni l xa, nhng cng cn tin-liŒu by gi.

- Trong vng dm ba ngn nm ti, khi nܧc rt xung 20m, eo bi‹n Malacca tr thnh kh cn. Bi‹n ng thc s bi‰n thnh mt ci bi‹n ni-a. S phn-thnh ca cc thng-cng ti Tn-gia-Ba v M-lai- chm vo qu-kh. Nܧc bi‹n s khng cn thot ra ƒn-Ƕ-Dng. Bi‹n ng ch cn thng ܮc vi Thi-bnh-Dng qua eo bi‹n i-Loan v c l my rnh nh xuyn qua ng Phi-lut-Tn m thi.

Ti vnh Thi-Lan, hi-cng V†ng-Cc li dn vo t liŠn, tr nn mt giang-cng. Khmer ging nh Ai-Lao s bi‰n thnh mt quc-gia ni-a. Thi-Lan ch cn khu pha Ty thng ra ܮc bi‹n Andaman v ƒn-Ƕ-Dng. Cc hi-cng Hi-phng, Si-Gn mt dn tm-mc quan-tr†ng. Tuy vy nh nm cnh vng bi‹n su, Cam-Ranh v cc cng miŠn Trung-ViŒt s cn ti‰p-tc hot-Ƕng v pht-tri‹n mnh. Tt c khu-vc ni-a rng ln t Vn-Nam v Thi-Lan sang Ai-Lao, qua Khmer, ti ViŒt-Nam ch cn trng cy vo s thng-thng ra bi‹n qua cc ca ng ny m thi.

Hnh 8 - Hnh-th‹ Bi‹n ng n‰u nܧc rt xung chng 70m, lnh-th s rng ra, nhiŠu hi-cng ngy nay bi‰n mt. (trch bn- ca National Geographic March 1971.)

Ch cn mc nܧc bi‹n rt xung 50, 60m; vnh Bc-ViŒt thnh kh cn, vnh Thi-Lan thu li nh mt ci h ni-a, v diŒn-tch lnh-th ViŒt-Nam tng ln gp hai ln. Phn t mi do thin-nhin sp ban-pht ny rt phng-phiu, khng ni non rng rm. Vi s cn-c nhn-ni c-hu ca dn ta, hu h‰t t nܧc ViŒt-Nam vi vng ng-bng bao la s ph-nhiu xanh tt ko di sut d†c t Bc xung Nam qua nhiŠu ngn cy s.

Tuy vy, khi diŒn-tch t ai gia-tng, dn-s ton-th‹ nhn-loi cng gia-tng. Trong lc diŒn-tch mt bi‹n suy-gim, s lܮng hi-sn cng suy-gim theo; nhiŠu ǰi thay vŠ mi-trܩng sinh-sng s xy ra v nhp-Ƕ tranh-chp lnh-th cng hi-phn cng tng theo cng vi mc nܧc rt... Nhng lut-lŒ ǥt ra hm nay khng cn ph-hp trong lc . V thŠm lc-a thoai-thoi ca mnh, ngܩi ViŒt-Nam cng nn tin-liŒu nhng g xem ra li-ch hay tŒ- hi cho cc th‰-hŒ mai sau.

Sc ngܩi khng tt cn Bi‹n ng nhng thun v thun chng ha anh em, thng ng-bo, dn ViŒt hy-v†ng vn trܩng-tn v ng-tr Bi‹n ng. N‰u khoa kho-c ng, tiŠn-nhn ViŒt ta tiŠn-ti‰n trong nhiŠu lnh-vc, tng vy vng trn mt bi‹n mnh mng th hu-nhn ViŒt s vn ti‰p-tc vng chc ti‰n bܧc trn con ܩng cho d Bi‹n ng c ngy kh-cn.

2.3 - BI‹n ng, Ng T Th‰-gii.

Bi‹n ng hay ng-Hi l mt bn-ni-hi (semi-enclosed sea) nm vŠ pha ng ca ViŒt-Nam. Cng c ngܩi g†i l Nam-Hi vi š-nghi rng "bi‹n ca ngܩi (ViŒt) Nam. V bi‹n ny cng pha Nam ca Trung-Hoa nn bn- quc-t‰ thܩng ghi l South China Sea. Ni khc i, danh-t Anh-ng ny cn cho nhng nh hng-hi hi‹u rng v-tr nܧc Tu nm phi Bc ca "Bi‹n ng" ny.

Bi‹n ng ܮc bao quanh ti 90% bi bi‹n cc nܧc ViŒt-Nam, Kampuchea, Thi-Lan, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Brunei, Philippines, Taiwan v Trung-Hoa; trong phn b bi‹n di nht l ca ViŒt-Nam (2,828 hi-lš.) Ch c 10% chu-vi ca bi‹n ny (perimeter= 8192 nautical miles) thng-thng ܮc ra cc bi‹n Thi-bnh-Dng v ƒn-Ƕ-Dng.

Theo ti-liŒu ca vn-phng International Hydrographic Bureau, diŒn-tch Bi‹n ng vo khong 1,091,642 hi-lš vung, bao gm c hai vnh bi‹n kh ln l vnh Bc-ViŒt (46,961 hi-lš vung) v vnh Thi-Lan (85,521 hi-lš vung.) ChiŠu di nht ti 1,901 hi-lš.

Hnh 9 - Mt vi con s vŠ kch-thܧc ca Bi‹n ng. Theo ti-liŒu ny, b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam chi‰m ti 35% chu-vi Bi‹n ng.

Khng c mt vng bi‹n no trn th‰-gii vi diŒn-tch tng-ng m li c tm-mc quan-tr†ng vŠ phng-diŒn giao-thng nh Bi‹n ng. Mun t Thi-bnh-Dng sang ƒn-Ƕ-Dng, tu thuyŠn phi chy qua y. Bi‹n ng nm ngay trn ng t ܩng hng-hi, t pha Bc (Trung-Hoa, i-Loan, i-Hn, Nht-Bn) xung Nam (M-Lai, Nam-Dng, c-Chu) v t Ty (u-Chu, Phi-Chu, Trung-ng, ƒn-) sang ng (Nam-Dng, Phi-lut-Tn, i-dng-Chu, M-chu.)

Thi xa cng nh ngy nay, bao quanh Bi‹n ng l nhiŠu thng-cng quc-t‰ quan-tr†ng. Trܧc khi Trung-Hoa pht-tri‹n hng-hi vo th‰-k› th 5, hi-cng sm-ut nht ca Bi‹n ng nm trong vnh Bc-ViŒt vng Hn-gay Hi-phng m cc nh hng-hi quc-t‰ thܩng g†i l Cattigara (phin-m ca cc tn thi c nh K Ch- Kesho hay Ca Gay.)

Hn mt th‰-k› sau Ty-lch, Ptolemy v bn- th‰-gii c ghi hnh-nh "bn-o Vng" M-lai/ ng-Dng v Bi‹n ng. Hi-cng tn cng vŠ pha ng c ܩng hng-hi giao-thng l thuc Giao-Ch, ܮc ghi r rŒt l Kattigara (to-Ƕ 177 Ƕ ng kinh-tuy‰n, 8 Ƕ 30' Nam v-tuy‰n vi kinh-tuy‰n gc qua qun-o Canary.) (Sch Researches on Ptolemy's Geography of Eastern Asia, Colonel G.E. Gerini, M.R.A.S., London 1909.)

Hnh 10- Bi‹n ng vi hi cng chnh Kattigara theo bn- Ptolemy.

Ngay trong thi-k b Tu -h, ngܩi ViŒt vn ti‰p-tc nm gi Ƕc-quyŠn ܩng bi‹n vng Hoa-Nam v Bi‹n ng nh tng nm gi t hng ngn nm trܧc . Hng-ha xut nhp ng- Šu qua ca khu Giao-ch, bn chnh-quc Trung-Hoa lc khng c mt hi-cng no quan-tr†ng. Cc on thng-nhn v ngoi-giao phng Ty sang -ng Šu ngng li b‰n cui cng l "Cattigara" x ta.

Ngy nay, Trung-Cng thܩng tuyn-b ngܩi Tu l ging dn u tin khm-ph Bi‹n ng, khm-ph Hong-Sa. S kiŒn ny ch c nhng ngܩi no thi‰u km hi‹u-bi‰t mi tin-tܪng m thi. Trܧc khi ngܩi Tu lp-quc (ch chng 3 thin-k› trܧc Ty-lch) nhiŠu ngn nm, th-dn vng ng-Nam- i i, li li thܩng-xuyn trn Bi‹n ng, di-chuy‹n qua i-Loan, Nht-Bn v i ra c cc o ngoi Thi-bnh-Dng.

ܩng bi‹n thi c nhn-nhp ‰n Ƕ cc dn-tc c mt vng rng ln c nhiŠu sinh-hot, ki‰n-thc, vn-ha tng-t. Qua ܩng hng-hi, ngn-ng cc dn-tc nh-hܪng ln nhau. Ngy nay bao quanh Bi‹n ng, ngܩi ta thy cc ngn-ng h‡n-hp gia hai h† Nam- v Nam-o m nh ng-h†c Wilhelm Schmidt Š-ngh gp chung li v g†i l cc ti‰ng Nam-phng (Austric.)

Hnh 11- a-bn cc ngn-ng Nam-o hay M-lai a-o.

Trܩng-hp ti‰ng ViŒt-Nam l mt th-d vŠ s pha trn . Ngn-ng ta ܮc mt s h†c-gi x‰p vo gia-nh ViŒt-Mܩng, tc mt chi ca ti‹u-h† Mn-Khmer, mt s khc x‰p vo chi Nam-Thi. D Mn-Khmer hay Nam-Thi, ViŒt-ng ng vŠ v-tr a-d, thuc h† Nam-. Tuy vy li c rt nhiŠu bng-chng hi‹n-nhin vŠ s lin-hŒ cht ch gia ti‰ng ViŒt v cc th ti‰ng Nam-o. a bn cc ti‰ng Nam-o ny tri di hn na vng tri t, t o Madagascar, gn Phi-chu ‰n o Easter, gn Nam-M.

c-i‹m ca h† ngn-ng ny l s phn-tn ti‰ng ni nh vo ܩng bi‹n m trung-tm khi i t khu-vc chung quanh Bi‹n ng, khc hn cc h† ngn-ng khc truyŠn i bng ܩng b.

Hnh 12- nh-hܪng vn-ha hng-hi ca ngܩi ViŒt (Yueh) thi c ng-. ܩng bi‹n i Nht-Bn, buc h† i ngang i-Loan v ܩng i Nam-Dng buc h† qua Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa. (Theo ti-liŒu: A History of China, Wolfram Eberhard, 1977: 6-7.)

Trong khi nܧc Trung-Hoa thnh-hnh bnh-nguyn sng Hong-H v cn xa l vi bi‹n, dn ViŒt sinh sng ti vng duyn-hi pha ng v ng-Nam chu . c-biŒt dn-c nŠn vn-minh Ha-Bnh (Bc-ViŒt) rt gii hng-hi, mang vn-minh i reo rc khp vng Bi‹n ng, xung tn Nam-Dng v cc qun-o pha Nam. S Tu cng ghi chp nhng chi-ti‰t xa gn lin-hŒ ‰n nhng ܩng hng-hi nh vy. Cn ring ngܩi Tu, h† ch mi bnh-trܧng xung Hoa-Nam vi th‰-k› trܧc Ty-lch m thi.

HiŒn nay, nh nm trong vng a-th‰ ǥc-biŒt pht-tri‹n hng-hi nh vy, cc quc-gia lng giŠng vi ta nh M-Lai, Tn-gia-Ba ang tr nn nhng nܧc giu c nht nh th‰-gii. ViŒt-Nam tuy chm hn h† nhng vn c c-hi ti‰n ln.

N‰u ly gia Bi‹n ng lm trung-tm nhn ra th‰-gii:

-Trong vng bn-knh 1500 hi-lš, ta thy cc thnh-ph hi-cng quan-tr†ng nh Bangkok, Rangoon, Calcutta, Singapore, Djakarta, Manila, Taipei, Hongkong, Shanghai, Nagasaki.

-Trong vng bn-knh 2500 hi-lš, ta thy cc thnh-ph hi-cng Madras, Colombo, Bombay, Bali, Darwin, Guam, Tokyo, Yokohama, Seoul, Beijing...

Nhn k vng trn 2500 hi-lš ny, ta thy n bao trm hu h‰t lnh-th cc nܧc ln c dn-c vo hng ng nht trn th‰-gii nh Trung-Hoa, ƒn-, Nam-Dng, Nht-Bn. S cn kŠ ca Bi‹n ng vi gn na phn nhn-loi trong vng trn tng-i hp 2500 hi-lš l u-i‹m hng u m ngܩi ta khng th‹ tm thy bt c mt vng bi‹n no khc trn th‰-gii.

Trong cc th‰-k› va qua, nhng hi-cng ViŒt-Nam nh Cam-Ranh, Si-Gn, Hi-Phng..., v hot-Ƕng suy-gim nn thܩng ܮc x‰p vo hng nhng hi-cng km quan-tr†ng; ng sau cc cng San Francisco, New York, Yokohama, Hongkong, Sidney, Singapore... Bܧc sang th‰-k› ti, khi nhng vng hu-cng nܧc ta giu c thm, k-nghŒ pht-tri‹n v tm khai-thc ti-nguyn ca Bi‹n ng t ‰n ng mc, th hng quan-tr†ng ca Cam-Ranh cng nh ca cc cng ViŒt-Nam khc s thay ǰi hn.

Hnh 13- V-tr Bi‹n ng v th‰-gii. Vng trn c tm Bi‹n ng v bn knh 2500 hl bao trm gn na phn nhn-loi .

3 - Hi-sinh-vt Bi‹n ng.

ng-vt chnh ngoi Bi‹n ng l cc loi chim, ra, tm c.

3.1 - Chim chc.

i vi ngܩi i bi‹n, hi-u l loi chim m h† thܩng gp nht khi hi-hnh.

Cc o l nhng ni n-tr ca cc loi chim bi‹n, nht l chim hi-u. Chim bay ra bi‹n ki‰m n ri tr vŠ o, chng ngay trn t, khng cn lm t. Trng ca chng to hn trng g, v mng mu trng i‹m nhiŠu m en. Hi-u ca Bi‹n ng (h† Laridea) khng ln lm, t con no si cnh (wing-span) ti 80cm. Ngܩi ViŒt chng ta thܩng g†i chung cc chim bi‹n m†i loi l "hi-u". Tht ra, theo khoa-h†c, hi-u c nhiŠu loi khc nhau.

Nhng chim Bi‹n ng khng phi cng h† vi loi hi-u to ln Albatros (h† Diomedeidae.) V chng c i phn tng-cn, nn nhn-tiŒn y chng ti xin k‹ vi tnh-cht ca loi hi-u Albatros nh sau:

-L loi chim c cnh si ra rt di. Wandering Albatros o ܮc 12 feet (3.65 m) t u cnh ny ti u cnh kia. Chng l loi chim ln nht khi bay. Dng bay lܮn ca chim rt nh nhng p mt, chim bay xa nhiŠu ngn hi-lš v sng lu hn hu h‰t cc loi chim khc. Mt hi-u ܮc nh du nm 1860, sng qua nhiŠu thp-nin cho ‰n khi b ngu-nhin gi‰t ch‰t vo nm 1894 ti o Faero Island (bc T-cch-Lan.)

Hnh 14- BŠ si cnh ca Hi-u Albatros, so snh vi ngܩi cao 6ft v chim hummingbird loi nh.

Nh cnh di v hp bŠ ngang, chim rt gii liŒng qua liŒng li nhng v p cnh mt cch kh khn nn albatros thch sinh sng trong nhng vng bi‹n c gi mnh.

-L loi chim di-i‹u sinh sng trn i-dng vng Nam-bn-cu, bay theo gi ma vng quanh th‰-gii. Chim Albatros khng c nhiŠu lm Bc-bn-cu v ngܩi u-chu ch mi bi‰t loi hi-u ny vo nhng th‰-k› gn y khi h† khi s dng bum vŠ Nam, i thm-hi‹m.

-L bn thn-thi‰t ca ngܩi i bi‹n, hi-u i khi liŒng cnh bay theo tu nhiŠu ngy lin-ti‰p. Thy-th king-c viŒc gi‰t hi-u, tc-phm vn-h†c ni-ti‰ng nht bi-hng-ha niŠm m-tn ny l "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner" ca thi-ho Anh-ct-Li, ng Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834.)

VŠ cc loi chim Bi‹n ng, chng ܮc chia lm ba h†: Larids, Stganopods v Zosterops. Theo Jean de Lacour v Jabouill, ngܩi ViŒt-Nam thܩng g†i chim thuc h† Zosterops l "Chim Su NghŒ". Hai ng thy chng trn o Ph-Lm. (Oiseaux des Iles Paracels trong Mmoire No.3 du Service Ocanographique de l'Indochine, Saigon, 1930.)

Hnh 15- Mt loi chim thuc h† Zosterops.

Chim Laridea sinh sng sut ǩi ngoi bi‹n, chng ch dnh mt phn nh cuc ǩi trn hi-o. Theo s ti‰n-ha chn chim bi‰n-ǰi, c mng ‹ bi ln trong nܧc. ܩng thc-qun ca chim c c-phn ǥc-biŒt ‹ loi bt cht mui hiŒn-hu qu nhiŠu trong nܧc bi‹n. Chim rt nhanh nhn ngoi bi‹n c, trn khng ln dܧi nܧc; nhng di-chuy‹n chm chp trn b. Chng khng bi‰t leo cy, thܩng u trn bi, trng trn ct v khng lm t. i cc hi-u kh di, chng c th‹ sng ti 36 tui hay lu hn na.

Chim bi‹n c thc n thܩng ngy l hi-sn nn phn cha nhiŠu acid phosphoric. Cht ny tc-dng ln cht vi l bi‰n-cht ca xc thn san-h sau khi ch‰t, to thnh phosphate, song-hnh vi s bay hi ca kh CO2. Cht phosphate ny l mt th phn-bn gip cy ci c c-hi pht-tri‹n nhanh chng.

Hnh 16 - Chim hi-u thuc h† Larids.

3.2- Ra v sinh-vt trn o Ngoi bi‹n ng.

Bn cnh chim bi‹n, Ƕng-vt ng k‹ ‰n l ra bi‹n.

Ra bi‹n sinh sn trong vng nhiŒt-ǧi. Ra trng vi trong ct. Trng ra cn nhiŒt-Ƕ cao mi n ܮc. i vi ngܩi Trung-Hoa thi c sng ni vng n-ǧi th nhng con ra to ln xut-x t vng Bi‹n ng xem ra rt l lng vi h†. S Tu ghi-nhn chng-c .

"Cu truyŒn "cng ra thn" ܮc chp trong sch Cng-Mc TiŠn-Bin ca Kim-Lš-Tܩng v sch Thng-Ch ca Trnh-TiŠu, theo ǩi vua ܩng-Nghiu bn Tu (2357-2258 tr T.C.), h† ViŒt-Thܩng c ‰n chu v cng con ra thn, sng ti c ngn nm, lng c mang ch vi‰t ghi viŒc t khi tri t mi m mang. Vua Nghiu sai ngܩi chp li g†i l lch ra." (Lch-s dn-tc ViŒt-Nam, quy‹n 1, Phm-cao-Dng, 1987, trang 40.)

Mt loi ra bi‹n c gi-tr thng-mi ng k‹ l i-mi. NhiŠu sn-phm rt m-thut lm bng mai i-mi bn ܮc gi cao trong c hai th-trܩng quc-ni v quc-ngoi. Khi ‹ ln h‰t c, m‡i con c th‹ cho ti 3.6Kg i-mi.

Ngܩi dn duyn-hi, k‹ c ngoi-nhn xm-nhp bt hp-php, khai-thc ba bi khi‰n cho ging i mi ang suy-gim r rŒt v c c tuyŒt-chng.

Hnh 17 - Mai i-mi rt p, c gi-tr thng-mi.

Ra bi‹n khc vi ra sng trn cn vi i‹m nh 4 chn bi‰n thnh vy ‹ bi. Ra bi‹n bi l lng v v s ti‰n-ha, vy di thm khng cn thu g†n li ܮc trong mai nh ra t. Ra bi‹n c th‹ ln ti-a ti 6 feet (1.85m), sng lu hng trm nm. i-mi nh hn, mai rng chng 80 cm gm nhiŠu mi‰ng vy x‰p nh mi ngi. Vy i-mi c vn mu nu ng nh rt p, dng lm qut, gng, lܮc, ba sch... tht p mt. i-mi sng nhiŠu trong vnh Thi-Lan, nht l vng Ph-Quc.

Ra bi‹n nm trong danh-sch cc loi sinh-vt cn ܮc bo-tn ca t-chc Lin-hiŒp-quc.

Hnh 18- Vt cng nh cc loi ra bi‹n khc trng trn bi ct. trng xong, con ra ny ang tr ra bi‹n.

Ngoi i mi cn mt loi ra bi‹n m ngܩi ta g†i l con Vt. Ban m vt t bi‹n b ln bi trng. Trng vt ln nh trng vt, c th‹ n ܮc. Mun bt Vt hay ly trng, ngܩi ta c i theo nhng v‰t chn ca n nh hai vŒt bnh xe tng ko di trn ct. Vt b lt nga thܩng khng t lt li ܮc. Tht vt cng n ܮc, li c th‹ s ra lm kh. Chng trng vi dܧi ct. Nh ct nng, trng n ra vt con chy t tn ra bi‹n. Trn ܩng chy ra bi‹n nh vy, v-s vt s-sanh b chim n tht nhng vn cn nhiŠu con sng st nhy ܮc xung nܧc.

Cng c chut trn cc o, loi to bng chut cng. Ngܩi i bi‹n cho bi‰t o no cng c mu‡i.

Theo cc nh a-cht-h†c nh Linh-mc La Fontaine m nhiŠu ti-liŒu ca ng ܮc tra-cu v trch-dn trong sch ny, th th-vt sng trn cc o ca Bi‹n ng Šu l cc loi gp trn t liŠn. ng R. Bournet (1937) tm thy rn mi Emoia Atrocostatum ti Hong-Sa, loi ny sng khp ni t bn-o M-Lai qua Phi-lut-Tn v i-dng-Chu .

3.3- Hi-sinh-vt ngoi bi‹n.

Mt s ln cc thy-tc thng-thܩng m ta thy b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam cng sinh-sng ngoi Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa nh c thu, c nhm, c hng, c m, ln b‹, c ui, c mc, n Ƕt, tm cua, s c...

Bi‹n ng c nhiŠu loi c ng k‹ l nhng mi li ln vŠ kinh-t‰. Chng ti xin trnh by vŠ cc loi c ca ng-nghiŒp trong phn ti-nguyn hi-sn, y chng ti xin ni vi iŠu vŠ nhng hi-sinh-vt ln nh c voi, c heo.

- Chng ta thܩng hay g†i c voi, c knh, c heo nhng trong sinh-vt-h†c, chng khng phi loi "C" m ܮc x‰p hng cng vi con ngܩi trong loi "hu-nh" (Mammalia) mu nng, th bng phi, con nh (khng ra trng.) C voi thc-s (true whale) khng c rng cng m ch c nhng mng lܧi bng sn mŠm x‰p kn nh ci lܮc. Chng sng bng cc phiu-sinh-vt (plankton) l nhng sinh-vt nh li-ti sng tri ni trong nܧc.

- ViŒn Nghin-cu ng-Ty ti Hawai cho bi‰t ng-Nam- c ti 11 loi c voi ܮc x‰p th-t nhn thy sinh-sng nhiŠu t nh sau: Bryde's whale, Sperm whale, Sei whale, Fin whale, Blue whale, Minke whale, Goosebeaked whale, Humpback whale, Beaked whale, Black right whale, Pygmy sperm whale.

- Ring khu trung-ng ca bi‹n ng, nhng c voi m ngܩi ta thܩng thy nht l loi c voi c vi (fin whale), tn khoa-h†c l Balaenoptera Physalus. C voi ny c th‹ di ti 70 hay 80ft, mu xm trn lng trng bng, mang thai trong 10 thng. C voi lng g (humpback) Megaptera Novaeangliae l loi c voi thܩng thy sau loi trn. C ny di ‰n 50 ft, tng i ngn nhng to ngang.

- Ngܩi ViŒt lc xa cng sn c voi nh m†i ging dn -ng khc. Dn duyn-hi nܧc ta ch mi th c voi cch nay khng lu khi Nam-ti‰n, ti‰p-xc nhiŠu vi ngܩi Chim-Thnh.

Hnh 19 - C voi lng g, mt loi c th‹ sp b tuyŒt-chng

Nhng loi c ln nht nh c voi xanh (di ti 100ft) ch thnh-thong mi xut-hiŒn vng bi‹n pha Nam gn Nam-Dng. Hng nm, mt vi con b sn v b bn ch‰t khi chng di-chuy‹n tng n theo ma. Mt loi c voi khc cng xut hiŒn quanh vng y bi‹n nng Sunda nh Sperm whale (Physeter catadon), Sei whale (Balaenoptera borealis.)

- Ngoi c voi, Bi‹n ng cng l ni sinh sng ca loi c heo (Delphinadae.) Trong sinh-vt-h†c, ngܩi ta cho rng c voi v c heo c nhiŠu i‹m tng-t; tr ra c heo c hm rng, chng sinh sng bng cc loi c v c mc. C heo vng bi‹n nܧc ta c vi i‹m hi khc biŒt nn thܩng ܮc g†i l c heo South China Sea hay Malacca Dolphin. Chng i tng by, thn di trong khong t 1.5m ti 2m, bi rt nhanh v thch a dn khi chy qua chy li trܧc mi tu nhng khi p tri.

Hnh 20 - C heo ca Bi‹n ng cng cn ܮc bo-vŒ.

Ÿ ViŒt-Nam khng thy ngܩi ta nui dy c heo nhng Thi-Lan, M-lai- v vnh Bengal, c heo rt hu-ch v gip ng-dn la c vo lܧi.

3.4- Bi‹n ng v Mi-trܩng sinh-vt-H†c ViŒt-Nam.

Nh trnh-by trn vŠ mi-trܩng thc-vt, Bi‹n ng hon-ton c tnh-cht ViŒt-Nam. Nhng cuc kho-cu vŠ phng-diŒn sinh-vt-h†c li cn cho bi‰t thm rng Bi‹n ng cng c mi-trܩng sinh-sng gn vi ViŒt-Nam hn l gn Trung-Hoa hay Phi-Lut-Tn.

3.4.1 - Vng mi-sinh -ng.

Theo khoa Sinh-vt a-lš-h†c, th‰-gii ܮc chia lm 6 vng mi-sinh (biogeographical zones); Bc-M, Nam-M, Bc u, Phi-Chu, ng-Phng v c-chu.

Hnh 21- Su vng mi-sinh trong khoa Sinh-vt a-lš-h†c. Bi‹n ng v ViŒt-Nam cng nm trong vng Oriental Region.

Khu-vc pha nam dy ni Hi-m-lp-Sn bao gm ƒn- v ng-Nam- ܮc ǥt tn l Vng ng-Phng (Oriental Region.) Vng ny khng ln lm nhng l khu-vc m mi-trܩng sinh-vt phong-ph nht trn tri t, trong c ViŒt-Nam cng nh Bi‹n ng.

Trong khi , hu h‰t lnh th Trung-Hoa nm trong khu-vc m khoa sinh-vt-h†c g†i l Palearctic. Vng ny tuy rng ln nht, bao-trm h‰t c Bc-, ton-th‹ u-chu v Ty-Bc Phi-chu nhng li t c nhng loi sinh-vt ǥc-th.

Cn-c theo gii-tuy‰n Himalaya - ng-Nam-, Bi‹n ng khng c nhiŠu lin-hŒ vŠ sinh-vt vi Trung-Hoa.

3.4.2 - ܩng Wallace - Huxley.

Mi-sinh Bi‹n ng cng xa l vi Phi-lut-Tn, miŠn ng Nam-Dng v c-Chu. Ranh-gii chia ct mi-sinh ny thܩng ܮc g†i l ܩng Wallace-Huxley.

Nܧc ViŒt-Nam nm trong khu-vc m cc nh sinh-vt g†i l Wallacea, ǥt theo tn ca Alfred Russel Wallace. Wallacea l vng t sinh-sng ca cc Ƕng-vt -ng. Khng nhng Trung-Hoa nm ngoi vng mi-sinh -ng nh ni trn, Phi-lut-Tn cng khng trong vng ny.

Nh thin-nhin-h†c ngܩi Anh ny nhn ra rng o Bali c ti 94% loi b-st v 87% loi chim ngun gc -ng, nhng Lombok l o k‰ cn hܧng ng ca Bali, th cc t›-lŒ trn st gim xung cn 85% v 72.5%. NhiŠu loi hu-nh t -ng sang sinh-sng Java, chng ti ܮc Bali nhng khng thy tn-ti xa hn vŠ hܧng ng nh Lombok, Celebe.

Ti‰p theo Wallace, mt nh sinh-vt-h†c ngܩi Anh na l Huxley nghin-cu thm v thy rng tnh-trng sinh-vt Phi-lut-Tn (tr o Palawan) cng ging nh Lombok v Celebe, ngha l khc-biŒt vi ViŒt-Nam. Bn b pha Ty ca ܩng ny sinh-vt mang m nhng nt -ng ng k‹ (overwhelmingly Oriental fauna.) Cng i xa vŠ pha ng ca ܩng Wallace-Huxley, nh hܪng mi-trܩng sinh-vt c-chu (Australian fauna) cng nhiŠu hn; cho ti ܩng Weber th bch-phn sinh-vt -ng ch cn li l 50%.

Hnh 22- VŠ mi-sinh, Bi‹n ng thuc vŠ ViŒt-Nam: ܩng Wallace/Huxley ct Phi-lut-Tn ra khi Bi‹n ng.

Tm li, cc lš-l trn chng-minh r rng Bi‹n ng thuc ViŒt-Nam vŠ phng-diŒn Sinh-vt a-lš-h†c.

3.5 - Bo-vŒ mi-trܩng thin-nhin.

Con ngܩi cng ngy cng chi‰m ng thm nhiŠu hi-o. Nhng ni xa kia chim chc, ra vt... thܩng lm t mt cch t-do th nay khng cn na. Chng nhng ngܩi chi‰m t ca vt, con ngܩi li cn tn-st cc sinh-vt khc khng ti‰c tay. Trn Bi‹n ng s lܮng sinh-vt ang suy-gim nhiŠu, ǥc-biŒt l nhng loi ra bi‹n, nh vt, i mi, nh c voi, c heo ... N‰u khng ܮc bo-tn, chng c th‹ b tuyŒt-chng. Nhng c-quan bo-vŒ thin-nhin ku g†i cc quc-gia duyn-hi lu-tm tham-gia nhng chng-trnh ca h†.

Theo ti‰n-b chung ca nhn-loi, cc nܧc ng-Nam- cng bt u khi-s nhng chng-trnh bo-vŒ mi-sinh quan-tr†ng t hn mt thp-nin qua. Dn u nhng cng-tc ngoi Bi‹n ng l Nam-Dng. Nh nŠn kinh-t‰ pht-tri‹n mnh, tiŠn bc di do, cc chnh-ph M-lai- v Tn-gia-Ba cng ang hng-hi tham-gia v chi-ph nhng khon tiŠn ln vŠ chng -nhim, bo-vŒ mi-sinh.

Nhng hi-sinh-vt nh ra bi‹n, c heo, c voi... ܮc ghi trong danh-sch nhng sinh-vt cn bo-vŒ. C-quan International Whaling Commission (IWC) thuc Lin-hiŒp-quc, ǥc-trch viŒc ny thng-bo nguy-c tuyŒt-chng ca cc loi c voi, cm sn-bn c voi lng g (Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae) vo nm 1966, c voi xanh (Blue Whale, Balaenoptera musculus) nm 1967 v c voi c vi (Fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus) vo nm 1975.

Hnh 23- C voi xanh, di ti 100ft, l loi Ƕng-vt ln nht ca a-cu. Mt s di-chuy‹n theo ma trong vng bi‹n N. S lܮng ang suy-gim r rŒt.

Trong khi y mnh sn-lܮng ng-nghiŒp, hu h‰t cc quc-gia duyn-hi c k‰-hoch khuy‰n-co nhng ng-dn trnh st-hi cc loi hi-vt no cn-thi‰t ܮc bo-tn ‹ chng ti‰p-tc sinh-sn.

Trܩng-hp ViŒt-Nam, š-thc vŠ viŒc bo-vŒ mi-sinh rt thp, ǥc-biŒt vŠ mi-sinh ngoi bi‹n c l cn xa l vi phn ng dn ta. Chnh-quyŠn no cng cn lu-tm ‰n cng-tc ny, s gio-dc phi khi-s ngay t h†c-ܩng ra ‰n i-chng.

Trong s lܮng ln qun-nhn tr-phng trn cc hi-o, khng chc c bao nhiu c-nhn š-thc ‰n mi-trܩng sinh-sng chung quanh. Mt khi nܧc bi‹n b -nhim, nh-sng khng cn chi‰u xung ܮc su, nܧc bi‹n c ngu th san-h ch‰t v s tn-ti ca hi-o lŒ-thuc vo . Ngܩi qun-nhn cng nh thܩng-dn phi š-thc ܮc s sinh-tn ca con ngܩi lin-hŒ ra sao vi san-h, vi bi‹n, vi hi-sinh-vt... i sng vn l s cng-sinh gia mun loi, s thay ǰi theo chiŠu-hܧng tt p hn.

4 - Kh-tܮng Bi‹n ng.

Kh-tܮng Bi‹n ng khc vi kh-tܮng trong lc-a.

4.1- tnh-trng kh-tܮng tng-qut.

Ni chung Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa nh nm gia Bi‹n ng nn kh-hu iŠu-ha, khng lnh qu vŠ ma ng, khng nng qu vŠ ma h n‰u so vi nhng vng t cng v-Ƕ trong lc-a. Khng-kh Bi‹n ng t b -nhim. Bu tri thܩng trong tro, tuy i khi u-m v c ma ln trong ging bo nhng thi-gian ny tng-i qua i kh nhanh. Ma ngoi bi‹n qua nhanh, Hong-Sa khng c ma no m-m ko di nh ki‹u ma dm gi bc Bc-phn hay m-mt nh trong ma ma Hu‰. Bui sng cng t khi c sng m.

-NhiŒt-Ƕ. NhiŒt-Ƕ Hong-Sa khng chnh lŒch lm gia ma H (28-29 Ƕ bch-phn) v ma ng (24-25 Ƕ.) Tuy xa cch Hong-Sa ti 6, 7 Ƕ v-tuy‰n, gn hn vŠ pha Xch-o nhng Trܩng-Sa cng ch nng hn Hong-Sa chng vi Ƕ. C th‹ ni hai qun-o Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa khng c ma lnh, kh-hu du mt nh nh-hܪng i-dng.

-V-lܮng. Ÿ Hong-Sa ma trung-bnh trong nm li 1,170mm, tuy ܮc k‹ l ma nhiŠu nhng khng qu ng nh Hu‰ (3,000mm.) Ma nhiŠu nht trong thng 10 (17 ngy - 228mm.) Trܩng-Sa l vng rng ln gp 10 ln hn Hong-Sa, hiŒn khng d-kiŒn nhng chng ta c th‹ ܧc-on rng v-lܮng tng-qut thp hn Hong-Sa mt cht.

-m-Ƕ. Khng-kh Bi‹n ng tng-i m-thp hn nhng vng bi‹n khc trn th‰-gii. Ÿ c Hong-Sa ln Trܩng-Sa, m-Ƕ Šu cao, t khi no bch-phn m-Ƕ xung dܧi 80%. Trung-bnh vo thng 6, m-Ƕ Hong-Sa sušt sot 85%.

Hnh 24 - NhiŒt-Ƕ, m-Ƕ, v-lܮng Hong-Sa.

4.2 - Ma gi.

C hai ma gi ng-Bc v Ty-Nam rt r rŒt:

* Ma gi ng-Bc thi mnh trn bi‹n ng, t thng 11 ‰n thng 1, gi 20-25 gt, bi‹n Ƕng mnh, ti cp 4 cp 5. Ngܩi i bi‹n hay dn nh c rt kh cc. Vnh Thi-Lan trong ma ny tng-i m-du.

* Ma gi Ty-Nam thi trong nhng thng 3, 4, 5. Gi ma ny thܩng y‰u hn gi ma ng-Bc v bi‹n cng t Ƕng. Trong ma gi Ty-Nam, bi‹n Hong-Sa kh m du trong khi Trܩng-Sa v vnh Thi-Lan b nh-hܪng sng gi nhiŠu hn.

4.3 - Thy-triŠu.

Thy-triŠu l mt hiŒn-tܮng nܧc bi‹n ln xung, nguyn-do v hp-lc ca cc tinh-t m chnh-y‰u l mt trng v mt tri. HiŒn-tܮng ny tuy phc-tp nhng li i theo chu-k. Sau nhiŠu nghin-cu, chim-nghiŒm; ngy nay ngܩi ta c th‹ tin-on kh chnh-xc cao-Ƕ thy-triŠu ti bt c mt hi cng trong bt c mt thi-i‹m no

Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa nm ngoi khi ViŒt-Nam nhng thy-triŠu ln xung ti y li khng theo ng nhp iŒu, chu-k hay bin-Ƕ ca nhng con nܧc ln v nܧc rng cc b‰n quy-chi‰u chnh ca ViŒt-Nam l -Sn v Vng-Tu.

Ni chung, bin-Ƕ thy-triŠu khng ln lm, khong 4 - 5ft (1.2m - 1.5m.) Chu-k thy-triŠu Hong-Sa thuc loi h‡n-hp gia bn-nht v ton-nht; vi ǥc-tnh ton-nht vܮt tri hn (chiefly diurnal.) Thng-thܩng, m‡i ngy mt con nܧc ln, mt con nܧc rng, chuy‹n qua hai con nܧc mt t ngy, ri tr li mt con.

Hnh 25- Mt ܩng bi‹u-din cao-Ƕ tiu-bi‹u cho thy-triŠu loi h‡n-hp.

Ngܩi i bi‹n thܩng dng nhng Bng Thy-triŠu (Tide Table) ‹ tnh-ton thi-gian v cao-Ƕ mc nܧc ln xung.

Hnh 26- Ti-liŒu trch trong "Bng thy-triŠu". Thy-triŠu cc cng ViŒt-Nam c b‰n quy-chi‰u ti Manila, Phi-lut-Tn.

Hnh 27- Bn- nhiŒt-Ƕ nܧc bi‹n, bin-Ƕ thy-triŠu, nng-lc sng Bi‹n ng.

S tin-on thy-triŠu ngy nay kh chnh-xc, Tide Table tr gip rt ǡc-lc cho nhng nh hi-hnh khi i qua cc vng nܧc cn, a Tu chui dܧi nhng cy cu thp, ra v hi-cng, tnh ton gi gic vn-chuy‹n v.v...

Bng Thy-triŠu do B Thng-mi Hoa-K bin-son, ch-dn viŒc dng b‰n quy-chi‰u Manila, Phi-lut-Tn cho thy-triŠu Hong-Sa v cc b‰n vng -Nng, cng tr thm nhng sai-biŒt ܮc c-s Thy-o tnh ton sn. Chng ti xin trch-dn mt vi dng trong sch trn lm ti-liŒu.

Trong khi Vng-Tu, K G, Cn-Sn, Hn Khoai, Vnh Ph-Quc, Si-Gn; thy-triŠu l loi bn-nht (semi-diurnal) vi con nܧc dng ln h xung m‡i ngy hai ln. B‰n quy-chi‰u ti Mi Vng-Tu.

-Sn l mt b‰n quy-chi‰u khc trong bng Tide Table dng tnh ton thy-triŠu cc b‰n d†c theo Vnh Bc ViŒt, tri di t o Ci Bu, Hi-Phng, Hn Me ‰n ca Nht-LŒ v ra ngoi xa ‰n o Bch-long-V. Thy-triŠu ny l loi ton-nht (diurnal.)

4.4 - Vng nܧc xoy.

Nܧc thy-triŠu di-chuy‹n ln xung theo ܩng thng ng, Nܧc cng di-chuy‹n ngang, to nn nhng dng nܧc chy qua chy li trn bi‹n. V nhiŠu y‰u-t ngoi-lai nh a-th‰ b t, hi-o, y bi‹n, lung gi nh-hܪng ‰n, nhng dng nܧc thy-triŠu c th‹ chy ngܮc li vi nhau trong mt vng no lm nܧc xoy trn.

HiŒn-tܮng nܧc xoy ny lm nhng khi lܮng nܧc b cun xung y bi‹n theo vng trn c nh ti khu-vc ngoi khi nhng ghŠnh Na-Uy. Trong nhng trܩng-hp ǥc-biŒt, vng nܧc xoy mnh ‰n n‡i c th‹ ht c ghe thuyŠn, ng s nht l khu-vc nm gia hai vng bi‹n Phi-lut-Tn v Nht-Bn.

Ti Bi‹n ng, bin-Ƕ thy-triŠu thܩng nh nn nhng dng nܧc gy nn bi thy-triŠu khng mnh lm. Dn nh c thܩng bi‰t r nhng vng nܧc xoy gn b ‹ li ghe thuyŠn nh b ca h† trnh ra xa. Ngoi bi‹n khi, tuy nܧc c xoy vi ni nhng khng gy nguy-hi hi‹m-ngho cho cc tu thuyŠn i bi‹n ln hn mc trung-bnh.

Hnh 28 - Cch gii-thch hiŒn-tܮng nhng con nܧc xoy. Hnh v c hi phng-i c-nguy trn Bi‹n ng.

4.5 - Nܧc bi‹n, Nng-Ƕ mui.

Nܧc bi‹n cc vng Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa lc no cng m-p. NhiŒt-Ƕ c nm thܩng cao hn 20 Ƕ bch-phn. Nܧc bi‹n cha nhiŠu oxy, rt trong v khng b -nhim v cng v xa cc ca sng nܧc c. mn ca mui dܧi mc trung-bnh, thܩng khng cao qu 35 phn ngn (%o.) Bu tri Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa thܩng quang ng t my, mt tri nhiŒt-ǧi quanh nm chi‰u nh-sng tht su xung dܧi nܧc. Nhng iŠu-kiŒn ny to mi-trܩng lš-tܪng cho san-h sinh-tn v pht-tri‹n Ƕ su hng trm thܧc.

4.6 - Hi-lu.

Hi-lu l dng nܧc chy gia bi‹n m nguyn-nhn chnh pht-sinh l gi, sau l s khc-biŒt vŠ t›-tr†ng, nhiŒt-Ƕ nܧc bi‹n, s quay ca tri t, thy-triŠu ...

Hi-lu trong Bi‹n ng khng chy thܩng-trc c-nh sut nm mt chiŠu nh cc i-hi-lu ca Thi-bnh-Dng. Gi ma a-phng to nn nhng dng hi-lu chuy‹n-vn nܧc theo chiŠu gi thi, khi gi ma ǰi ngܮc chiŠu th hi-lu chy ngܮc li.

-Trong ma gi ng-Bc, hi-lu Bi‹n ng chy ngܮc theo chiŠu kim ng-h. Dng nܧc bi‹n chy mnh t i-Loan ngang qua Hong-Sa vn-tc chng 1 gt. Khi xung ngang b bi‹n Trung-phn, vn-tc dng nܧc tng thm, c khi ti-a ti 3, 4 gt trn mt nܧc. Cc nhn-vin kh-tܮng ViŒt-Nam Hong-Sa (sau v Nht o-chnh Php thng 3/45) v qun-nhn Hi-Qun VNCH (sau khi Trung-Cng tn-chi‰m o thng 1/ 1974) nh nh dng nܧc ny th b tri vŠ ܮc ti Quy-Nhn v ngoi khi C-lao R ‹ ܮc cu vt. Ÿ pha Ty vng Trܩng-Sa, nܧc chy ngܮc li nh mt i-lu hܧng vŠ pha ng-Bc. Vn-tc i-lu thܩng thp. Vng gn Palawan nܧc chy theo chiŠu Ty-Nam.

-Trong ma gi Ty-Nam, hi-lu chy theo chiŠu kim ng-h, t pha M-Lai i d†c b bi‹n Trung-phn ra Hong-Sa vi vn-tc chng .5 gt. i-lu t pha ng ca qun-o Hong-Sa chy vŠ Trܩng-Sa rt y‰u.

-Hi-lu Bi‹n ng khng hon-ton l mt vng kn. Trong nhng khi gi ma thi mnh, nhng khi lܮng nܧc bi‹n ln lao ܮc y ra ngoi qua cc eo bi‹n. Vo ma gi ng-Bc, nܧc bi‹n ng thot ra ƒn-Ƕ-Dng. Vo ma gi Ty-Nam, nܧc bi‹n thot ra Thi-bnh-Dng.

Theo ti-liŒu trong sch Regional Oceanography, tc-gi Matthias Tomczak & J. Stuart Godfrey (Great Britain, 1994) th dng nܧc chy qua chy li nh mt my iŠu ha lm nng-Ƕ mui Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa trong sut nm gi nguyn trong mc Ƕ 33.5%o v 33%o. ChiŠu nܧc chy ca cc hi-lu bi‹n ng ܮc trnh-by nh trong hai hnh dܧi y.

Nh vy quanh nm, hi-lu vng Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa thay ǰi chiŠu hai ln. Dng nܧc vng Trܩng-Sa khng mnh nh dng nܧc vng Hong-Sa.

Sau trn hi-chi‰n nm 1988 khi chi‰n-hm b chm, cc thy-th ViŒt-Nam Cng-sn sng st trn cc b ni khng tri i u xa. V nܧc ch chy chng 1/4 ‰n 1/2 gt, s cp-cu ܮc thi-hnh trong "khu-vc cnh qut" st gn ni hi-chi‰n.

Hnh 29- Hi-lu v nng-Ƕ mui Bi‹n ng.

S vn-hnh ca hi-lu lin-hŒ ‰n nhng thay ǰi vŠ thi-ti‰t, kh-tܮng trong vng, gy nh-hܪng ‰n mi-trܩng sinh-sng ca ngܩi v sinh-vt dܧi bi‹n cng nh trn b.

4.7 - Nܧc, Gi v nn Du loang.

Khi dn khoan hot-Ƕng, cc tu chuyn ch du i li nhiŠu hn v nhng ng dn du kh vo b khi-s; y cng l lc ngܩi ta ngh ‰n nhng tai-nn du loang v s hi‹u-bi‰t vŠ hi-lu cng cn-thi‰t hn. Cc k‰-hoch phng-tai bao gm nhiŠu gi-thuy‰t km cc biŒn-php ng-ph. Nܧc tri ra sao cng gi thi th‰ no cn ܮc tnh-ton sn sng.

Hnh 30 - Cc gi-thuy‰t du loang ngoi khi Bi‹n ng trong hai ma gi ng-Bc v Ty-Nam.

Cc phng-nh sau y ǥt ra vi gi-thuy‰t vi triŒu gallons du th, v tai-nn hay lm-l‡i k-thut lc khai-thc hay chuyn-ch, b tht-thot ra ngoi bi‹n.

Chng 24% s du s bay hi hay tan-bi‰n sau 2 ngy, 42% sau 5 ngy, 45% sau 8 ngy. Bch-phn tiu-tn ny t ‰n ti-a l 48% qua 14 ngy. Sau thi-ti‰t khng cn nh-hܪng bao nhiu v s du cn li s nm vt v tri ni trn mt bi‹n. Phi qua rt nhiŠu thi-gian ‹ du loang t n phn-ha qua nhng phn-ng thoi-ha sinh-h†c (Biological Degradation), oxide ha quang-nng (photo-oxidation) m t t tan-bi‰n. Khi du thot ra, v nh nn ni v nܧc gi lm du tri i trn mt bi‹n.

Phn nng hay cht cn b ca du thܩng khng Ƕc-hi bng phn lng ca n. Chim chc, cua c, cy ci... ti‰p-xc vi du hay nm trong lp du bao-ph s b ch‰t hi rt nhiŠu. N‰u khng ܮc lm sch s ng cch, tnh-trng mi-sinh trong vng b du loang ch tr li bnh-thܩng sau nhiŠu nm hay nhiŠu chc nm.

Chng ta hy xem vi gi-thuy‰t du loang d†c duyn-hi ViŒt-Nam theo ti-liŒu ca sch Atlas for Marine Policy in Southeast Asia (University of California Press, 1983):

- Du loang ngoi khi Vng-Tu (9o 40' N, 108o E.) N‰u tai-nn du loang xy ra vo ngy 1 thng 7 khi ma gi Ty-Nam ang thi mnh, du loang s tri theo hܧng ng-Bc mt khong 600km (372hl) sau 29 ngy. Ch trong vng 14 ngy, du loang s trn ti vng Cam-Ranh.

N‰u tai-nn trn xy ra vo ngy 1 thng 12, trong ma gi ng-Bc; du loang s tri theo hܧng Ty-Nam mt khong 400km (248hl) sau thi-gian 14 - 17 ngy.

- Du loang ngoi khi Ty-Nam Hi-Nam (23oN, 109o E.) B bi‹n Hi-Nam s b -nhim n‰u du tht-thot trong ma gi Ty-Nam vo nhng thng 5, 6, 7 v 8.

N‰u tai-nn trn xy ra vo lc giao ma hay gia ma gi ng-Bc, du loang s tri vŠ pha b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam: thng 8, vo Bc-phn v cc thng 9, 10, 11, 12, 1, 2, 3 vo vng Bc Trung-phn.

Hnh 31 -

N‰u du loang t Hong-Sa hay ngoi khi Hi-Nam, b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam c c nguy b -nhim nhiŠu hn pha Trung-Hoa.

Trong tng-lai n‰u Trung-Cng khi s o du ti Hong-Sa, c-nguy b bi‹n Trung-phn ViŒt-Nam b nn du loang trn ngp rt trm-tr†ng, nht l vŠ ma gi ng-Bc. Hi-lu vng ny mnh, i khi vܮt 30hl mt ngy. Du loang c th‹ trn ‰n khu C-Lao R, Qung-Ngi trong vng 10 ngy v ‰n Quy-Nhn chng 2 tun-l .

5 - Thin-tai trn bi‹n ng.

Thin-tai Bi‹n ng x‰p thnh nhiŠu loi:

5. 1 - Bo-t.

Bo-t c ma. Bo Bi‹n ng l bo nhiŒt-ǧi, thܩng xy ra nhng lc giao ma, nht l t thng 6 ‰n thng 8. Gi mnh ‰n 90 gt. Bo gim i t thng 9 nhng cng vn cn ‰n thng 1. Tuy vy, vo gia ma gi ng-Bc, bo lm bi‹n tr nn Ƕng d di hn v ko di trong nhiŠu ngy.

Ngܩi Php g†i tn o Trܩng-Sa l o Bo-T (Ile de la Tempte), nhng bi‹n Trܩng-Sa cng nh ton th‹ Bi‹n ng khng phi l ni pht-sinh nhng trn bo ln vng nhiŒt-ǧi. Nhng trn i-phong hay Typhoon thܩng khi-s t pha ng ca Phi-lut-Tn, di-chuy‹n theo hܧng Ty-Bc vŠ pha Bc ViŒt-Nam, Hng-Kng, i-Loan Nht-Bn. Khng ti 1% ging bo pht sinh t Bi‹n ng ti‰n vŠ Hoa-Nam v cng khng ti 1% ging bo pht-sinh ngoi khi Brunei thi vŠ Vnh Thi-Lan. C ti chng 1 phn 3 cc trn i-phong i t Thi-bnh-Dng thi vŠ, qua Trܩng-Sa v Hong-Sa, ti‰n vo b bi‹n Trung-ViŒt v vnh Bc-phn.

Hnh 32- Bo v cc thin-tai Ƕng t, sng thn vng ng-Hi.

Sau khi thnh-lp, bo thܩng di-chuy‹n hܧng Ty, nhng ri chuy‹n ln hܧng ng-Bc, nn Nam-phn khng my khi b bo ln tn-ph.

Khi bo pht xut t o L Tng i ngang Hong-Sa th binh-s ng trn o thy cc triŒu chng nh sau: Tri oi, kh p xung nhanh. Trn bu tri xut hiŒn nhng my cao bay nhanh nh b lng (cirrus panachs.) Vi gi sau bu tri b che ph bi mt lp my rt mng (cirro status), mt tri chung quanh c qung, ri dn dn bu tri trng nht. Sau ‰n lܮt nhng my thp c hnh vy c (cirro cumulus.) Ri ‰n mt lp my en, dy cao li 3,000m (altostatus), tt c tr nn en, u m; ma bt u ri, gi thi, kh p xung nhanh. Trn my thp dn xung (100 mt hay 50), my bay nhanh, gi thi mnh tng cn, bo ti ...

Cܩng-Ƕ gi bo c th‹ li 50 gt ‰n 90 gt.

Khi sm st xut hiŒn th c th‹ coi nh cn bo qua...

Hnh 33 - S lܮng trung-bnh cc trn bo xy ra trong nhng thng ca mt nm.

 

 

 

Hai qun-o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa bao gm cc o nh b tr tri, khng phi l ch‡ trnh bo lš-tܪng. M‡i khi cc i kh-tܮng thng-bo c bo (typhoon) l cc tu thuyŠn thܩng vi v di-tn khi vng. Trܩng-hp khng kp, phi c chy vŠ pha Nam, lm sao nm ܮc trong "bn-nguyŒt an-ton" ca bo. Trong th‰-chi‰n II, Hm-Ƕi Hoa-K mt ln b thiŒt-hi nng v bo nh vy ngoi bi‹n Phi-lut-Tn ch v phi ti‰p-tc hnh-qun, khng kp ln trn.

Hai ln Trung-Cng hnh-qun ln, chi‰m tr†n Hong-Sa (19 thng 1 nm 1974) v nut g†n 7 o Trܩng-Sa (14 thng 3 nm 1988), chng Šu khi-s -t chuy‹n qun xung Bi‹n ng trong ma bi‹n khng bo t.

Qua cc ti-liŒu lch-s, ngܩi ta †c ܮc nhiŠu ln thin-tai khng-khi‰p gy thiŒt hi sinh-mng v ti-sn cho nܧc ta. V ngܩi dn i kh nn quc-gia lon lc. Tai-nn ngoi Bi‹n ng mang ‰n ch‰t chc, mt tch, tn-lc cho ng-ph nh:

* Vo u th‰-k› 18, bo thi thuyŠn b ca Ƕi Hong-Sa ra bi‹n sang Hi-Nam. Hai nhn-vin ܮc ngܩi Tu cu v ܮc tr vŠ sau .

* Vo thi Nam-Bc phn-tranh, khi hai hm-Ƕi chun-b tc-chi‰n th bo thi ti. Chi‰n-thuyŠn i bn ri nhau ‹ chy trn nhng khng kp. Mt s b chm, mt s b thi ra bi‹n. C chi‰c tri ra Hong-Sa, c chi‰c git ti Hi-Nam.

Thin-tai vŠ bo-t y thuyŠn ra Hong-Sa cng l mt y‰u-t ‹ chng-minh dn a-phng nh ngܩi ViŒt chng ta ‰n Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa, do v-tnh hay c-š t nhiŠu ngn nm xa. Ngܩi ViŒt cng nh cc ngܩi ng-Nam- khc khm-ph cc o ngoi Bi‹n ng ngay t khi pht-minh ghe thuyŠn, khng ch Ǯi ‰n khi ngܩi Trung-Hoa hng ngn vn dm xa-xm ‰n y ‹ ghi cng ho!

5.2 - Nhng hiŒn-tܮng thin-nhin khc.

Ngoi bo-tp l thin-tai khng-khi‰p nht, cc vng t ng-Nam- nm ngoi i-dng cn tri qua mt s cc thin-tai khc nh, Ƕng t, ni la, t tri, sng thn, lt li v.v...

5.2.1 - Sng Thn.

Ngoi khi ViŒt-Nam, tuy c mt s chn-Ƕng a-cht ngm dܧi bi‹n xy ra ngay trong th‰-k› th XX nhng khng gy nn mt thiŒt-hi no. Vng Hong-Sa v C-lao Thu ghi-nhn t nht 6 ln a-chn. May mn khng c cn sng thn no tn-ph duyn-hi nܧc ta.

Sng Thn (Tsunamis) gy nn bi nhng trn Ƕng t dܧi lng bi‹n su. Sng thn khng do gi pht-sinh v v chng c Ƕ di sng rt ln nn mt thܩng ca chng ta khng th‹ nhn ra ܮc khi sng thn cn ngoi bi‹n rng. Chn-Ƕng ca cn a-chn truyŠn i trong lng bi‹n vi vn-tc nhanh ti 400 - 500 gt. Trn mt bi‹n, l nhng ln sng ch cao ‰n vi ba b Anh nhng chiŠu di ti trn 100 hi-lš. Tuy thy-th hi-hnh trong khu-vc Ƕng t khng nhn thy sng nhng thܩng cm thy tu thuyŠn ca h† b p mnh mt hay hai ci theo chiŠu thng ng ging nh khi tu b mc cn ri thi.

Khi ti‰n ‰n gn b, v vn-tc sng vn cao trong khi y bi‹n tr thnh nng cn, sng bt thn b chn li nn trong khonh-khc, bin-Ƕ vt gia-tng gh gm. Nhng Ǯt sng khi c th‹ cao ti 50 - 100 feet, di-chuy‹n rt nhanh, tn-ph tt c nhng g trn ܩng i ca chng, vo su trong ni-a nhiŠu cy-s.

Hai nܧc Phi-lut-Tn v Nam-Dng chu ǿng lin-ti‰p nhiŠu tai-ng vŠ Ƕng t. Sng thn cun tri nhiŠu lng mc, qut sch nh ca, ghe thuyŠn, con ngܩi v sc-vt ra bi‹n. Cc o pha cc ng ca Trܩng-Sa, nm gn vi rnh su Palawan c th‹ chu nhng tai-h†a thm-khc n‰u sng thn xy ra.

B bi‹n ViŒt-Nam chy li li ra khi, nܧc ta may mn khng ti‰p gip vi mt bt c mt rnh su no ca i-dng (trench) nn thot tai-nn nhng cn sng thn.

ViŒt-Nam v Bi‹n ng cn may mn hn na v nm ngoi Vng La Thi-bnh-Dng (Cercle de Feu) l khu-vc khng tng b nn Ƕng t no tn-ph trm tr†ng. Ni vŠ s bŠn vng ca nŠn lc-a x ta, Gio-s Phm-Hong-H vi‰t rng "ViŒtNam nm trn khi Indosinias ca v Trit bŠnvng t my trm triŒu nm nay"(Cy c ViŒt-Nam, 1993.)

Hnh 34 - Hnh-nh cn sng thn.

5.2.2 - Vi Rng.

Ngܩi i bi‹n v dn duyn hi thܩng thy cc ct nܧc b cun ht ln tri m h† g†i l rng ht nܧc.

Rng Ht Nܧc hay Vi Rng l mt hiŒn-tܮng so trn ca khng-kh ngoi bi‹n, chng hn nh s ng-chm gia hn-diŒn v nhiŒt-diŒn khi hai lung khng-kh nng lnh gp nhau.

Tng-t nh bo nhng Vi Rng xy ra trong mt phm-vi nh hp hn vi nhng ǥc-i‹m hi khc-biŒt nh sau:

- Vi Rng l mt cn lc c hnh-dng nh chi‰c phu, ct nܧc t mt bi‹n b gi cun xoy cao dn ln bu tri y my en cumulus.

- Nܧc ca Vi Rng c th‹ l nܧc mn b ht t bi‹n ln hay c th‹ l nܧc ng†t do hi nܧc †ng li thnh ma.

- Gi thi ca ging bo Bc-bn-cu xoy theo chiŠu kim ng-h v nghch li Nam-bn cu. ChiŠu gi trong hiŒn-tܮng Vi Rng khng theo quy-lut , gi c th‹ thi theo cng chiŠu hay ngܮc chiŠu vi kim ng-h tu theo vi chiŠu gi lc thnh-lp.

- Vi Rng thܩng c ܩng knh t vi b ‰n nhiŠu trm b Anh, chiŠu cao t vi trm ‰n nhiŠu trm b Anh. Vi Rng t khi ko di ti hn mt ti‰ng ng-h.

- Sc mnh ca Vi Rng thay ǰi, nh th nh mt con trt cun bi, mnh th c th‹ nh chm thuyŠn nh, lm h-hi tu thuyŠn hng trung. D mnh nht Vi Rng cng khng nh-hܪng my cho cc tu vin-duyn cho d tu c l†t ngay vo trung-tm ca n.

- Thy-th i ngang Vi Rng cho bi‰t c khi thy su b† hay tm c ri rt trong ma.

Hnh 35 - Hnh-nh Rng ht nܧc.

6 - Bi‹n ng, nhng s k-diŒu thin-nhin.

Ngoi nhng hiŒn-tܮng thin-nhin xy ra nh ni trn, Bi‹n ng cn ghi-nhn mt s s kiŒn ng g†i l k-diŒu.

6.1 - S k-diŒu vŠ t-tnh.

Ngܩi i bi‹n phi thܩng-trc lo lng nht trong viŒc nh-hܧng v xc-nh v-tr con tu . Trܧc khi la-bn iŒn tr thnh dng-c cn-bn ca chi‰n-hm v thng-thuyŠn, kim ch nam v la-bn t l nhng ngܩi bn trung-thnh nht ca cc nh hng-hi. Ngy nay trn nhng du-thuyŠn chy bum ngܩi ta vn cho thi‰t-tr la-bn t v trn nhng tu ln, mt chi‰c la-bn t, sau khi ܮc iŠu-chnh cn-thn, lun lun l dng-c ܮc thuyŠn-trܪng tin cy nht, dng ‹ ki‹m-sot nhng "phn-trc bt-thܩng" ca la-bn iŒn.

Hnh 36 - Hi- ghi-nhn Ƕ t-sai khng ng k‹ trong vng Hong-Sa.

Khi ngܩi ViŒt bt u dng la-bn trong khoa a-lš v hi-hnh, tiŠn-nhn chng ta hn rt ngc-nhin l hܧng ca kim ch nam li hon-ton ph-hp vi hܧng Bc-Nam a-d.

Thin-nhin to nn mt vi vng bi‹n ǥc-biŒt trn th‰-gii m khng c Ƕ lŒch t-tnh nh Bi‹n -Rp v Bi‹n ng. Mt trong nhiŠu nguyn-nhn to nn nŠn vn-minh hng-hi ng-Nam- c l cng v s nhiŒm-mu . Trong lc la-bn t sai trŒch 30, 40 Ƕ ti nhiŠu ni khc trn th‰-gii, kim nh-hܧng ca n li ch ngay ng phng Bc a-d khi con tu ti‰n vo vng Bi‹n ng.

Theo nhng ti-liŒu vŠ khoa th‰-gii a-t, ngoi Ƕ t sai bng Zro, Bi‹n ng cn c nhng ǥc-i‹m t-tnh khc nh sau:

- Bi‹n ng nm trong vng m Ƕ sai lŒch t khng thay ǰi (hay thay ǰi rt nh.) Hy tܪng tܮng ‰n s rc ri gy cho cc nh hng-hi khi kim la-bn t sai-lŒch ti 30, 40 Ƕ m li cn bi‰n-thin thܩng-nin hng chc pht na: h† s phi cng tr, thm hay bt (ng hay Ty) vo nhng tr-s ܮc cho bi‰t trܧc y trong ti-liŒu.

- Bi‹n ng li ǥc-biŒt hn v nm trong vng "xch-o t". Tng-t nh trong vng nhiŒt-ǧi a-d, cc la-bn iŒn hot-Ƕng trong iŠu-kiŒn tt nht; cc dng-c trc-nh t-tnh cng khng cn iŠu-chnh nhiŠu nhng khi hot-Ƕng ti ni c "v-Ƕ t" thp hay gn ܩng xch-o t. Trܩng-hp tu thuyŠn chy ln Bc-cc hay i xung Nam-cc, la-bn iŒn dn dn tr nn v-hiŒu v thnh v-dng ti hai cc a-d. La-bn t cng vy, s tr nn v-hiŒu hai cc a-t.

T khi vng t-trܩng Van Allen bao quanh tri t ܮc khm-ph, khoa a-t-trܩng ti‰p-tc ܮc nghin-cu h†c hi. T-trܩng nh-hܪng rt nhiŠu ti sinh-hot m†i loi v c ‰n sinh-mng trn tri dt. Mt ngy no , c th‹ trong vi chc ngn nm sp ti, hai cc Nam Bc a-t s ǰi ngܮc li thnh Bc-Nam. Bi‹n ng vi v-tr ǥc-biŒt cng l ni cn-thi‰t phi c s quan-trc cc hiŒn-tܮng a-t-trܩng .

Hnh 37 - Bi‹n ng khng c Ƕ sai t v v-tr vng C-Mu Trܩng-Sa nm trn xch-o t.

Ngܩi Tu nhn rng h† sng-ch‰ Kim Ch-Nam nhng khng hŠ bi‰t nhng ǥc-tnh vŠ t-trܩng ca Bi‹n ng. Sch c Trung-Hoa ghi rng vng t m ca t-thch MiŠn Nam, h† knh-ngܫng cu-khn thn ni Linh-Sn vng Varella, h† s Hong-Sa ht st lm tu thuyŠn ca h† mc cn Bi‹n ng.

6.2 - S k-diŒu vŠ "a-hnh"

Mt bi‹n bao ph tri t tܪng nh bng-phng v ng Šu cao-Ƕ nhng s tht khng phi nh vy.

a-cu khng ng l mt tri cu trn Šu m c dng gn vi khi Ellipsoid. a cu cng hi phnh ra pha trn xch o, c mt v no ging nh tri l. Mt tri t li c ch‡ lc-a, c ch‡ bao bi i-dng, ni cao nh ni Everest (gn 9km) ni su nh Marianas Trench (chng 11km) nn dn-lc-trܩng (gravitational field) khng Šu ǥn, ܩng giy qu r†i thܩng khng thng gc vi mt bi‹n.

Hnh 38 - Hnh v gii-thch vi s sai lŒch trong hai phng-thc a-hnh Geoid v Ellipsoid i vi bŠ cao mt bi‹n.

Trong nhng cng-tc o c a-hnh, tnh ton v-tr thin-vn v mi y nht khi cc vŒ-tinh NAVSAT (Navigation Satellite System), GPS (Global Positioning System) bt u hot-Ƕng, ngܩi ta thy nhng s sai lŒch nh vy kh ln. Mt "tri cu" mi dng lm tiu-chun, sau khi iŠu-chnh dn-lc, ܮc g†i l Geoid.

Phng-php hi-hnh iŒn-t vŒ-tinh ngy nay rt ti‰n-b. Trong vi nm nay, nhng tm bn- th‰-gii ghi cc sai-biŒt (Contour Map of Geoidal Height hay Contour Plot of Mean Sea Level Deviations) cn dng ‹ iŠu-chnh Ƕ cao mt bi‹n v nhng ti-liŒu ch-dn cn-thi‰t lin-hŒ vŠ hi-hnh ܮc trang-b cho tt c tu thuyŠn i bi‹n.

Vng Bi‹n ng, v ǥc-biŒt khu-vc gn duyn-hi ViŒt-Nam khng c Ƕ sai ny trong khi vng bi‹n pha Nam ca ƒn-, cc nh hng-hi phi tr i 99m v n‰u tu i vo vng ng-Bc ca New Guinea, h† li phi cng thm 79m mi ng.

Hnh 39 - Bn- ghi cao-Ƕ mt bi‹n trung-bnh. Chi-ti‰t vng Bi‹n ng (khng c Ƕ sai) ܮc phng ln.

Ni mt cch khc i, mt nܧc Bi‹n ng l mt bi‹n c Ƕ cao tiu-chun trong hŒ-thng Geoid, trong khi mt nܧc bi‹n ƒn- cao qu 99m v bi‹n New Guinea li thp ti 79m. Khi lm ton vŠ cao-Ƕ trn mt bi‹n, ngܩi ta phi ln lܮt tr i 99m v cng thm 79m ty trܩng-hp.

6.3 - Bi‹n ng, b m thin-nhin chng -nhim.

Bܧc sang th‰-k› 21, nn -nhim s tr nn rt nguy-hi cho mi-trܩng sinh-sng ca th‰-gii. Cc ni ng dn-c, nhiŠu k-nghŒ, lm c-gii m li nm trong nhng vng thung-lng nh Mexico City hay Los Angeles chc chn b -nhim nng nŠ nht. VŠ a-th‰, ViŒt-Nam nm dܧi chn ni cao, t hܧng ra pha bi‹n nn may mn hn rt nhiŠu quc-gia khc. Bi‹n ng gip dn ta c ni thng-thong.

Trong tng-lai khi cc nܧc duyn-hi ti‰n ln thi-i k-nghŒ, Bi‹n ng cng s b nh-hܪng -nhim, nܧc s khng cn trong sch, khng-kh ln hi Ƕc v bu tri ri cng u-m. N‰u dn ng-Nam- khng bo nhau cng thi-hnh chung nhng biŒn-php ngn-nga i-ph, th tnh-trang sinh sng s rt ti-tŒ.

Tuy vy khi nhn tng-qut, ngܩi ta thy Bi‹n ng s hot-Ƕng nh mt ci my chng -nhim thn-diŒu gip con ngܩi sng mnh kho hn. Xin xt mt cch gin-d trn hai mi-trܩng l nܧc v gi:

6.3.1 - Nܧc sch s.

Nh ti‰p-gip vi hai khu-vc i-ng rng ln xa cc ni k-nghŒ pht-tri‹n tt cng l Bc-M v u-Chu, nܧc bi‹n Thi-bnh-Dng v ƒn--Dng vn tinh-khi‰t s gip Bi‹n ng ra sch -nhim. Cc i-hi-lu trn hai i-dng lun-chuy‹n quanh nm l my l†c m tr gip my l†c con l ng-Hi. Thin-nhin ǥc-biŒt l b m tt, qut d†n sch s ci nh ViŒt-Nam , lm x ta p hn cc x khc trn phng-diŒn ny.

Hnh 40 - Nܧc Bi‹n ng -nhim s theo cc hi-lu ca Thi-bnh-Dng v ƒn-Ƕ-Dng chy i ni khc.

- Cc hi-lu ng-Hi vŠ ma ng mang nܧc sch t Thi-bnh-Dng chy vo, y mt s nܧc -nhim qua ƒn-Ƕ-Dng. Vn-tc ngun nܧc ny rt mnh, ǥc-biŒt lm cho nܧc bi‹n khu-vc Trung-phn ViŒt-Nam rt sch s.

- Vo ma h khi dng nܧc chy ngܮc li, nܧc sch t ƒn--Dng li chy vo y mt s nܧc c ra pha Nht-Bn.

6.3.2- Gi trong lnh.

Kh-hu vng bi‹n t lu ܮc bi‰t l tt hn kh hu t liŠn, khng kh ngoi bi‹n c tc-dng rt tt cho c-th‹ ca sinh-vt.

Khng-kh chuy‹n-Ƕng to thnh gi. S di-chuy‹n ca gi cng c tc-dng lm trong sch khng-kh tng-t nh hi-lu lm trong sch nܧc bi‹n. Trn Bi‹n ng, gi ma ng-Bc v Ty-Nam lun-phin thi qua thi li quanh nm, khi khng-kh mi thay-th‰ khi khng-kh c. Lu lu mt trn ging bo, i-phong xy ra cun tri h‰t m†i vn c tc-hi cn st li trong khng kh ra vng bc Thi-bnh-Dng.

Hnh 41 - Bn- ghi nhn nhng ܩng di-chuy‹n tiu-bi‹u ca i-phong. Khng-kh -nhim ca Bi‹n ng s thi h‰t vŠ Nht-Bn v Bc-M.

Thܩng thܩng ging bo gy nhiŠu tai-ng khng khi‰p, nhng ging bo cng ti‰p-cu cho cc l phi m†i loi sinh-vt ViŒt-Nam ܮc ht th t-do hn. Sau ging bo, kh tri li tr nn trong tro nh xa.!

Bi‹n ng hiŠn-ha, t lu ǩi trong qu-kh v mi mi trong tng-lai, ܮc chng ta g†i l Bi‹n M m !

Xin lm-bn cht na. N‰u tnh-trng tri t suy-i qu, lܮng -nhim tng thm qu nhiŠu, gi ma v i-phong y khng-kh d bn cho Nht-Bn "lnh" v sau cng, Bc-M s "ht" tt c !

7 - Cc o ViŒt-Nam.

Cc on sau y bn vŠ s quan-tr†ng ca cc hi-o ngoi khi ca ViŒt-Nam.

7.1 -S Quan-tr†ng ca Hi-o.

Trong khi ti nguyn trn t liŠn dn dn st gim, dn s vn gia tng nhanh chng, loi ngܩI ang ko nhau ǰ x ra khai-thc bi‹n c.

Trong c-san S a s 29 nm 1975, Gio-s Sn Hng c vi‰t: N‰u th‰-k› XIX l k›-nguyn ca viŒc chi‰m-c v khai-thc cc lc-a, th hu-bn th‰-k› th XX l lc m ti-nguyn thin-nhin trn cc t ni cn ngun. Cc nh a-lš kinh-t‰ th‰-gii bt u ch-š ‰n vng "t ngm", ngha l thŠm lc-a hay y i-dng. Nht l sau hi-ngh Caracas vŠ "Lut B‹" 1974 th khuynh-hܧng chung cho rng quan-niŒm lnh-hi ca th‰-k› XIX nay l‡i thi".

ng Sn cng ni ‰n tm quan-tr†ng ca hi-o nh sau: "Cha ng chng ta, vi lng can-m v-bin, ch mo-hi‹m v-cng ‹ li cho con chu ngy nay mt dy giang-sn gm vc gm lnh-th lc-a v nhng qun-o trong ng-Hi v vnh Thi-Lan. Quan-niŒm sai-lm thܩng cho rng y ch l nhng bi ct bo-tp khng gi-tr sn xut nn chng ta "thi‰u tch-cc" trong vn Š nh-c hoc chi‰m-ng."

Mt tܧng lnh Hoa-K cho rng Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa khng quan-tr†ng g vi M. Nm 1970, trong mt cuc h†p bo ti Guam lc mn nhiŒm-k lm T-lŒnh cc lc-lܮng Hi-Qun Hoa-K ti ViŒt-Nam, -c Zumwalt m sau lm T-LŒnh Hi-Qun Hoa-K cho rng : "Ngܩi M ang thc-thi chi‰n-lܮc tiŠn-n trn bi‹n, song song vi viŒc pht-tri‹n hm-Ƕi tu ni nhng Trܩng-Sa v Hong-Sa khng p-ng nhu-cu hnh-qun trn bi‹n bng mt hng-khng mu-hm, nht l vŠ lu-Ƕng-tnh. Hai qun-o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa ch l i Radar c-nh, chi-ph hot-Ƕng rt tn km..."

Phn-tch li -c Zumwalt chng ta thy cc i‹m sau y:

- S kiŒn "Hi-qun Hoa-K b-ch ng i-dng" l iŠu hi‹n-nhin. QuyŠn-lc trn bi‹n xa nay da vn ǥt cn-bn trn sc mnh. Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa qu nh b, tht khng ng k‹ vi s mnh mng ca c Th‰-gii. Vi s hng-mnh ca Hoa-K hiŒn ti, quc-gia no c lm ch ܮc nhng o nh b cng khng sc cn tr hot-Ƕng trn bi‹n ca Hi-Qun Hoa-K.

- Quan-i‹m ca ng a ra trong tnh-trng Hoa-K ang theo ui chnh-sch ha-hon vi Trung-Cng. T hi ‰n nay, Hi-qun M vn gia-tng lu-Ƕng-tnh nhng li bt hiŒn-diŒn ti ng-Nam-. ng-š vi gii bnh-lun-gia thi-cuc thi , chng ti cng ngh rng chi‰c n xanh bt ‹ Trung-Cng ti‰n ti viŒc xm-chi‰m Hong-Sa nm 1974.

- Mt khi hai qun-o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa khng quan-hŒ g vi quyŠn-li Hoa-K th ng Zumwalt mun so snh th‰ no cng ܮc. N‰u v-tr ca ng l ch ca mt con dn ViŒt-Nam ang ng trܧc mng vut ca mt k xm-lng, va tn-Ƕc va qu›-quyŒt li a st mu nh Trung-Cng th hn ng ni khc i.

Tuy cng l ngܩi gc u M nhng li pht-bi‹u ca kš-gi Robert Thompson trong tp-ch Kinh-T‰ Vin-ng li khc. ng cho rng ch-quyŠn trn cc o ngoi khi Bi‹n ng rt quan-tr†ng, nhng mun lm ch th phi c lc-lܮng bo-vŒ mi ܮc. Robert Thompson t v thng-cm n‡i kh khn ca nhng nܧc nhܮc-ti‹u nh ViŒt-Nam chng ta nhiŠu hn l v T-lŒnh Hi-qun Hoa-K. ng vi‰t mt cu ch-lš: "cn-c vo quyŠn-lc trn bi‹n ca -c Mahan, th Quc-gia no c Hi-Qun mnh m s c quyŠn-lc trn bi‹n v ch-quyŠn trn hi-o. Nhng hi-qun v khng-qun l hai mn xa-x-phm, cc nܧc ngho mun c n ch kh thm m thi!"

Ch quc-gia giu sang mi c hi-qun hng-mnh. Ch vi hi-qun hng-mnh quc-gia mi c quyŠn-lc trn bi‹n v ch-quyŠn hi-o. Nܧc ViŒt-Nam chng ta r rŒt l ngho t lu, m nay vn cn c ngho, chnh-quyŠn phi lm th‰ no cho nܧc mnh dn giu th hiŒn-trng bi-t ny mi thay ǰi!

Lc chi‰n-tranh t nܧc ta b chia ct Bc-Nam, ngܩi dn ViŒt ܧc mun s thng-nht v mong i li Hong-Sa. ng Hong-xun-Hn vi‰t rng: "...Khi nܧc ViŒt-Nam cn chia i th kh lng iŠu-nh ‹ Hong-Sa tr li t ta, tuy rng nhiŠu chng xa nay trong ngoi bo rng l t ViŒt" (ng 30 nm trܧc, S a s 27, 28, 1974, trang 215.) Nay nܧc thng-nht ri, tnh-trng mt ch-quyŠn ngoi bi‹n xem ra li cn en ti hn!

Chng ti s trnh-by gi-tr kinh-t‰ ca Hong-Sa/ Trܩng-Sa trong mt on dܧi y. Gi-tr vn khng nh! M trn c gi-tr kinh-t‰, gi-tr chi‰n-lܮc cn ng k‹ hn nhiŠu; n v cng quan-tr†ng. Tht khng ngoa n‰u c ngܩi cho rng Hong-Sa/ Trܩng-Sa l y‰u-t sinh-t, tn-vong ca nܧc ViŒt-Nam.

S an-nguy ca sܩn pha ng nܧc ta nm trong viŒc ki‹m-sot ch-quyŠn trn cc hi-o d†c Bi‹n ng. T Hi-Nam, Trung-Hoa d dng ki‹m-sot viŒc ra vo vnh Bc-ViŒt. Sau khi chi‰m Hong-Sa, ngܩi Tu m rng tm ki‹m-sot xung mt na duyn-hi nܧc ta. N‰u h† li chi‰m c Trܩng-Sa th Trung-Hoa c kh-nng khng-ch‰ hu h‰t vng duyn-hi pha ng nܧc ta. Khi no c hi-phn v khng-phn b kha cht nh vy, tng-lai ViŒt-Nam rt mt m.

Trong tt c nhng nܧc ang tranh-chp ti Bi‹n ng, ViŒt-Nam l quc-gia b l†t vo th‰ b, ܩng cng nht. Hai nܧc Trung-Hoa mt trng mt , trong t-th‰ nhng nܧc ngoi nhy vo trng trn xm-lng khng ni lm g, cc nܧc khc nh Phi, M, Nam-Dng... n‰u chi‰m thm ܮc o th li thm rt nhiŠu, trܩng hp c Bi‹n ng c b Tu nut tr†n, h† cng khng thiŒt nhiŠu lm v hi‹n-nhin khng v Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa m h† b ngoi-nhn khng-ch‰. a-th‰ cho php h† ti‰p-tc m ܮc ܩng bi‹n ra pha ngoi Thi-bnh-Dng v ƒn-Ƕ-Dng.

‰n cng k lš, ViŒt-Nam b thiŒt-thi nht: mt t o thiŒt-hi t, mt nhiŠu o thiŒt-hi nhiŠu, mt tt c Bi‹n ng th ton-quc b khng-ch‰. Nguy-c hi‹m-h†a ln nh cha tng xy ra trong sut dng lch-s , s mŒnh dn-tc nh ch mnh cheo chung, quc-gia nh ng bn b vc thm!

Thi-gian rt cp-bch. Sut my ngn nm qua, chng ta thܩng ch phi lo gn gi bin-thy mt Bc. Nay th ngoi mt Bc, c ci sܩn rng ln ca chng ta vŠ pha ng, vi nhiŠu ngn cy s duyn-hi ang b e d†a. Hai ci g†ng km, mt t phng Bc bp xung, mt t phng ng si‰t vo, hn nhin tn-bo lm!

Hnh 42 - Vin-nh mi e d†a nܧc ta t Bi‹n ng:Trung-Cng vi Phi-c chi‰n-lܮc v Phi-n tm xa c kh-nng tn cng ti Si-Gn, Hi-qun khng-chi‰n v TiŠm-thy-nh nguyn-t e d†a sut t Mng-Cy ‰n vnh Ph-Quc. Hi-Nam, Hong-Sa cng Trܩng-Sa l cn-c xut-pht v y‹m-tr cc loi chi‰n-hm.

Ta hy lm mt cuc so snh ‹ š-thc ܮc tm quan-tr†ng vŠ viŒc phng-th hi-bin: Cho d b phong-ta h‰t bin-gii lc-a pha Bc v pha Ty, khng ܮc trao ǰi hng-ha vi Ai-lao v vi c Khmer, quc-gia ta vn khng th‹ b bp nght vŠ kinh-t‰. Nhng n‰u b phong-ta b bi‹n th chng nhng khng cn ngoi-thng m ngay c chuy‹n-vn ܩng bi‹n Bc-Nam ‹ iŠu-ha nhu-y‰u phm trong nܧc cng h‰t... Vy c khc chi trong "c-th‹ ViŒt-Nam, mu huy‰t lc chy, lc khng.

Th rng chng ta sng ti‰t-kiŒm ‹ tng-cܩng hi-qun vi y kh-nng hi-chi‰n v khng-chi‰n ngoi khi cn hn ch Ǯi ‰n mt ngy no , c nܧc chu ch‰t ngt hay ch‰t i mt cch nhc nh v b bao vy.

Khng bao lu na, Trung-Hoa s kh-nng thc-hiŒn ci g†ng km nh vy. Ngay khi h† s-hu ܮc cc Ƕi oanh-tc-c chi‰n-lܮc, mua ni hng-khng mu-hm, trang-b y- mt hm-Ƕi vin-duyn; bn tay xm-lܮc ca h† s di v k th truyŠn-ki‰p ca chng ta s lng lng tr li, p-ǥt nhng ci ch nng nŠ ln u ln c ng-bo chng ta.

7.2 - Tng-qut vŠ cc o ven bi‹n ViŒt-Nam.

B bi‹n ViŒt-Nam di trn 5,000 km. D†c b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam c ‰n trn 2 ngn 5 trm o. C nhng o nm n Ƕc nhng cng c nhiŠu o nm chung vi nhau trong cc qun-o. Nhng i‹m ng ni vŠ cc o ca nܧc ta ܮc tm g†n trong vi on nh nh sau:

- o ln nht l Ph-Quc trong vnh Thi-Lan rng 568 km2, o ln th nh l Ct B trong vnh Bc-ViŒt rng 277 km2. Cc o nh nht ch nh nhng hn nm gia bi‹n khi.

- o c ni cao nht l Ph-Quc vi ni Cha cao 603 m. Mt s o ch nh ln khi nܧc thy-triŠu xung v b nܧc bao-ph khi thy-triŠu dng ln cao. C nhng b bi nng cn mp m mt bi‹n rt kh nhn bi‰t v nguy-hi‹m cho viŒc hi-hnh.

- Hn Tro b‡ng ni ln ri cht bi‰n mt.

Nm 1923, ti pha nam vng C-lao Thu hay o Ph-Quš (Phan-R) 22 hi-lš, o Hn Tro v mt hn o thp nh hn Ƕt nhin tr ln khi mt bi‹n. Hn Tro cao ti 30 thܧc ty, hn kia chng 3,4 tc. Trong vng vi ba thng sau, c hai bi‰n mt. S d ngܩi ta g†i tn Hn Tro v o ܮc to-lp bi tro bi v dung-nham ca mt ni la ngm phun ln. Sau o b sng gi soi mn v dng nܧc cun tri.

Hnh 43- Du-tch Hn Tro trn hi- quc-t‰.

Trong cc hi- ngy nay, nhng ngܩi i bi‹n thܩng †c ܮc cc li ku g†i cnh-gic tng-t nh "cn thn-tr†ng khi hi-hnh v nhiŠu xo-trn a-chn" trong vng. Ti hai v-tr (10 Ƕ 10 pht Bc V-tuy‰n, 109 Ƕ 00 ng Kinh-tuy‰n) v (10 Ƕ 08 pht Bc V-tuy‰n, 109 Ƕ 01 ng Kinh-tuy‰n), hi- s 3148 ca S Thy-o Hoa-K ghi ch hai cu: "ni la hot-Ƕng 97 ft- 1923" v "ni la hot-Ƕng 1 ft- 1923"

- Qun-o H-Long c ti 2156 hn o to nh c, ni ti‰ng l mt k-quan th‰-gii v v p thin-nhin. DiŒn-tch vng bi‹n ch vo khong 3,000 km2, tc nh hp hn Trܩng-Sa v Hong-Sa rt nhiŠu, nhng ng k‹ l chi cht rt nhiŠu o .

Hnh 44 - Mt hnh v cnh vnh H-Long vo cui th‰-k› 19 vi hm-Ƕi ca -c Courbet ang b neo.

Trn a-cu t ni no m a-hnh li hi‹m tr nh vy. Cc o H-Long v cu-to bng vi, nn d b nܧc gi xm-thc, to nn nhng hnh-th k-d. Vng bi‹n ny c nhiŠu vnh nh, nhiŠu vng. Cao-Ƕ ca o v thm-Ƕ ca bi‹n Ƕt-bi‰n bt-thܩng, c ni sܩn ni dng ng, c ni bi ct phng phiu, hang Ƕng thm su, ghŠng ln xung; t nhum mu sc ca cy c ni non bi‹n tri. Mt nܧc ch‡ lng nh gng, ch‡ sng bc u cn ni ln trng xa ...

- o ViŒt-Nam cung-cp nhiŠu sn-phm quš m t ai ng ti.

*Y‰n, bo-ng, vi-c, hi-sm l nhng thc-phm ǡt gi nht ‰n t cc o vng -Nng, Nha-Trang, Bch-long-V, Ph-quc. Ng†c trai ni ti‰ng ca o C-t. G‡ quš m†c trn cc o ln khp ni vng vnh Bc-ViŒt. Nܧc mm, h tiu, c tm, i mi, s huy‰t, c quš ...mun ǩi vn l nhng ngun phm-vt khng th‹ thi‰u ܮc trong ǩi sng dn ViŒt-Nam ta.

*u th‰-k› ny chng ta pht-hiŒn v bt u khai-thc mt kho tng quš-gi ca cc hi-o l pht-pht. Cng viŒc ang mang ‰n li-nhun to ln th b ngng trŒ v nn xm-lng ca Trung-Cng.

*Phn ti-nguyn quan-tr†ng hn h‰t tuy vy, li nm dܧi y bi‹n. D s lܮng du m v kh t cha ܮc nh gi y , nhng mt s c-quan quc-t‰ vŠ du la qu-quy‰t rng mt khi khai-thc y , tiŠn bc thu vŠ ܮc c th‹ tng-ng vi mt na tng-s sn-lܮng quc-gia trong tnh-trng thu-nhp y‰u km nh hiŒn nay.

Ti-nguyn phong-ph ny gy thm mun cho cc nܧc lng giŠng. K ang nhm ng k lܫng nht chc chn s bi‰n thnh k‹ th ng s nht: Trung-Cng.

 

8 - Bi‹n v o theo Lut bi‹n quc-t‰.

Nhng on sau y bn vŠ ranh-gii hi-phn trn Bi‹n ng theo vi Lut Bi‹n hiŒn-hnh.

8.1 - Quan-niŒm c mi vŠ lnh-hi.

Lš-l "lnh-hi rng 3 hi-lš v tm sng i-bc" ca cc th‰-k› trܧc y ang i dn vo qun lng. Thi y, ngoi vng bi‹n ch-quyŠn nh hp tr ra khi, quc-gia duyn-hi khi lo lng phn trch-nhiŒm.

Vo cui th‰-k› XX c nhiŠu iŠu ǰi thay khc l vŠ viŒc hnh-s ch-quyŠn trn bi‹n. V nhu-cu sinh-tn i-hi nhiŠu quc-gia duyn-hi ban-hnh nhng lut mi vŠ hi-phn theo š ring nܧc h†.

Nhn thy khu-vc 3 hi-lš qu thc l vng bi‹n qu cht hp, nhiŠu nܧc tuyn-co nhng bin-gii lnh-hi rng ln khc thܩng. C 12 quc-gia nhn ch-quyŠn lnh-hi ti 200 hl ngoi khi, tnh ‰n ngy 1 thng 2 nm 1992.

8.2 - Lut Bi‹n LHQ, mt š-thc mi vŠ trt-t trn bi‹n.

c-biŒt v š-thc ܮc s cn-thi‰t phi c mt nŠn trt-t chung trn i-dng cho nhn-loi, nhiŠu quc-gia ng-š cng nhau a ra mt d-n qun-tr bi‹n c ton-cu. Sau 15 nm c gng lm viŒc ca nhiŠu c-quan quc-t‰, gp nhiŠu kh khn vŠ thng-thuy‰t, d-tho Lut Bi‹n ca Lin-hiŒp-Quc sau ba ln i-hi, ܮc ra ǩi vo nm 1982.

Trong niŠm hy-v†ng nhng tt p trn bi‹n c s ‰n vi nhn-loi, cc lut-gia John R. Stevenson v Bernard H. Oxman th pho nh nhm khi vi‰t rng: "Tt c nhng c-gng trܧc y trong sut c th‰-k› ‹ a ton-th‹ th‰-gii ngi li vi nhau trong mt s ng-š vng-chc vŠ bi‹n c tan v. Tha-ܧc Lin-hiŒp-Quc vŠ Lut Bi‹n l iŠu cn-kŠ nht m loi ngܩi chng ta c th‹ ti‰n ‰n vi nhau. Mc-tiu nay ang trong tm tay". (The Future of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, trong The American Journal of International Law, Vol. 88, July 1994: 488-499.)

Tha-ܧc "United Nations Convention on the Law of Sea", vi‰t tt l UNCLOS hay LOS Convention, cng-b ngy 10-12-1982 ti Montego Bay, Jamaica ܮc 159 quc-gia kš-nhn (signatures) v nh tin-liŒu, c 60 quc-gia duyŒt-y (ratification.) K‹ t ngy 16-11-1994, tha-ܧc UNCLOS tr thnh lut v ܮc mang ra thi-hnh.

Ni-dung ca tha-ܧc rt lš-tܪng nh cho rng "Bi‹n c l ti-sn chung ca Nhn-Loi". S thi-hnh Lut Bi‹n li da hon-ton trn tinh-thn thiŒn-ch ca m†i quc-gia trn th‰-gii. C nhiŠu iŠu-lut cn-thi‰t cn thi‰u st. Mt s iŠu cha ܮc trnh-by r rng hay khng ph-hp vi thc-t‰ s dn dn ܮc cc c-quan lut-php nghin-cu, Š-ngh iŠn-khuy‰t hay tu-chnh nh tng ܮc lm t my chc nm qua ...

Cc nܧc ng-Nam- quanh vng Bi‹n ng Šu l hi-vin LHQ., cng kš-k‰t thi-hnh Lut Bi‹n. Tr ra nܧc Tu t xa vn ngoan-c, nay li cha chp-nhn viŒc thi-hnh. ‹ cho tnh-trng thm phn cng thng, Trung-Cng ban-hnh Lut Lnh-hi 1992 ring cho h†. Lut ny ngn chn viŒc thi-hnh Lut Bi‹n LHQ vŠ ch-quyŠn hi-phn ca nhng quc-gia duyn-hi bng cch tuyn-co mt cch trng tro : Bi‹n ng l ni-hi hay lnh-hi Trung-Hoa.

Tuy vy, a-s gii lut-gia tin-tܪng rng nh s lܮng "a-s p-o" cc quc-gia kš-nhn, ri ra Lut Bi‹n s ܮc ton-th‹ cng-ng nhn-loi tn-tr†ng v thi-hnh hu mang li ha-bnh trn bi‹n.

S mong ܧc ny xem ra c v l mt hoi-v†ng qu ng chng ?!

8.3 - Lnh-th v lnh-hi.

H†c a-lš, chng ta bi‰t rng diŒn-tch lnh-th nܧc ViŒt-Nam o ܮc 329,600 km2. Ngoi lnh-th , mt khu-vc trn bi‹n t b tr ra khi 12 hi-lš (hl) ܮc nhn l lnh-hi (territorial waters.) Ch-quyŠn quc-gia trn lnh-hi ging nh ch-quyŠn trn lnh-th. Vo nm 1964, chnh-quyŠn cng-sn ViŒt-Nam tuyn-b lnh-hi 12 hl.

Ngy nay, chng ta cn bi‰t thm vŠ mt vng hi-phn rng ln hn na ngoi bi‹n thuc ch-quyŠn khai-thc ca dn ViŒt-Nam ta: Khu-vc Bi‹n Kinh-t‰ c-quyŠn 200 hi-lš m danh-t Lut Bi‹n g†i l Exclusive Economic Zone- EEZ.

Vo ngy 12-5-1977, Chnh-quyŠn CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam ra tuyn-co nhng hi-phn nh sau:

- 12 hl lnh-hi

- 12 hl vng cn-hi pha ngoi lnh-hi

- 200 hl vng bi‹n kinh-t‰ tnh t ngoi ܩng cn-bn lnh-hi (200NM from territorial waters base line.)

ViŒt-Nam l quc-gia c ܩng duyn-hi kh di (5,237 cy s), t›-lŒ b bi‹n/ diŒn-tch lnh-th hn 1 phn trm. Trong khi , Trung-Cng c rt t b bi‹n, t›-lŒ ch t ti 1.5 phn ngn m thi

Theo Lut-s Mark J. Valencia, ViŒt-Nam ܧc-lܮng vng EEZ rng ti 210,600 dm vung (square nautical-mile) tri di ra trn Bi‹n ng. DiŒn-tch ny tnh ra 722,338 km2, tc rng hn hai ln t liŠn, (225% so vi lnh-th.)

Hnh 45- Theo bng liŒt-k ny, ViŒt-Nam c chiŠu di b bi‹n 2,828 hi-lš (tc 5,237 km, hi-phn EEZ rng 210,600 hl vung, khng thua Trung-Cng bao nhiu.

D-tho Lut Bi‹n Lin-hiŒp-Quc (United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea - UNCLOS hay LOSC) quy-nh rng hi-phn dnh cho quc-gia duyn hi qun-tr v hi-o cng c nhng hi-phn nh t liŠn. Ti Bi‹n ng, nܧc no c ch-quyŠn trn cc o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa s ܮc s-hu nhng ti-nguyn trong cc hi-phn lin-hŒ. Nhng vng bi‹n nh vy rt to ln, ǥc-biŒt li nm trong khu-vc c nhiŠu tiŠm-nng du-kh.

i vi ViŒt-Nam, ǥt gi-s n‰u ta ki‹m-sot tr†n-vn c Hong-Sa ln Trܩng-Sa, hi-phn khai-thc kinh-t‰ (EEZ) ca quc-gia ta s ln gp 4, 5 ln lnh-th hiŒn-thi trong lc-a. Ti-nguyn dܧi bi‹n n‰u khai-thc h‰t, c l nhiŠu hn sn-lܮng thu-t trn t liŠn.

8.4 - ThŠm lc-a v EEZ.

Trong nhng danh-t thܩng dng ca Lut Bi‹n ngy nay, ngܩi ta cn ni ‰n "ThŠm lc-a" (Continental Shelf.) Trܧc h‰t, quan-niŒm ny pht-sinh khi kho-st b bi‹n trn th‰-gii, ngܩi ta thy y bi‹n thܩng thoai-thoi t b ra khi mt khong xa, ty ni c th‹ t vi chc hi-lš cho ‰n hng trm hi-lš; ri Ƕt nhin, y bi‹n dc su hn xung trܧc khi chy ti‰p ra ngoi lng i-dng. Hnh-dng phn y bi‹n thoai thoi st b ging nh ci nŠn ca lc-a.

Hnh 46- Quan-niŒm a-lš vŠ thŠm lc-a

V ch-quyŠn thŠm lc-a i vi cc quc-gia duyn-hi cng nh ch-quyŠn ci nŠn nh i vi ngܩi ch ca ci nh, cc quc-gia thܩng khng ng-š vi nhau vŠ ranh-gii ny. Tng-qut c hai khuynh-hܧng :

1-Dng Ƕ su y bi‹n.

Theo khuynh-hܧng ny thŠm lc-a nm trong khu-vc c Ƕ su nܧc bi‹n ti 200m.

Hnh 47 - Bi‹n ng, thi‰t- y bi‹n v thŠm lc-a (200m.) T b ViŒt-Nam, y bi‹n chy thoai-thoi ra khi. (Hnh ca Nguyn-Khc-Ng 1981.)

Trܩng-hp dng ܩng ng-thm 200m ny cho ViŒt-Nam, chng ta thy:

*V y bi‹n nng, thŠm lc-a Bc-phn nܧc ta rt ln, chon ra khp vnh Bc-ViŒt. Ÿ y, viŒc phn chia thŠm lc-a gia ViŒt-Nam v Trung-Hoa ang trong vng tranh-chp. ViŒt-Nam mun gi ܩng Brvi (Kinh-tuy‰n 108.03'ng) l tha-hiŒp kš t nm 1887 gia Php, lc ang bo-h ViŒt-Nam v nh Mn-Thanh, lc ang cai-tr ton ci Trung-Hoa. Cn Trung-Cng mun chia vnh Bc-ViŒt theo ܩng trung-tuy‰n gia nhng b bi‹n nhng li khng chu k‹ Bch-long-V l mt hn o.

Hnh 48 - Vng tranh-chp hi-phn trong vnh Bc-ViŒt. ViŒt-Nam mun: hoc theo ܩng Brvi.(KT 108 Ƕ.03' ng) hoc ly trung-tuy‰n hai o Bch-long-V v Hi-Nam. Trung-Cng khng ng-š c hai, ch mun ln vo st t ViŒt-Nam.

*Ÿ miŠn Trung, thŠm lc-a nh hp. c-biŒt ti Mi Varella, v y bi‹n Ƕt-nhin su hn xung nn thŠm lc-a khng rng qu 40 km.

*Cng vŠ Nam, bi‹n cng tr nn nng cn v thŠm lc-a nܧc ta li rng ra rt nhiŠu. Ngoi khi ng-ng-Nam, cch Vng-Tu 200km qua khi bi ng-Sn, gn bi T-Chnh chiŠu su y bi‹n mi bt u xung qu 200m. K‹ t khu ny vng qua Ph-Quc, bi‹n rt nng v ton th‹ khu-vc vnh Thi-Lan bao quanh bi ViŒt-Nam, Kampuchia, Thi-Lan, M-lai-, Nam-Dng tr thnh thŠm lc-a ca cc quc-gia ven bi‹n.

Cch xc-nh thŠm lc-i theo chiŠu su y bi‹n 200m ny b hu h‰t cc quc-gia duyn-hi bc b.

 

2 - Dng khong cch 200hl tnh t b.

C nhng quc-gia duyn-hi tuyn-co chiŠu rng thŠm lc-a ring cho h†. Theo nhu-cu quc-gia, nhiŠu chnh-quyŠn ra tuyn-co vŠ chiŠu rng thŠm lc-a. Ranh-gii 200 hi-lš hiŒn ang ܮc nhiŠu quc-gia chp-nhn. ViŒt-Nam c th‹ ܮc k‹ l mt trong nhng quc-gia ny. ThŠm lc-a ViŒt-Nam thng-thܩng ܮc chnh-quyŠn ng-thi ng-ha vi vng hi-phn ch-quyŠn kinh-t‰ EEZ 200hl.

8.5 - ܩng cn-bn duyn-hi v Ni-hi.

Trܧc y nm ba thp-nin, phn ln cc quc-gia duyn-hi thܩng ly lnh-hi l 3hl. C ti 45 nܧc nhn nhn ranh-gii ny, tnh vo ngy 1-1-1958.

Ngy nay, hu h‰t cc nܧc tuyn-co lnh-hi 12hl v mt vng ti‰p-cn- Continguous Sea- 12 hl pha ngoi lnh-hi . Khong rng ܮc tnh t b bi‹n hay b o lc nܧc rng st.

B bi‹n v b o thܩng lm chm, ch‡ li ch‡ lm. Cc ܩng ranh gii v vy rt ngon ngoo phc-tp. ‹ gii-quy‰t vn-Š chung cho cc quc-gia duyn-hi hay qun-o, mt s ng-š ܮc a vo Lut Bi‹n LHQ. cho php nhng nܧc ܮc v ܩng thng cn-bn (Baselines) ni liŠn nhng mi t v o.

Hnh 49 - LHQ. cng-b hnh v ny nh tiu-bi‹u cho cch-thc v nhng ܩng cn-bn duyn-hi. Lu-š ‰n khong cch chun 12 hi-lš.

Theo cc chuyn-gia vŠ Lut Bi‹n, ܩng cn-bn ܮc dng lm "cn-bn" cho ch-quyŠn lnh-hi nn chnh-quyŠn cc nܧc duyn-hi cn tho ra cho sm v cho chnh-xc!

Vo ngy 12-11-1982, ViŒt-Nam cng b mt s ܩng cn-bn (m h† g†i l ܩng c-s) t o Cn C ‰n Poulo Wai. Cc ܩng cn-bn trong vnh Bc-ViŒt, vnh Thi-Lan, cng cc qun-o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa, v ang trong vng tranh-chp nn cha ܮc v.

Vi quc-gia lng giŠng v c nhng nܧc ln nh Hoa-K ln ti‰ng phn-i ViŒt-Nam. H† cho rng nhng ܩng ny l khng hp-lŒ v rng ViŒt-Nam tuyn-b mt vng ni-hi ln lao mt cch qu ng. Cc lut-gia ViŒn ng-Ty ti Hawai nhn-xt: "C nhiŠu ni, ܩng ny nm qu xa b lc-a hay c ni ܩng cn-bn khng nht-thi‰t phi i qu xa ngoi khi v b bi‹n pha bn trong rt phng-phiu".

Hnh 50 - Nhng ܩng cn-bn (baselines) ca duyn-hi ViŒt-Nam tuyn-b ngy 12-11-1982. Ni-hi ViŒt-Nam gm hai khu-vc ranh-gii lich-s trong vnh Bc-ViŒt, vnh Thi-Lan v khu-vc bi‹n nm bn trong nhng ܩng cn-bn.

T khi ܩng cn-bn ܮc n-nh, ranh gii lnh-hi v nhng hi-phn lin-hŒ ‰n ch-quyŠn quc-gia trn bi‹n b thay ǰi h‰t. Trܩng-hp ViŒt-Nam, theo lut gia Kriangsak Kittichaisariee, n‰u ch k‹ bn on (162, 161, 149 v 105 hl) trong 10 on thng cn bn (di tng-cng 850hl), ni hi (internal waters) ViŒt-Nam cng chi‰m ti 27,000 dm vung. (Law of the Sea and Maritime Boundary Delimitation in South-East Asia, Oxford University Press, 1992: 16-17.) ܩng cn-bn nh vy lm gia-tng diŒn-tch nhng khu-vc thuc ch-quyŠn quc-gia ln rt nhiŠu.

Hai lut-gia Mark J. Valencia v Jon M. Van Dyke, sau khi bn-lun ‰n nhng li-i‹m ca ViŒt-Nam trong viŒc kš-nhn thi-hnh Lut Bi‹n LHQ., cng khuy‰n-co ViŒt-Nam nn tu-chnh lnh-hi lch-s (historic waters) v thu bt phn ni-hi bng cch duyŒt li cc ܩng cn-bn baselines. (Vietnam's National Interests and the Law of the Sea, trong Ocean Development and International Law, Vol.25, Apr/Jun 1994: 217-250.)

Trn quan-i‹m ca chnh-quyŠn CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam, nhng ܩng cn-bn v ng theo Lut Bi‹n LHQ. Cc lš-do ܮc nu ra c th‹ tm tt nh sau:

- Nhng on thng trong khu-vc t v-Ƕ 11.00N ‰n 14.00N ph-hp vi iŠu 7(1) quy-nh viŒc xc-nh ܩng cn-bn qua nhng hn o nm ngoi vng b bi‹n khc-khu›u, b n su vo t liŠn Trung-ViŒt.

- Nhng on cn li ph-hp vi iŠu 7(5) quy-nh cc ܩng thng cn-bn cho khu-vc bi‹n c quyŠn-li kinh-t‰ ǥc-biŒt v hi‹n-nhin ܮc dn-c ViŒt-Nam s-dng t lu ǩi. (Vietnam: Fisheries and Navigation Policies and Issues, Mark J. Valencia, trong Ocean Development and International of Law, Vol.21, 1990, pp 431-445.)

N‰u ViŒt-Nam c gi vng lp-trܩng ‹ quy‰t nm ch-quyŠn phn "ni-hi" hay lnh-hi rng ln, LHQ. s phi tm cch phn-x.

8.6 - ThŠm lc-a ko di v ܩng trung-tuy‰n.

Bi‹n ViŒt-Nam l s ni-ti‰p a-hnh t liŠn chy di ra bi‹n. ViŒt-Nam c ܮc ǥc-quyŠn tuyn-b chiŠu rng thŠm lc-a v hi-phn kinh-t‰ cho ti 350 hi-lš (Vietnam's National Interests and the Law of the Sea, Mark J. Valentcia & Jon van Dyke, trong Ocean Development and International Law, Apr/ Jun 1994: 228-229.)

Tnh chung cng li mt cch ti-thi‹u, ViŒt-Nam rt c c-hi s-hu t nht mt hi-phn kinh-t‰ ngoi bi‹n rng gp ba ln lnh-th trn t liŠn, cho d rng nܧc ta khng gi ܮc ton vn tt c Trܩng-Sa cng nh khng phc-hi li ܮc qun-o Hong-Sa.

Hnh 51- Khu-vc tranh-chp ViŒt-Nam vi Nam-Dng v M-lai-. Hnh nh v khu y bi‹n su pha Bc o Natuna.

C nhng lš-l tranh ci khc nhau vŠ ch-quyŠn thŠm lc-a v hi-phn kinh-t‰ ni nhng vng bi‹n nhiŠu quc-gia giao-ti‰p nh vy. Tranh-chp l t c th‹ dn ‰n chi‰n-tranh. Trong nhiŠu trܩng-hp, cc nܧc thܩng bn ci ‰n ranh-gii l ܩng Trung-tuy‰n (Meridian.) ܩng ny chy gia hai ܩng cn-bn ca b bi‹n, gia hai hn o hay gia b bi‹n nܧc ny v hn o nܧc kia, gia cc ܩng cn bn, o, b... ty trܩng-hp lš-lun trong thng-tho.

V ViŒt-Nam trong trܩng-hp c u-th‰ v thŠm lc-a ko di, ViŒt-Nam i hi cc nܧc lng giŠng phn-chia sao cho hp-lš nh Vnh Bc-ViŒt v vng thŠm lc-a Sunda, pha Bc o Natuna.

ViŒt-Nam v Nam-Dng khng tha-thun ܮc vi nhau vŠ ܩng ranh-gii ny. Nam-Dng mun chia hi-phn theo ܩng trung-tuy‰n gia o Natuna v b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam, cn ViŒt-Nam ly lš-l y bi‹n su vŠ pha Nam-Dng nn phi ly trung-tuy‰n ca b bi‹n Nam-Dng v ܩng cn-bn baseline ViŒt-Nam.

8.7 - Cc nܧc ln v Lut Bi‹n.

NhiŠu cܩng-quc khng va lng vi Lut Bi‹n LHQ, hi-qun ca h† mun ܮc t-do hi-hnh khp ni theo š h† mun. Tuy vy, cha c s chng-i, cn-tr no ng g†i l quy‰t-liŒt.

8.7.1 - Hoa-K. N‰u ni ‰n cܩng-quc mnh nht vŠ hi-lc hiŒn nay, ngܩi ta phi ni ‰n Hoa-K. K‹ t khi i-th ng n‹ ca h† l Lin-bang S-Vi‰t tan r, lc-lܮng Hoa-K trn bi‹n gi vai tr Ƕc-b, ang tung-honh khp mt i-dng. V Hoa-K lun lun c-v cho s t-do hi-hnh nn h† vn ng ra ngoi nhng n‡-lc ca cc quc-gia khc mun ti‰n ti mt mt Lut Bi‹n ton-cu. Hu h‰t nhng tuyn-co ni rng hi-phn ca cc quc-gia khc trn th‰-gii Šu b Hoa-K phn-i. CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam cng my ln nhn giy t ngoi-giao ca Hoa-K gi ‰n t š chng-bng nh vy.

Trong mt k‰-hoch ton-cu mi nht vŠ hp-tc quc-t‰ cng nhau khai-thc cc vng bi‹n su, LHQ. phi i u vi s bt-hp-tc ca Hoa-K. V M l nܧc c kh-nng ln nht vŠ lnh-vc ny nn LHQ. phi c-gng rt nhiŠu trong viŒc thuy‰t-phc. Tin-tc mi nht cho hay Hoa-K bt lnh nht v ng š s tham-gia.

Tin mi y cho bi‰t Tng-Thng Clinton thun viŒc thi-hnh Lut Bi‹n quc-t‰, gi vn-th qua Quc-Hi ‹ ch ly quy‰t-nh ca Lp-Php (Comment: The United States and the Law of the Sea, George Galdorisi, trong "Ocean Development and International Law, Vol 26, No 1, 1995, pp 75-83.)

Phi cn mt thi-gian mi c th‹ bi‰t ܮc s ng gp thc-s ca Hoa-K ra sao trong viŒc thi-hnh Lut Bi‹n.

8.7.2 - Trung-Cng. Trung-Cng l mt trܩng-hp ngoi-lŒ tht k-d. Quc-gia ny mc d l hi-vin Lin-hiŒp-quc nhng li bt-chp cng-php quc-t‰ cng nh khng tun theo cc ngh-quy‰t ca hi-ng Lin-hiŒp-quc vŠ Lut Bi‹n.

Khng cn cn-c php-lš, Trung-Cng nhn ch-quyŠn ton-th‹ Bi‹n ng. Ranh gii vng "Lܫi Rng" ca h† st b bi‹n Trung-ViŒt (cch C-lao R 40 hl) xung Indonesia qua st M-Lai- (cch Borneo 25 hl) vng ln st Phi-lut-Tn (cch Palawan 25 hl.) Trung-Cng v i-Loan, tuy khng phi l cc quc-gia ng-Nam-, cng ng trn mt lš-l, cng s-dng mt tm bn- vi ܩng "ranh gii lch-s nܧc Tu " ln su xung gn h‰t bi‹n ng-Nam-. Trung-Hoa Dn-Quc t-š v ra nhng ܩng ranh-gii ny t nm 1947.

Chnh-s Trung-Hoa cha bao gi ghi-chp viŒc qun-Ƕi ca h† chi‰m-ng Hong-Sa/ Trܩng-Sa. a-d ch nܧc Tu cng chng bao gi vi‰t rng nܧc Trung-Hoa pha Nam gip Nam-Dng, M-Lai- ... Vy m ngܩi Trung-Hoa thi nay gim cho rng lch-s l mt y‰u-t chnh lm cn-bn cho ch-quyŠn nܧc Tu trn ton-th‹ Bi‹n ng.

Hnh 52 - Khu-vc ranh-gii lch-s "Lܫi Rng" ca Trung-Cng chi‰m gn tr†n Bi‹n ng.

Khi Š-cp ‰n s tham-lam v ngoan-c nhn liŠu hi-phn mt cch v-li ca hai nܧc Trung-Hoa Lc-a v i-loan nh vy, Lut-gia chuyn vŠ hi-dng Mark J. Valencia nhn-nh: "Khng c mt nguyn-lš no trong lut-php quc-t‰ thi hiŒn-i cho php mt ki‹u lš-lun nh th‰ !".

Trung-Cng coi "Nam-Hi" khng nhng l vng bi‹n nh c (Exclusive Fishery Zone), vng bi‹n kinh-t‰ (Exclusive Economic Zone) ca Trung-Cng m cn mc-nhin nhn nh ni-hi (Inner Sea), lnh-hi ring (Territorial Sea) hay ci vܩn sau (Back Yard) ca h† vy.

Mt khi hi-qun ca Trung-Cng mnh ‹ ki‹m sot mt bi‹n v hnh-s ch-quyŠn theo tham-v†ng ca h† th m†i hot-Ƕng thng-mai, kinh-t‰ ca cc nܧc ng-Nam- trn Bi‹n ng b bp nght. Cc nܧc khc trn th‰-gii ri y cng s b ngn cn vŠ c hai ܩng hng-hi ln hng-khng.

9 - Lut bi‹n LHQ. v bi‹n ng.

Trong khi p-dng Lut Bi‹n Quc-t‰ cho Bi‹n ng, m‡i nܧc duyn-hi trong vng suy-lun theo cch-thc ring-biŒt c li cho h†. S tranh-chp ca nhiŠu nܧc vŠ ch-quyŠn trn cc o Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa, ngoi c-nguy ng-Ƕ qun-s trn bi‹n, cn li ko theo nhiŠu tranh-lun rc ri vŠ lut-lŒ.

9.1 - ViŒt-Nam v Lut Bi‹n.

ViŒt-Nam cng vi 159 nܧc trn th‰-gii (tnh ‰n u nm 1993) kš-duyŒt bn d-tho Lut Bi‹n 1982 ca Lin-hiŒp-Quc. Thng 7/1994, ViŒt-Nam li kš tn vo danh-sch cc quc-gia t-nguyŒn chp-hnh lut quc-t‰ ny. D-lut ny ch i hi 60 quc-gia kš-nhn ‹ mang ra thi-hnh. HiŒn nay trong s 60 quc-gia u tin kš-k‰t c nhiŠu nܧc ln nh Brazil, Ai-Cp, Nam-Dng, M-ty-c... Ngy 16/11/1994 l ngy tha-ܧc c hiŒu-lc thi-hnh (enter into force.)

ViŒc CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam chp-nhn Tha-ܧc vŠ Bi‹n-C Quc-t‰ to ܮc ti-thi‹u mt s an-tm vŠ lš-thuy‰t. c-biŒt ViŒt-Nam cng tm ra mt v-th‰ thun-li trn trܩng ngoi-giao khi tranh-chp vi Trung-Cng.

Theo s ܧc-tnh ca cc gii thng-tho, mun lm hi-vin ca T-chc Lut Bi‹n LHQ, ViŒt-Nam s phi thi-hnh mt s trch v nh sau:

- ng gp tiŠn bc vo Qu ca T-chc cho chi-ph hot-Ƕng, c l khong 60 triŒu dollars cho lc u v khong 8.5 triŒu dollars thܩng nin. Trong hiŒn-tnh, ViŒt-Nam ܮc d-tr ng gp chng 3% ngn-qu ca LHQ .

- Thu nh nhng vng ni-hi, sa li ܩng cn-bn duyn-hi, v nhng vng lnh-hi, cn-hi, ch-quyŠn kinh-t‰ mi sao cho ph-hp vi Lut Bi‹n.

- Sa li lut-lŒ vŠ giao-thng trn bi‹n, cho php s thng-qu v-t (innocent passage) cc loi thng-thuyŠn v chi‰n-hm v.v... theo ng vi s quy-nh quc-t‰

- Tham-d vo cc chng-trnh lin-hŒ ca Lut Bi‹n nh ng-nghiŒp, bo-vŒ mi-sinh, chng -nhim, cu ngܩi trn bi‹n, truy-diŒt ma-ty bun lu, nghin-cu khoa-h†c...(Vietnam's national Interests and the Law of the Sea, Mark J. Valencia &Jon M. Van Dyke, trong bo Ocean Development and International Law, Vol.25, pp 217-250.)

9.2 - Trܩng-hp cc o Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa.

Trong ti‰n-trnh i ti mt Lut Bi‹n hon-b cho ton-cu, cc c-cu lut-php quc-t‰ ln u tin s phi i u vi mt vn-Š mi kh khn v t‰-nh vŠ ch-quyŠn trn cc hn san-h t-hon ca Bi‹n ng. Xin nu mt vi th-d:

- o theo nguyn-nghi phi l do thin-nhin to ra. ‰n nay, vn cha ai hi‹u ܮc lut quc-t‰ phi lm sao ‹ truy-tm v gii-quy‰t trܩng-hp o xy ln bng cch "nhn-to".

- Lut Bi‹n vn cha xc-nh ܮc s khc nhau gia o v Cn, n. Nhng "o" san-h thܩng ch nh nhng cn, n; hm nay ni mai chm. Trܩng-hp nh o Tro (vng hn Hai, C-lao Thu) n cao ln ti 30m mt thi-gian (cc o Trܩng-Sa ch cao chng 2m) ri tan theo tro bi cng kh gii-quy‰t.

Hnh 53- Mt tu hi-ng nh bn, n‰u cho nh chm xung bi‹n, c th‹ bi‰n thnh mt o nhn-to !?

- S kiŒn cng thm rc ri v vn-Š hp-php ca hi-ng trn cc bi ngm cng ܮc Lut Bi‹n Š-cp ti. Nm qua, CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam ra tuyn-co thi‰t-lp 10 hi-ng (?) ti qun-o Trܩng-Sa m mt chi‰c ǥt trn Lt l mt hn ngm (reef.)

Gi-s n‰u c nܧc mua mt tu hi-ng c em ‰n mt b bi ngm hay cn no ri cho chm xung, nܧc c th‹ chng-minh hp-php cho lnh-hi quc-gia 12hl v cho vng kinh-t‰ 200hl ca h† ܮc khng ?

- Qua nhng bc hnh cho cng-b my nm gn y, r rng l Trung-Cng mun xc-nhn ch quyŠn lnh-th, lnh-hi ngay ni ng ca ngܩi lnh Tu m nܧc ngp dܧi chn.

Lut-gia quc-t‰ ch nh lc u khng ni g ܮc vŠ s ngoan c "ki‹u Tu" nh vy!

Hnh 54 - Bia ch-quyŠn Trung-Cng ti mt hn ngm Trܩng-Sa.

C nhng lut-gia nh Jon M. Van Dyke v Dale L. Bennett cho rng tt c cc o Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa cha bao gi c dn-c sinh-sng thܩng-trc v cng cha bao gi c mt ǩi sng kinh-t‰ ring ca n (no economic life of their own) nn cng lm, cc o ch dng ‹ tnh lnh-hi 12 hl m thi. Hai ng ny Š-ngh: Trong Bi‹n ng cc y‰u-t nh chiŠu di b bi‹n ti‰p-cn, s lܮng c-dn vng duyn-hi, lch-trnh s-dng hi-sn nn ܮc dng lm cc mu cht chnh-y‰u ‹ xc-nh quyŠn s-hu hi-phn hn l s chi‰m-c (bng qun-s) nhng o, t-hon ny.

Lš-l Dyke v Bennett tuy vy li ngp ngng, khng vng v hai ng pht-bi‹u rng c l nn ‹ cho (mt mnh) o Ph-Lm ܮc hܪng phn no quyŠn s-hu hi-phn (EEZ) trong vng (Islands and the Delimitation of Ocean Space in the South China Sea, trong Ocean Yearbook 10, University of Chicago Press 1993: 54-89.)

Ging hŒt nh Ph-Lm, nhiŠu o khc trn Bi‹n ng cng c hng trm qun tr-phng sinh sng, vi c-s phi-qun-s nh i kh-tܮng, trm hi-ng. o ܮc khai-thc pht-pht bi cng-ty t-nhn. o l ni ngh chn khi hi-hnh. o cung- cp ngun ti‰p-liŒu, nh kho, sa cha, bo-tr ng-thuyŠn, ng-c ca thܩng-dn. Cc o nh Hong-Sa (Pattle) ca VNCH trܧc 1974, v cc o Trܩng-Sa, Nam-Y‰t, Song-t Ty, An-Bang... ngy nay ng ܮc k‹ l "o" khi da vo cc iŠu-lŒ ca Lut Bi‹n.

Trn bn thng-tho quc-t‰, khi i tm mt chi‰n-thut tranh-ci cho viŒc th-hܪng mt vng bi‹n kinh-t‰ rng ln no , ngܩi ta cn nghin-cu r tng trܩng-hp. Cn-c vo nhng h†a-, s hn thiŒt vŠ hi-phn c th‹ thy r. C nh trܩng-hp ViŒt-Nam trong hiŒn-tnh qun-s, ngoi-giao hiŒn-ti, viŒc chia ct lnh-hi theo quan niŒm "Bi‹n ng khng c o" c l em li mt vng ǥc-quyŠn kinh-t‰ EEZ ln nht m nܧc ta c th‹ ܮc hܪng .

VŠ phng-diŒn Lut Bi‹n LHQ, n‰u ng ring r, cc o ngoi khi Bi‹n ng diŒn-tch qu nh b v nm ri rc trn mt vng bi‹n qu rng; khng iŠu-kiŒn ‹ hܪng quy-ch‰ quc-gia qun-o (Archipelago State.) iŠu s 47 ca UNCLOS - Archipelagic Baselines quy-nh tng-s diŒn-tch t / bi‹n phi chi‰m trong khong t›-lŒ t 1/1 ti 1/9.

9.3 - Nhng ܩng ranh Bi‹n ng.

Tnh-trng ch-quyŠn ca cc quc-gia trn Bi‹n ng khng r rŒt lc ny. ViŒt-Nam, Trung-Cng v Trung-Hoa i-Loan cng nhn lm ch ton-th‹ Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa.

Hnh 55 - Bn- ghi cc v-tr chi‰m-ng qun-s Trܩng-Sa.

Ÿ Trܩng-Sa, ngoi qun-Ƕi ca ViŒt-Nam v hai nܧc Trung-Hoa, cn c lnh phng-th ca Phi-lut-Tn, M-lai- trn cc hi-o chen k nhau. Qun-o v nh mi bng bong khng cch g.

Trܩng-Sa c ti nhiŠu trm "n-v t " nhng ch c 26 o, cn, n v 7 hn ni thܩng-trc trn mt bi‹n. Theo nh cc tin-tc thu-thp ܮc qua bo-ch ti Hoa-K, tnh-trng hiŒn nay nh sau:

-ViŒt-Nam chi‰m ng nhiŠu ni nht, c th‹ ti 26 v-tr (?) m 14 c cao-Ƕ ܮc k‹ vŠ mt php-lš (3 o, 7 cn, 1 n, 3 .)

-Phi-lut-Tn chi‰m 8 v-tr Šu l "cao-a (5 o, 3 cn.)

-Trung-Cng chi‰m ti 9 v-tr, nhng ch c 2 "cao-a" (1o,1 .)

-M-lai- chi‰m 3 v-tr vi 2 "cao-a" (1 o, 1 .)

-i-Loan chi‰m 1 v-tr (1 o.)

-Cn li chng 6 "cao-a" (?) (4 o, 2 ) cha ai chi‰m-ng.

Theo mt s lut-gia, o (island), cn (cay), n (dune) c th‹ ܮc hܪng quy-ch‰ 200 hl hi-phn EEZ; cn th ch ܮc tnh 12 hl hi-phn ca lnh-hi m thi.

Nh ni trn, theo mt vi lut-gia vŠ bi‹n c; ViŒt-Nam l mt trong s cc quc-gia c th‹ viŒn-dn nhng lš-l hp-php ‹ ko di thŠm lc-i v hi-phn kinh-t‰ ra ti 350 hi-lš.

Khng ging nh trܩng-hp Phi-lut-Tn v Nam-Dng, b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam thoai-thoi tri di ra bi‹n khng c s ngn cch ca cc rnh bi‹n su (trench, trough) gn b nn s ni rng hi-phn hp-lš hn cc nܧc kia.

ܩng thm-thy ch‡ su nht ca y Bi‹n ng trong khi nm rt xa b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam, li nm tht gn vi cc nܧc Trung-Hoa, Phi-lut-Tn, M-lai-, Nam-Dng.

Tnh-trng y bi‹n cng r rŒt trong c hai vnh Bc-ViŒt v vnh Thi-Lan. Tuy vy lš-l ca ViŒt-Nam cha bao gi ܮc cc nܧc tranh-chp lin-hŒ chp-nhn.

Bn- ranh-gii ti vnh Bc-ViŒt ܮc trnh-by mt on trn. Dܧi y l hnh v m-t nhng vng tranh-chp ti vnh Thi-Lan.

Hnh 56 - Khu-vc tranh-chp hi-phn trong vnh Thi-Lan: ViŒt-Khmer pha ty-bc, ViŒt-Thi pha ty-nam.

Ti Bi‹n ng, tr ngi ln lao nht trong viŒc xc-nh ranh-gii l s Ƕc-on, ng-ngnh ca Trung-Cng v sau l i-Loan. Hai nܧc ny nhn ch-quyŠn ton-th‹ hai qun-o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa cng vi "ni-hi" chi‰m 80% Bi‹n ng. ViŒc thng-tho vi cc nܧc lng giŠng ng-Nam- phn no c v d dng hn.

Cho d khng th‹ i ‰n s xc-nh ܩng chia ct, cc dn-tc ng-Nam- cng c th‹ sng ho-hon vi nhau khng st mu. Tho-ܧc cng chung nhau khai-thc ti-nguyn mt vi vng bi‹n ܮc cc nܧc Nam-Dng, M-lai- thi-hnh. Mi y nht, ViŒt-Nam v M-lai- li ti‰n ܮc mt bܧc ln vŠ hp-tc tng-t nh vy. ViŒt-Nam cng ng-š d di i-phn vŠ viŒc thuyŠn Thi-Lan ܮc php nh c trong vi vng ViŒt-Nam vn ki‹m-sot cht ch xa nay.

Hnh 57 - Bng ghi-nhn chiŠu rng cc loi hi-phn ca nhng nܧc ng-Nam-.

Trung-Cng l mt quc-gia ng dn ti hng t› ngܩi, ܩng b bi‹n kh di (8890 hl) nhng diŒn-tch hi-phn kinh-t‰ EEZ li khng c bao nhiu (281,000 hl vung.)

Trung-Cng thm d v khai-thc cc gi‰ng du trn t, ngoi bi‹n t hn hai thp nin qua nn nm vng ܮc s tr-lܮng du kh. Theo cc nh nghin-cu quc-t‰ th Trung-Cng bi‰t r t nܧc ca h† khng cha nhiŠu du. Tnh-trng sn-xut du kh ca Trung-Hoa khng kh-quan nh trܧc y h† tng tin-on. Bi‹n ng chnh l ni h† thm mun vŠ c hai phng-diŒn kinh-t‰ v qun-s.

Vi tham-v†ng qu ln ca Trung-Cng, Bi‹n ng s cng tr nn sng gi. Khng ai c th‹ v ra ܮc bn- ranh-gii hi-phn trong tnh-hnh qu rc ri nh lc ny.

9.4 - Nhng hnh v hi-phn theo gi-thuy‰t.

‹ gin-d-ha vn-Š, chng ti xin trnh-by mt s bn- vi cc ܩng ranh gii hi-phn kinh-t‰ theo nhng gi-thuy‰t trong nhng trang dܧi y:

9.4.1 - Bn- tng-qut Bi‹n ng vi nhng vng hi-phn tranh-chp. Cc ranh-gii bao quanh i-Loan, Pratas, Hong-Sa, Trܩng-Sa trong gi-thuy‰t cc qun-o ny ng ring r Ƕc-lp.

Hnh 58 - Tng-qut Bi‹n ng.

9.4.2 - Hi-phn kinh-t‰ EEZ ca ViŒt-Nam trong hai gi-thuy‰t:

-ti thi‹u khi mt h‰t bi‹n cho Trung-Hoa v cc nܧc lng giŠng

-ti-a trong gi-thuy‰t ViŒt-Nam s-hu c hai qun-o Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa, v khng c s tranh chp hi-phn vi cc quc-gia ln-bang. Trܩng-hp ny VN s s-hu mt hi-phn gp 5,6 ln lnh-th.

Hnh 59 - Hi-phn ViŒt-Nam

9.4.3- Hi-phn kinh-t‰ EEZ ca Trung-Cng trong hai gi-thuy‰t:

-ti-thi‹u khi i-Loan ng Ƕc-lp v ViŒt-Nam ki‹m-sot c Hong-Sa ln Trܩng-Sa. Nܧc Tu vi dn-s gn 1/4 nhn-loi nhng hi-phn kinh-t‰ EEZ khng hn ViŒt-Nam bao nhiu.

-ti-a n‰u hon-thnh ܮc mng xm-lܮc, hi-phn vng Nam-Hi ca h† tng ln 5, 6 ln.

Hnh 60 - Hi-phn Trung-Cng

9.4.4 - Hi-phn EEZ ca cc nܧc ViŒt-Nam, Trung-Cng, i-Loan, Phi-Lut-Tn, M-Lai- & Brunei trn Bi‹n ng trong g-thuy‰t khng c cc qun-o Hong-Sa/ Trܩng-Sa.

Trung-Cng quy‰t-liŒt ngn-chn Š-ngh ny, cho d bng c biŒn-php bo-lc qun-s .

Hnh 61 - Hi-phn Bi‹n ng n‰u khng c Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa.

9.4.5 - Hi-phn EEZ ca ViŒt-Nam n‰u c o Tri-Tn. Tuy Tri-Tn ch cch b C-lao R c 121 hl. nhng vŠ ranh-gii EEZ, o ny chi‰m v-tr quan-tr†ng. o Tri-Tn k‰t-hp vi o Song-T Ty (CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam ang chi‰m-ng) cho ViŒt-Nam lš-l ‹ s-hu thm mt vng hi-phn rng ln, diŒn-tch sušt sot lnh-th trn lc-a.

Hnh 62 - V-tr o Tri-Tn trong Bi‹n ng tng-ng vi Song-T Ty trong viŒc phn-chia hi-phn.

10 - c-tnh chung ca cc o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa.

C nhiŠu i‹m ng ni vŠ cc o thuc Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa, ǥc-biŒt l vŠ cch cu-to a-cht.

10.1 - Cu-to a-cht.

Trܧc h‰t, chng ta duyŒt xt cc gi-thuy‰t cu-to v sau tm hi‹u tui-tc cc o.

Khng ging nh cc o khc nm gn b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam, cc o thuc hai qun-o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa khng ܮc to thnh bi cc khong-cht nh t Regosol trong t liŠn m l tp-th‹ chng cht cc xc thn ca san-h, mt loi sinh-vt dܧi bi‹n.

K‰t-qu iŠu-nghin ca cc chnh-quyŠn Php, M v ViŒt-Nam cho bi‰t hu h‰t cc o nm gia bi‹n khi vng nhiŒt-ǧi nh Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa Šu l cc m-tiu san-h, tiu-bi‹u cho ki‰n-trc m-tiu loi Thi-bnh-Dng. San-h l mt loi sinh-vt nh thuc dng Xoang-trng (classes Anthozoa and Hydrozoa of the Phylum Coelenterata), sng tp-on trn mt nhng o ngm vng bi‹n nhiŒt-ǧi.

Hnh 63 - Hai loi san-h thng-thܩng.

c kh nhiŠu lš-thuy‰t hnh-thnh o san-h nh ca Quoy v Gaimard, Darwin, Krempf, Murray, Agassir v.v... Cc cng-trnh nghin-cu ca ngܩi Php, ǥc-biŒt ca ng P. Chevey thuc viŒn Hi-h†c ng-Dng, rt hu-ch cho nhng ai mun tm hi‹u thm vŠ chi-ti‰t cu-to o san-h ng-Hi.

Sau y l tm tt mt s ki‰n-thc vŠ s hnh-thnh cc o san-h, trch t hai bi "Th kho-st vŠ qun-o Hong-Sa" ca gio-s Sn-Hng-c, ng trong c-san S-a s 29 nm 1975, trang 185-206 v "Iles et Rcifs de Coraux de la Mer de Chine" bo Bulletin de la Socit des Etudes Indochinoises, b IX, s 4, Saigon ngy 10-12-1934, trang 48-56.

Lš-thuy‰t Darwin ܮc mt s nh a-cht tin-tܪng l chnh-xc trong trܩng-hp nhng m-tiu viŠn ܮc thnh-lp. Theo Darwin th san-h nh hon-cnh thun-li sinh-sn thnh mt tp-on rng ln viŠn quanh mt hn o. Sau , chnh sc nng ca san-h v s ln ca y lm cho o t t chm xung, cn san-h vn ti‰p-tc pht-tri‹n.

* Khi o khng chm hon-ton, hŒ-thng gm o gia, m-tiu viŠn ngoi bao b†c m nܧc bao quanh o.

* Khi o chm hn, ta ch cn thy m-tiu san-h bao mt m nܧc yn-lng..

Hnh 64 - S hnh-thnh cc o san-h theo thuy‰t "ln y" ca Darwin.

Cc lš-thuy‰t hnh-thnh o san-h khc khng phi l hon-ton sai lc. C l m‡i gi-thuy‰t ng vo mt kha cnh no trong ti‰n-trnh k‰t-t:

a- Thuy‰t ca Quoy v Gaymard cho rng san-h thnh-lp trn miŒng nhng ha-diŒm-sn ngm dܧi bi‹n. Khoa a-cht ghi nhn nhiŠu ni la ngm hnh-thnh khi c a-chn trong vng Bi‹n ng. Thuy‰t ny khng hon-ton ng v ti vi vng c m-tiu san-h li khng thy c ni la.

Hnh 65 - Thuy‰t hnh-thnh cc o san-h trn miŒng ni la ca Quoy v Gaimard.

b- Thuy‰t ca Murray l mt thuy‰t tc-Ƕng ha-h†c. Cc phn-t vi c trong nܧc bi‹n k‰t-t trn nhng nh ni ngm. Khi khi vi ny cao dn ‰n tng nܧc c nh-sng mt tri y th san-h bm vo v sinh sn. Murray cho rng chnh gia khi san-h, kh CO2 tch-t nhiŠu xm-thc-ha san-h lm vng gia bi‰n mt.

Hnh 66 -

Thuy‰t hnh-thnh cc o san-h ca Murray.

c- Thuy‰t ca Agassiz cho rng ci nŠn t to-lp nn qun-o san-h l quan-tr†ng. Agassiz nghin-cu vng Great Barrier c thy rng lp san-h khng dy lm. Phi c ci nŠn thch-hp l di ni ngm dܧi bi‹n th mi c dy o san-h. Phn k‰t-t ܮc Agassiz trnh-by phn no ging nh thuy‰t Murray.

Hnh 67 -

Thuy‰t hnh-thnh cc o san-h ca Agassiz ǥt quan-tr†ng di ni ngm.

d- Thuy‰t ca Krempf lin-hŒ ‰n gi ma. y l mt gi-thuy‰t mi vŠ s to-lp nhng o san-h. Theo ng nh cc phn-ng ha-h†c, nhng vt-cht lng l trong nܧc k‰t-hp vi san-h. Tp-th‹ ny ti‰n-tri‹n theo chiŠu thng ng v dn dn to thnh o. Krempf cho rng khi san-h ni ln th b sng v gi xm-thc, nhng vt-liŒu b gi ma xm-thc s b cun ri vo bn trong lp san-h bn trong v gi‰t ch‰t i. Ti khi gi ma nghch li th vng bn kia li b xm-thc v vt-liŒu cng ri vo bn trong... Vng ai san-h v th‰ thܩng c hnh bu dc ko di theo chiŠu nh-hܪng ca gi ma.

Hnh 68- Thuy‰t hnh-thnh cc o san-h vi gi ma ca Krempf.

Bi‹n ng l vng bi‹n c hai v gi ma ng-Bc v Ty-Nam tht r rŒt trong nm. Lš thuy‰t Krempf gii-thch ܮc ti sao cc m-tiu san-h ln trong cc qun-o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa li ging nh nhng hnh bu-dc khng-l ko di theo cng hܧng, t ng-Bc ‰n Ty-Nam.

10.2 - t-ai san-h.

Cc o Trܩng-Sa v Hong-Sa Šu l cc m-tiu san-h. c-tnh t ai v khc-biŒt vi t-ai cc o ven bi‹n cng nh t ai vng duyn-hi.

Trong bn "Phc-trnh Cuc Thm-st Hn Nam Yt thuc Qun-o Trܩng-Sa vo ma thu nm 1973" K-s Trnh-tun-Anh vi‰t nh sau:

"... y l nhng m-tiu san-h tiu-bi‹u trong vng Thi-bnh-Dng. Trong qu-trnh a-cht, hn Nam-Yt ܮc thnh-lp do s ngui ǥc ca dung-nham huyŠn-v phn-xut ngm dܧi mt nܧc. VŠ sau san-h bm vo v tng-trܪng mau l nh vo cc iŠu-kiŒn thch-hp cho mi-trܩng sinh sng ca chng nh chiŠu su ca mc nܧc bi‹n, nhiŒt-Ƕ lܮng Oxy ...

San-h nh c v vi nn khi ch‰t v s ha cng v thnh-lp nn vi san-h c ngun-gc sinh-h†c.

... t ai thuc nhm Regosol trng ven ba hn l cc n ct thp nm che ph lp vi san-h bn dܧi. Trc-diŒn t (ܮc o) c chiŠu su thay ǰi t 40cm ‰n 120cm.

... Trc-diŒn (n ct ven ba) c sa-cu ct pha tht nn Ƕ thot thy mnh v kh-nng gi nܧc km. Ÿ ven ba hn o, nܧc mn thm-nhp nn Ƕ dn iŒn trong dung-dch t kh cao . Ngoi ra v trong ct c ln tht nhiŠu mnh v s, c, san-h bng CO3Ca b nt vn nn lܮng Ca trao ǰi ܮc chi‰m t-lŒ tht cao .

Trong khi cc trc-diŒn ly gia hn, ni cc ch‡ trng c cy ci m†c ti tt nn trong t c lܮng cht hu-c rt giu do thc-vt b hu›-hoi cung-cp, Ƕ dn-iŒn, lܮng Ca v Na gim i mt cch r rŒt, ng thi cht ln v Mg ng-ha cao hn so vi ni ba o. Sa cu ca t tng-i cng t ct hn, giu t tht v st hn, do t tng-i chm thot thy hn.

Cc nhn-xt trn cho thy l t ai gia hn thch-hp cho viŒc canh-tc hn so vi ven ba nh kh giu cht hu-c, ln, chm thot thy v nht l t b mn.

... K‰t-qu cuc thm-st ti ch‡ cho thy t ai trn hn Nam-Y‰t khng kh-nng nui sng vi chc ngܩi n‰u ch t-lc canh-tc."

Tuy vy K-s Trnh-tun-Anh cng ku g†i cc qun-nhn n-tr nn š-thc viŒc t-lc cnh-sinh mnh m nh L‡-Bnh-Sn hn l ch lŒ-thuc hon-ton vo ngun thc-phm ti‰p-t‰ t t liŠn.

Hnh 69- Bng phn-cht t trn o Nam-Y‰t ca K-s Trnh-tun-Anh.

10.3 - kch-thܧc v tui-tc cc o.

Cc o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa thܩng thp v nh. Tui ca san-h cu to nn o kh m bi‰t ܮc chnh-xc.

10.3.1 - Kch-thܧc ca o san-h.

San-h, nguyn-cht cu to nn o, l loi thy-sinh-vt; tuy chng c th‹ ny n v pht-tri‹n theo chiŠu cao, nhng khi t ‰n mt cao-Ƕ gii-hn no th chng ngng li v san-h khng th‹ sinh-tn ܮc n‰u b y ra ngoi nܧc qu lu. Trong khi mt bi‹n ln xung theo thy-triŠu, Ƕ cao mc nܧc li cng nh-hܪng theo vi c tnh-trng nng lnh ca tri t. Khi bng tch-t nhiŠu hai a-cc th mc nܧc bi‹n thp, khi bng tan r th mc nܧc dng ln cao.

Gio s Sn-Hng-c cho rng cc o san-h khng th‹ no cao hn mc nܧc cao nht ca b‹ thi trܧc.

Ti qun-o Hong-Sa, ngoi o l hn cao nht, ti 50 ft (16 m); nhng hn o khc thp hn nhiŠu. Nhn chung cc o Hong-Sa cao hn hn nhng o Trܩng-Sa v Nam-y‰t l o cao nht ca qun-o Trܩng-Sa ch vo khong 15ft, hay cha qu 5m (c ti-liŒu ghi 20m hay 60ft, nhng con s ny khng ng.)

Hnh 70 - Theo P. Chevey, cc m-tiu san-h khng m†c cao ܮc v phn san-h nm trn mc nܧc ln ca thy-triŠu s b ch‰t.

Ch cch Hong-Sa chng hn 100 Hi-lš vŠ pha t liŠn ViŒt-Nam, m hn C-Lao R nh s cu-to a-cht khc-biŒt nn rng ln (di khong 5km) v cao hn nhiŠu, ti 590 ft (180m.)

V cao-Ƕ ca cc o san-h khim-tn nh vy, nhng ngܩi li tu thuyŠn ch nhn ra o khi li tht gn. o thp st mt bi‹n, li cn ri rc nhiŠu bi cn hay rng san-h m†c ngm na. Nhng nguy-c thm khc cho ngܩi i bi‹n tht bt ng v tht nhiŠu. Khi thi-ti‰t xu v trong m ti, ǥc-biŒt lc ging bo; s lܮng thng-thuyŠn hay chi‰n-hm mc cn nhng vng ny khng c thng-k no ghi li cho h‰t ܮc. C nhiŠu xc tu tr tr†i, nhng ng khi v i ch-huy nh ln mt bi‹n nhc nh bao tai-nn hi-hng xy ra.

10.3.2 - Tui o: tht gi v tht tr .

- HiŒn cha c s nh tui chnh-xc cho cc o Hong-Sa / Trܩng-Sa, nn chng ta ch c th‹ pht-bi‹u mt cch tng-qut l s hiŒn-hu ca chng t cui Œ t nguyn-i, trong vng nhiŠu triŒu nm...

Xin ly mt th-d ‹ so snh tui-tc ca bi ngm san-h Bikini thuc qun-o Marshall Islands, ni v th-nghiŒm n nguyn-t ngm dܧi nܧc din ra nm 1946. San-h ni y, tng-t nh Hong-Sa / Trܩng-Sa, nhng dy ti hng ngn feet, ܮc nh tui l 30,000,000 nm.

Chng ta bi‰t rng t khi bi‹n thnh-hnh, mc nܧc bi‹n tng ln xung nhiŠu ln. V mc nܧc ngy nay ang cao-Ƕ ti-a v san-h ch m†c trong nܧc, th‰ nn phn pha trn ca o chc chn ch mi xut hiŒn trong vng mܩi my ngn nm tr li y, khi nܧc bi‹n mc-Ƕ 40 hay 50m thp hn hiŒn-thi. Phn san-h chm su trong lng bi‹n hn nhin phi gi nua hn nhiŠu.

-Cn-c trn nhng ti-liŒu nghin-cu ph-bi‰n, cc nh a-cht tin-tܪng rng nhiŠu o san-h trong Bi‹n ng ang ti‰p-tc thnh-hnh v mt s o s c th‹ b bi‰n mt v nhng chuy‹n-Ƕng a-chn.

Bo Economist, July 7, 1990 loan tin ch mi y, vo nm 1988 b‡ng-nhin c mt hn o nh ni ln gn b vng Sabah ca M-lai-, cho d khng c nhng rung-chuy‹n a-chn g d di (bi "Fishing for Trouble in the Spratlys", trang 36.)

Ngoi ra s hnh-thnh cng nh s tn-ti ca cc o cn lŒ-thuc vo mi-trܩng sinh sng ca san-h nh nh-sng, nhiŒt-Ƕ, ǥc-tnh y bi‹n, Ƕ mn v lܮng Oxy trong nܧc bi‹n...

-Theo nhng ti-liŒu ghi nhn ܮc t cc nh hng-hi th trong khong vi trm nm nay tr li y, mt s o mi ti‰p-tc xut-hiŒn v cao dn:

*Vo tiŠn-bn th‰-k› XIX, ng Gutzlaff thuc hi Geographical Society of London vi‰t trong bi nhan-Š "Geography of the Cochinchinese Empire" (bo The Journal of the Asiatic Society of London nm 1849) nh sau: "... qun-o Ct Vng gn b bi‹n An-Nam, nm gia cc v-tuy‰n 15 v 17 Ƕ Bc v cc kinh-tuy‰n 111 v 113 Ƕ ng... khng bi‰t v san-h hay v l g khc m cc ghŠnh y c ln dn, tht r rng l cc o nh y c m‡i nm m‡i cao hn. C vi hn by gi c th‹ c-tr ܮc m my nm trܧc, sng cn v‡ mnh p trn qua ..."

*Bi ThuyŠn Chi ti qun-o Trܩng-Sa ch mi ni ln mp m mt nܧc hi gn y. Ton bi hiŒn nay di khong 32 km, ch‡ rng nht vo khong 5 - 6 km (Lch vn-ha ViŒt-Nam, H-ni 1989.) Nh vy bi ang cao dn, c th‹ sau ny vi ba chc nm s tr thnh o hay mt nhm o nh. Tuy vy hiŒn nay bi ThuyŠn Chi cha c an-ton cho con ngܩi c-tr.

10.4 - Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa thuc ViŒt-Nam vŠ phng-diŒn v-tr.

Qun-o Hong-Sa nm gia vng Bi‹n ng ca nܧc ViŒt-Nam, ngang b bi‹n cc tnh Qung-Tr, Tha-Thin, Qung-Nam v mt phn Qung-Ngi. Cn hu h‰t cc o ca Qun-o Trܩng-Sa nm ngang v-Ƕ vi Phan-Rang - C Mu .

VŠ khong cch t liŠn, qun-o Hong-Sa nm gn ViŒt-Nam nht. S so snh nh sau:

-Khong cch t o Tri-Tn (15 Ƕ 47'N, 111 Ƕ 12'E) ti Lš-Sn hay C-lao R (15 Ƕ 22'N, 109 Ƕ 07'E) l 2 Ƕ 03 pht trn thܧc o khong cch v-Ƕ, tc ch c 123 hi-lš.

N‰u li ly t†a-Ƕ (Lš-Sn 15 Ƕ 23.1'N, 109 Ƕ 09.0'E) t trong bn tuyn-co ܩng cn-bn ni-hi ca chnh-quyŠn CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam (Declaration on Baseline of Territorial waters, 12 November 1982) th khong cch ‰n b C-lao R thu ngn li dܧi 121 hi-lš.

T o Tri-Tn ny ‰n Mi Ba Lng An (Cap Batangan- 15 Ƕ 14'N, 108 Ƕ 56'E) tc t liŠn lc-a ViŒt-Nam, khong cch o ܮc 135 hi-lš.

-Trong khi , khong cch o gn nht ti b o Hi-Nam xa ti 140 hi-lš (o Hong-Sa - 16 Ƕ 32N, 111 Ƕ 36 E v Ling-sui Pt hay Leong-soi Pt - 18 Ƕ 22 N, 110 Ƕ 03 E.) Khong cch t Hong-Sa ti t liŠn lc-a Trung-Hoa cn xa hn rt nhiŠu, ti-thi‹u l 235 hi-lš.

-N‰u ngܩi Trung-Hoa dng "bi ngm" (North Reef) lm chun ‹ o ‰n b "o" Hi-Nam ti Ling-sui Pt, h† "to" ra khong cch tht gn: 112 hi-lš! iŠu khng th‹ l mt lš l tranh ci v ngm khng c gi-tr nh o trong viŒc chun-nh ranh gii.

Lun-lš khong cch v s lܮng o ca ngܩi ViŒt lc xa nh ‡-B, L-quš-n khng hon-ton sai lc qu ng nh cch-thc xuyn-tc ca ngܩi Trung-Hoa khi cho rng Bi Ct Vng trong sch c ViŒt-Nam khng phi l qun-o Hong-Sa ngy nay. Lš-lun ca h† tht ngoan-c hay ki‰n-thc hng-hi ca h† u-tr khi ni rng thuyŠn i mt vi ngy lm sao ti ܮc Hong-Sa.

Hnh 71- Bn- ghi khong cch cc o gn nht ca qun-o Hong-Sa ‰n cc o gn t liŠn (Trch t Bn- Southeast Asia- National Geographic Society- Washington DC, 1968.)

Cc nh hng-hi ngoi-quc nh Pierre Paris (1942), J. B. Pitri (1949) cho bi‰t ghe thuyŠn chy bum ViŒt-Nam xa nay c vn-tc rt cao, vܮt cc tu thuyŠn u-chu ng thi. Chi‰n-thuyŠn thi cha Nguyn chng t lun lun chi‰m u-thng vŠ vn-tc khi hi-chi‰n. Hi-qun ViŒt nhiŠu ln nh ui tu Ha-Lan (nm 1644) cng nh tng trܧc nh chm hai tu ca h† (nm 1643) nh chy nhanh.

S tht rnh rnh, Tri-Tn l mt trong cc o Hong-Sa ch cch b t Trung-ViŒt c 135 hi-lš, cch ba C-Lao R 121 hi-lš. Cc Ƕi Hong-Sa ǥt cn-c v xut-pht t C-lao-R. Khi thun bum, sui gi, vi vn-tc 12 gt (hl/gi), c-hi cho nhng ghe bu ViŒt vܮt khong ny trong vng na ngy khng phi khng c .

Ngay trong nhng sch c cng ni l thuyŠn ta i t Qung-Ngi ‰n Qung-ng ch trong 3, 4 ngy. T b ra Tri-tn khong cch ngn ngi hn 1/6 on ܩng k‹ trn. Ngܩi thi nay, c l v t i bi‹n nn cho rng viŒc chy ra o kh khn qu chng? H†c-gi L-quš-n khi vi‰t trong "Ph-bin Tp-lc", cho bi‰t nhng ܩng giao-thng vܮt bi‹n d dng hi hai ba th‰-k› vŠ trܧc nh sau: "X Thun-Qung, ܩng thy v cc ܩng lc giao-thng vi tnh Qung-Nam... Cn ܩng bi‹n th hai x Thun Qung ch cch tnh Mn v tnh Qung-ng ca Trung-Quc c ba bn ngy ܩng nn cc tu bun Trung-Quc t xa ‰n nay thܩng-thܩng t-tp hi-phn Thun-Ha v Qung-Nam."

N‰u Trung-Cng ni Hong-Sa trong sch c ViŒt-Nam khng phi Hong-Sa vy th ngoi khi C-lao-R (Lš-sn) tr ra bi‹n c cn bt c mt o hay qun-o no (ngoi Hong-Sa) hay khng? ... cn c o no nm gia C-lao R v qun-o Hong-Sa na u ?

Bn- c ca -ng khng ǥt nng t›-lŒ. Trn cc bn- tܮng-hnh ca ta v ca Tu c khi c mt qun, mt tnh ch ܮc v ln bng mt ca sng, mt ng†n ni ln hng trm dm. S-gia Phm-vn-Sn vi‰t: "... K-thut ca ta trong viŒc v bn- theo li tܮng-hnh, nh vy c khc k-thut v bn- ca u-chu c phn tinh-vi hn nhng d sao li v ca ta cng nh ca Tu vn c th‹ gip ngܩi coi hnh-dung ܮc th‰ sng ngi, ni non v cc a-phng trong nܧc." (ViŒt-s Ton-th, 1960: 489.)

B ngoi nhng khong cch ln nh khng theo t›-lŒ nh ni, ngܩi ta thy bn- c thi Hng-c (1460-1498) do nho-s ‡-B cng-b (khong 1630-1653) v bn- nh Nguyn ch-nh r rng l v-tr Hong-Sa / Trܩng-Sa nm ngoi khi duyn-hi ViŒt-Nam.

Hnh 72 - Bn- c ch-nh v-tr Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa nm ngoi khi Bi‹n ng. (Trch i-Nam Nht-thng Ton- triŠu Nguyn.)

Ngܩi Tu vn t cho l nܧc h† gii a-lš, v bn- Trung-Hoa v chnh-xc hn bn- ViŒt-Nam nhng triŠu-nh hay dn Trung-Hoa c thc-hiŒn mt bn- no ghi nhn nhng chi-ti‰t a-lš tng-t vŠ Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa nh vy khng?

10.5 - Hong-Sa/ Trܩng-Sa thuc ViŒt-Nam vŠ phng-diŒn a-hnh y bi‹n.

VŠ a-hnh y bi‹n, qun-o Hong-Sa nm st vi thŠm lc-a ca ViŒt-Nam.

-Ton th‹ khu-vc qun-o Hong-Sa ni cao hn vng bi‹n vy quanh n. NŠn t ton qun-o ny ܮc ni thng vo thŠm lc-a ViŒt-Nam nh l qua mt ci ca ng thng vo vng c-lao R v b bi‹n Qung-Ngi. Hnh-lang kh nng, ch‡ su nht ch chng 500 m. Trong khi , y bi‹n Ƕt ngt li st xung vŠ pha Trung-Hoa, Ƕ su ln ti hng ngn mt, ri 2000m, 3000m hay hn na.

-Nhng hi- c ghi Ƕ su y bi‹n chng-minh r s kiŒn ny. ܩng ng- thm (thy) 1000 thܧc bao kn cc vng vŠ pha Bc v ng, trong khi li m rng qua pha ViŒt-Nam theo chiŠu hܧng Ty Ty Nam.

Hnh 73 - Bn- chiŠu su y bi‹n chng-minh qun-o Hong-Sa l phn ni di ca lc-a ViŒt-Nam.

Ni mt cch khc, n‰u mc nܧc bi‹n h xung chng 600 ti 700 m th Hong-Sa dnh vo ViŒt-Nam nh mt khi t liŠn v xa cch hn Trung-Hoa bng mt vng bi‹n nܧc su.

Ti‰n-s Krempf, gim-c Hi-h†c-viŒn ng-Dng l ngܩi u tin o c k-lܫng Ƕ su y bi‹n Hong-Sa v thy rng qun-o ny l mt ci bnh-nguyn ngoi bi‹n, ܮc ni di ra t rng ni Trܩng-Sn ca Trung-phn ViŒt-Nam. Trong t tܩng-trnh k‰t-qu kho-st nm 1925, ng k‰t-lun: "VŠ phng-diŒn a-cht, nh vy, nhng o Hong-Sa l mt phn ca ViŒt-Nam." (Gologiquement, donc, les Paracels font partie du ViŒt-Nam.)

Bi bo-co ܮc ghi nhn li trong tp tng-k‰t bo-co ca Nha Thy-o v Ng-NghiŒp ln chnh-quyŠn ng-Php nin-kha 1926-1927.

Ni-dung nhng ki‰n-thc vŠ Hong-Sa tng-t nh vy ܮc Olivier A. Saix ng li trong bo La Gographie, Tome LX, Nov.-Dec. 1933, trang 232-243.

Sau ny c mt bi tham-kho na ca Marcel Beauvois cng l mt ngܩi Php nh Krempt, lp li s kiŒn "vŠ phng-diŒn a-cht, Hong-Sa l mt phn ca ViŒt-Nam" ny (bi "Les Archipels Paracels et Spratly", bo Vietnam Press, Saigon No.7574, Nov 1971.)

VŠ a-hnh y bi‹n, Trܩng-Sa cng r rŒt ni liŠn vi ViŒt-Nam hn bt c mt quc-gia no khc bao quanh Bi‹n ng. B bi‹n Nam-phn ViŒt-Nam chy thoai-thoi ti tn bi T-Chnh thuc Trܩng-Sa. Trong thi Bng-, sng Cu-long cng nhng con sng nh khc trn ng-bng Sunda a ph-sa theo dng nܧc chy ra bi‹n Trܩng-Sa.

Nhn trn nhng hi- c ghi cc ܩng ng-thm, ngܩi ta thy qun-o Trܩng-Sa cch biŒt hn vi thŠm lc-a Trung-Hoa / i-Loan bng rnh bi‹n su 3,000m vŠ pha Bc v pha ng-Bc. Trܩng-Sa cng ngn cch vi Phi-lut-Tn, Brunei v M-lai- (Ti‹u-bang Sabah) bng rnh bi‹n East Palawan Trough (The Spratly Islands Dispute and the Law of the Sea, Lee G. Cordner, bo Ocean Development and International Law, Vol. 25, pp 61-74.)

Hnh 74 - Bn- chiŠu su y bi‹n chng-minh qun-o Trܩng-Sa l phn ni di ca lc-a ViŒt-Nam.

Sau khi nghin-cu nhn-vn, a-hnh vng N thi tiŠn-s, gio-s mn a-Lš Keith Buchanan trܩng i-h†c Victoria, Tn-Ty-Lan v ra mt bn- c lin hŒ ti a-bn di-dn t Bi‹n ng vo t liŠn. S thay ǰi sinh-hot ny l nguyn-do ki‰n-to nŠn vn-ho Ho-Bnh. (Xin xem li Hnh 3). Thi nܧc cn, Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa dnh vo t liŠn ViŒt-Nam (The Southeast Asian World, An Introductory Essay, Keith Buchanan, New York, 1967, trang 45.)

10.6 - Hong-Sa/ Trܩng-Sa thuc ViŒt-Nam vŠ phng-diŒn a-cht V€ sinh-h†c.

Mt ngܩi gc Trung-Hoa nh Ting Tsz Kao ni rng nhn chung thy s tuyn-b ch-quyŠn ca Trung-Hoa Nam-Hi l iŠu k-quc v tham-lam qu ng, nhng xt vŠ a-lš th ng l ca Tu (sic.)

Ch v s tham-lam m cc ng tr-thc nh vy biŒn-lun mt cch ch-quan, khng cn phi tri, bt-chp c lš-l hi‹n-nhin vŠ a-lš. Nguyn-vn li ngy-biŒn nh sau: "This island complex in international waters appears at first sight a little odd or monstrous. But when one considers the geographical composition of the Chinese ocean frontier as a whole, the continuity of the possession of the archipelagoes becomes perceivable and reasonable." (The Chinese Frontiers, Illinois 1980: 289.)

10.6.1 - a-cht. Cc o ca Trung-Hoa t Bnh-H, i-Loan tr ln pha Bc, cu to bng nhng t ca nŠn i-lc nh granite, igneous rock khc hn cc o vng Bi‹n ng ca ta cu-to bng san-h. Cc qun-o li khng quy-t nhiŠu o. Ch‡ Kim-Mn (12 o) M-T (7 o), cc hi-o kh cao v ln, s lܮng o tha tht. Xung ‰n Pratas, tuy ngܩi Tu g†i cܫng p l ng-Sa Qun-o (Tungsha) nhng xng-ng k‹ l o (Island) theo Lut Bi‹n, ch c th‹ ghi-nhn mt o m thi. S-lܮng ny t i qu, khng sao c th‹ ni l tng-ng vi s lܮng l 500 n-v t Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa ܮc.

Hnh 75 - Bn- "qun-o" Pratas vi mt o duy nht.

VŠ nhng thnh-t cu to, hai qun-o Hong-Sa cng nh Trܩng-Sa mang ǥc-tnh ViŒt-Nam:

- Cc o Šu l nhng m-tiu san-h tiu-bi‹u cho vng bi‹n nhiŒt-ǧi ca ViŒt-Nam.

-Kh-hu n-ǧi ca Trung-Hoa khng cho php s cu-to cc qun-o san-h rng ln nh vy. Ngܩi ta cng chng bao gi thy tuy‰t ri Hong-Sa nh ni Hoa-lc.

10.6.2 - Sinh-thc . Cy c trn o Šu l cy c nhiŒt-ǧi loi cy c t liŠn ViŒt-Nam. NhiŠu cy ln ܮc ngܩi ViŒt-Nam mang ra trng t lu. Cy m†c cao nh cc du hi-hiŒu gip cho nhiŠu tu thuyŠn trnh khi tai-nn mc cn. Cy cng gip o gi t, trnh sng, gi, nܧc xm-thc.

i-Nam Thc-lc Chnh-bin Œ-nh k› quy‹n 104 chp rng: Vua Minh-Mng bo b Cng: "Trong hi-phn Qung-Ngi, c mt di Hong-Sa, xa trng tri nܧc mt mu, khng phn biŒt ܮc nng su. Gn y, thuyŠn bun thܩng mc cn b hi. Nay nn d-b thuyŠn mnh, ‰n sang nm s phi ngܩi ti dng mi‰u lp bia, v trng nhiŠu cy ci. Ngy sau cy ci to ln xanh tt, ngܩi ta d nhn bi‰t, ng hu trnh khi ܮc mc cn. cng l viŒc li mun ǩi."

Ngܩi Tu ni da vo s-kš tuyn-b ch-quyŠn ton th‹ Bi‹n ng, nhng khng c s sch no ca ngܩi Tu ghi ܮc cng-lao hay chng-tch tng-t nh vy!

10.6.3 - Sinh-ha . Lng Bi‹n ng cht cha cc lp thy-tra-thch. Sau nhiŠu triŒu nm cc cht hu-c tch-t li, chu sc p ca nhiŠu lp a-tng nn dn dn bi‰n ǰi thnh du ha hay kh t. Cc khoa-h†c-gia cng thy nhng ǥc-tnh ViŒt-Nam trong s bi‰n-th‹ nh sau:

- Bn- a-cht ghi nhn du v‰t nhng dng sng thi xa chy ra ti tn trung-tm bi‹n ng-Hi .

- Ti-nguyn y bi‹n nh du ha v kh t thܩng to thnh nhng ti kt gia nhng lp k‰t tng (sediments.)

- NhiŠu ln tri t tri qua nhng thi-k Bng-Gi lnh lo. Nܧc bi‹n h xung rt thp v vnh Bc-ViŒt qua nhiŠu giai-on kh cn cng ngp nܧc ni-ti‰p nhau. Khi kh cn, l mt vng ng-bng bng phng, t ni non. B bi‹n lc ny chy ra xa, ti gn Hong-Sa.

- Sng Hng-H ca ViŒt-Nam tng cun cun chy vi lu-lܮng nܧc nhiŠu ln ln hn hiŒn-thi. C l my triŒu nm trܧc trong thi a-cht Pleistocene, dng sng nܧc ph-sa ny vo hng ln nht hon-cu. Khi , hu h‰t nܧc t cao nguyn Ty-tng ǰ vo sng Hng. T trn ci "mi nh ca tri-t", ngun nܧc hng-v mang ra Bi‹n ng nhng khi-lܮng ph-sa khng-l, to nhiŠu lp k‰t tng thy-tra-thch ti Hong-Sa. Ri dng sng chnh ca miŠn Bc nܧc ta b thu nh khi a-chn xy ra, nng cao khu Vn-Nam ct ngn thܮng-ngun Hng-H li nh ta thy hiŒn nay. Ngun nܧc t bt u chy sang pha Dng-T-Giang lm con sng vng Hoa-Nam thm to ln. (The Junks & Sampans of the Yangtze, G. R. G. Worscester, Annapolis, 1971: 2.)

Cng nh rng vng chu-th Dng-t-Giang lc xa, theo s Tu, cng c ngܩi ViŒt c sinh sng. (Xem hnh s 12.)

Hnh 76 - Bn- y bi‹n vi cc con sng thi c ni di theo sng Hng, nܧc chy ra bi‹n Hong-Sa.

- Sng Cu-Long hay M-Kng ca miŠn Nam nܧc ViŒt cng lm viŒc tng-t nh vy ‹ cu-to nn nhng lp thy-tra-thch ngoi khi Trܩng-Sa. Mi chng chc ngn nm trܧc, sng Kng (Sng M vi Kng l sng - M l m ?) tng a nܧc tܧi khp pha ng-Nam ca vng bnh-nguyn rng ln Sunda.

Cc ti du nh Rng, Da, Bch-H, i-Hng ... ch mi l nhng k‰t-qu s-khi. C i theo v‰t c ca sng Kng, cng ra xa chng ta cng c thm hy-v†ng tm thy nhiŠu ti du ln hn na .

Hnh 77 - Bn- y bi‹n vi cc con sng thi c ni di theo sng Cu-Long, nܧc chy ra bi‹n Trܩng-Sa. (Hnh 76&77 ca Geological Topographic Mapping Party of Fujian Province, 1980's.)

Cng tng-t nh thc-vt trn o, cc thy-sinh-vt dܧi Bi‹n ng mang nhng mi lin-hŒ ViŒt-Nam:

-Mt t›-lŒ ln nhng cht hu-c Bi‹n ng ܮc mang ‰n nh nhng dng nܧc chy t lc-a ViŒt-Nam m ra. Cc cht dinh-dܫng cho thy-sinh-vt cng cng mt ngun t ViŒt-Nam .

-NhiŠu hi-sinh-vt Hong, Trܩng-Sa thuc vng nhiŒt-ǧi, rt quen thuc vi ngܩi ViŒt chng ta nhng xa l vi ngܩi Tu. Bo-ch cho bi‰t vo thng 9/1994, Trung-Hoa khai-mc khu trng-by 5000 mu sinh-vt Hong-Sa th phn 500 hi-sinh-vt ܮc h‰t sc tn-thܪng. Lš-do ng nht l v hi-sinh-vt Hong-Sa vn xa l qu, nhiŠu ngܩi Trung-Hoa mi ch thy ln u m thi, h† i xem cho tha tnh hi‰u-k!

11 - Tho mc Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa.

Tho-mc hai qun-o Hong, Trܩng c nhiŠu i‹m ng ni:

11.1- Tng-qut vŠ tho-mc cc o ngoi Bi‹n ng.

Ni chung, tho-mc cc o gia Bi‹n ng khng nhiŠu v khng ܮc to ln nh trong t liŠn. Tho-mc Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa cng khng ti-tt khi em ra so snh vi nhng cy c m†c trn cc o vnh Bc-ViŒt, vnh Ph-Quc. VŠ cy ln, t c i-th† v khng thy cc loi g‡ quš. VŠ thn tho, ng k‹ ‰n loi Nam-Sm m†c nhiŠu Trܩng-Sa v mt s o khc Bi‹n ng. y l mt dܮc-liŒu quš-gi. Mt s loi c hay giy leo khc na m†c lung-tung nhng khng nhiŠu.

Trn duyn-hi v trn nhng o ven bi‹n ViŒt-Nam, cy da m†c khp ni v phi-lao rt nhiŠu, Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa li khc hn. Da v phi-lao m†c trn cc o tht tha tht, c o khng c mt cy da no.

Linh-mc Henry Fontaine v gio-s L-vn-Hi xc-nh "Khng c loi tho-mc no l ti ch‡ c, tt c t vng t liŠn du-nhp ‰n bng nhiŠu cch ... M†i tho-mc hiŒn c Hong-Sa Šu tm thy ViŒt-Nam, nht l miŠn Trung ViŒt-Nam (Gp thm vo s tm hi‹u tc-on tho-mc trn qun-o Hong-Sa - bo Kho-cu Nin-san Khoa-h†c i-h†c-ܩng Si-Gn 1957.)

Hnh 78 -

Mt hnh-nh tho-mc quen thuc Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa.

11.2 - Ti-liŒu ca gio-s Fontaine.

VŠ d-kiŒn khoa-h†c, chng ti xin trch mt vi on trong bi "Hong-Sa dܧi mt nh a-cht H. Fontaine" ca Lp-Chc Nguyn-Huy, ng trong c-San S-a s 29, nm 1975 ‹ lm ti-liŒu.

Nhng ch phn gc (ghi-ch) do chng ti mn php ghi thm cho d hi‹u :

... VŠ tc-on tho-mc, cho ‰n nay ngܩi ta mi bi‰t c bn loi: Scaevola Koenigii VAHL (Goodeniace), Wedelia biflora DC (Compose), Guettarda speciosa LINN (Rubiace) v Tournefortia agentae (Boraginace) (Saurin, 1955, tr. 14-15.)

... Dܧi y l cc nh-danh, mt phn ܮc ng Schmidt lm:

GRAMINES (gc= h† ho-bn)

* Eleusine indica GAERTIN: o Pattle [Hong Sa) (t gp): cy gp khp ni ti ViŒt Nam, Cao Min, Ai Lao, Thi Lan. Vng nhiŒt-ǧi v bn nhiŒt-ǧi ca cu-lc-a.

* Eragrotis amabilis WIGTH ET ARN: o Pattle [Hong Sa](t gp): khp ni ViŒt-Nam, ƒn-Ƕ, M-Lai.

* Eriochloa racemosa HACK: o Roberts (Hu-Nht) (t) gp kh thܩng ViŒt-Nam, -Chu, Phi-Chu, M-Lai, c-i-Li.

* Brachiaria distachya A. CAMUS: o Pattle (Hoang-Sa) (t): khp ni ViŒt-Nam, ƒn-, Trung-Hoa, M-Lai, c-i-Li.

* Lepturus repens R. Br.: (t); ܮc thy Bc-ViŒt, Thi-Lan, Tch-Lan, i-Dng-Chu.

AMARANTACES (gc= h† dŠn)

Achyrantes aspera LIN.: o Money (Quang nh) (thܩng): cy m†c trn hoang-a, rt thܩng ViŒt-Nam, Cao-Min, Ai-Lao, Trung-Hoa, ƒn-.

NYCTAGINACES (gc= h† bng-phn)

Boerhaavia repens LIN.: o Money [Quang nh), o Drummond [Duy Mng): khp ni ViŒt-Nam, Cao-Min, Hoa Nam, ƒn-, Phi-Lut-Tn, Java, Phi Chu, M-Chu.

PORTULACACES (gc= h† sam)

Portulaca pilosa LIN.: o Pattle (Hong Sa] (trn nhng li i); Trung-ViŒt, Ai-Lao, Thi-Lan (xut-x ti Chu M nhiŒt-ǧi.)

LAURACES (gc= h† qu‰)

Cassytha filiformis LIN.: o Pattle [Hong Sa], o Roberts [Hu Nht] thܩng gp ViŒt Nam, vng nhiŒt-ǧi.

MALVACES (gc= h† bp)

Sida corylifolia WALL.: o Drummond [Duy Mng); cy m†c Bc-ViŒt, Ai-Lao, Thi-Lan, Hi-Nam, Java, Madura, Phi-Lut-Tn. Sida rhombifolia LIN. var. parvifolia GAGNEP.: o Pattle [Hong-Sa) (t), Trung ViŒt.

TILIACES (h† c-ke)

Triumfetta pseudocan SPER,: o Drummond (Duy-Mng]; thܩng gp ViŒt-Nam, Thi-Lan, Trung-Hoa, Phi-Lut-Tn, ƒn-.

Corchorus sp.: o Roberts [Hu-Nht.)

ZYGOPHYLLACES (gc= h† qu›-ki‰n su)

Tribulus terrestris LIN.: o Pattle (hi‰m); cy m†c trn duyn-hi ct Trung v Nam ViŒt-Nam. Vng nhiŒt-ǧi v bn nhiŒt-ǧi.

EUPHORBIACES (gc= h† thu-du)

Euphorbia (thymofilia BURM?); o Roberts [Hu Nht) (hi‰m.)

Euphorbia Atotao.: o Pattle (Hong-Sa), cy trn duyn-hi, thܩng gp ViŒt-Nam, ƒn-, lndonsia, Phi-lut-Tn, Trung-Hoa, c-i-Li.

Phyllanthus Niruri LIN.: o Pattle (t gp): cy m†c trn hoang-a, rung vܩn, khp ni ViŒt-Nam; Dܧi ch-tuy‰n.

LUGUMINEUSES PAPILIONES (gc= lugumineuses, h† u)

Phaseolus (calcaratus ROXB. ?): o Money (Quang-nh] (thܩng gp.)

CONVOLULACES (gc= h† bm bm)

Ipomea Turpethum R. Br.: o Pattle (Hong-Sa.) o Roberts [Hu-Nht), o Drummond (Duy-Mng): ViŒt-Nam, Trung-Hoa, Phi-Lut-Tn, Timor, Java.

BORAGINACES (gc= h† lu-ly oa-c)

Tournefortia argentea LIN. F.: o Pattle (Hong-Sa), o Robert (Hu-Nht): cy m†c trn ging Trung-Phn ViŒt-Nam, ƒn-, M-Lai, Tch-Lan, Phi-Lut-Tn, i-Loan.

VERBENACES (gc= h† m-tin-tho)

Premna sp.: o Money (Quang-nh.)

Lippia nodiflora LIN.: o Pattle [Hong-Sa); cy b trn t, rt thܩng gp ViŒt-Nam, nht l trn vng t ct; Chu M nhiŒt-ǧi v bn nhiŒt-ǧi v khp Vin-ng.

Stachytarphita jamaicensis LIN.: o Pattle (Hong-Sa) (hi‰m), o Robert (Hu- Nht) (thܩng gp); khp ni ViŒt Nam. Cy xut-x t chu M nhiŒt-ǧi .

GOODENIACES (gc= c gai)

Scaevola Koenigii VAHL. (gc= c gai rt rm rp): cc o Pattle, (Hong Sa] Money, [Quang-nh), Roberts (Hu-Nht), Drummond (Duy Mng), thܩng gp vng ven bi‹n ViŒt-Nam, vng ng- nhiŒt ǧi, i-dng-Chu.

RUBIACES (gc=nhu)

Morinda citrifolia LIN.. var bracteata HOOK: o Pattle, Roberts, Drummond; cy hoang v c khi ܮc trng Trung v Nam ViŒt-Nam, ƒn-, Tch Lan, M-Lai. Cy ny t gp trn qun-o Hong-Sa (mt hai cy trn m‡i o) v dܩng nh ܮc ng-dn mang ‰n v trng v dܮc-tnh.

Guettarda speciosa LIN.: o Money [Quang-nh], o Drummond [Duy Mng]; Nam ViŒt-Nam, Cao-Min, Thi-Lan, vng nhiŒt-ǧi .

COMPOSES

Tridax procumbens LIN.: do Pattle (Hong-Sa), o Roberts (Hu-Nht); khp ni ViŒt-Nam, ƒn-.

Wedelia biflora DC.: o Money (Quang-nh), rt thܩng gp ViŒt-Nam, ƒn-, Thi Lan, Trung-Hoa, Phi-Lut-Tn.

Eupatorium sp.: o Pattle (Hong Sa) (hi‰m.)

Chng ti xin mn php Gio-s Phm-Hong-H ‹ ܮc trnh-by mt s hnh v trong tp sch Cy c ViŒt Nam, 1993 ca Gio-s vŠ tho-mc Hong-Sa nh sau:

Hnh 79 - Hoa mܩi gi -h† Sam- (Cy c ViŒt Nam, 1993.)

Hnh 80 - Cassytha filiformis (Cy c ViŒt Nam, 1993.)

Hnh 81 - Qu Ki‰n Su (Cy c ViŒt Nam, 1993.)

Qun-o Hong-Sa mi ni ln gn y. Cc mnh t mi ny to nn mt ch‡ trng cho cy c ‰n v ti‰p-tc ‰n chi‰m lp. T cc vng t ln-bang ‰n bng nhiŠu cch, cc ht ging ny n v tho-mc t ph trm gn h‰t cc o Pattle, Roberts, Money v Drummond; nhng tc-on tho-mc cha thi-gian ‹ tri qua mt ti‰n-trnh nhm mang li mt ǥc-tnh ring-biŒt. Khng c loi tho-mc no l ti ch‡ c..."

Ti-liŒu ca Gio-s Sn-Hng-c cho cc chi-ti‰t sau y:

Loi cy cao thܩng thy l cc cy da v phi-lao. Cc cy ny m†c l t khng thnh rng, da gn m nܧc, phi lao sng trn bi thܩng nh b hn nhng cy ni vng duyn-hi.

K‰ l Bng B‹ (Sea Almond), tn La-tinh Terminalia, thܩng cao c 5 - 7m. Nhnh m†c ngang thnh tng, thn cy u nn, l to mu xanh vng khi kh tr nn . Cy cho qu vi nhn ln v cng, nܧng chn n bo nh hnh-nhn.

Hnh 82 - Bng Bi‹n (Cy c ViŒt Nam, 1993.)

To nh cy bng c cy M U, tn La-tinh l Calophyllum Inophyllum, l xanh m, di li 2 tc c nhiŠu gn ph st nhau mu nht hn mu l, hoa trng c nhiŠu ti‹u-nhuœ mu vng rt quy‰n r cc loi bܧm m. Tri M U cng, trn; tht mu vng khi kh nhn li mu xm xt. Ngܩi ta c th‹ ly ht p du thp n. V cy ti‰t ra m vng, c ngܩi dng tr gh.

Cao chng 4- 5m l loi cy cng tn l ǥc-biŒt vi cc l nh khng my rm rp. Thn cy cng ǥc-biŒt, nt n nh nhng ܩng gn.

Hnh 83 - M U (Cy c ViŒt Nam, 1993.)

Ngoi ra c Cy Nhu v Si Sim, tn La-tinh l Quercus Myrsinifolia Blum xut-hiŒn rt t vi o. Loi i-mc ny cao ti 13- 15m, nhnh non khng lng, l thon mu mc bn dܧi v xm li lc kh.

Dܧi thp c hi-on tho-mc thch-ng vi mi-trܩng ct hay ct pha phosphate nh:

-H† Bm-Bm (Convolulaceae) gm Ipomea Bilola v Ipomea Littoralis

-H† Ho-Bn nh C Chng (Spinifex Littereus), C Cng-Cng (Zoysia Matrella),

-C X-T (Sporobolus Virginicus.)

-C C m dn nh c thܩng o ly c vŠ lm v thuc Bc.

Loi tho-mc ܮc ng-dn thch nht l Nam-Sm, rt quš v c dܮc-liŒu. Nam-Sm, tn La-tinh l Boerhaavia Vipeus, l mt loi c phn dܧi trܩn trn t, ng†n ct u ln. L c my phi‰n xoan trn di, chm mang t-tn 3 hoa.

Hnh 84 - Nam-Sm l mt dܮc-tho m†c rt nhiŠu o Trܩng-Sa.

Chung quanh cc o cn c nhiŠu th rong bi‹n. Mt vi loi c th‹ s-dng nh phn xanh bn cy, mt s khc c th‹ khai-thc nh rau cu, mt dܮc-liŒu m ng-thi cng l mn n hng ngy ca mt s dn-tc ng-Nam-. Ngun li ny c th‹ a ‰n hnh-thc xut-cng ܮc. C hi-to mŒnh-danh l "Euchecha" dng lm nguyn-liŒu cho k-nghŒ sn-xut m-phm nh kem thoa mt.

11.3 - Bo-co ca K-s Trnh-tun-Anh.

Nm 1973, K-s Trnh-tun-Anh sau khi kho-st tng-qut a-lš, lm mt phc-trnh vŠ o Nam-Y‰t. V tnh-trng thc-vt o Nam-Y‰t khng khc my so vi cc o khc trong vng nn ta c th‹ dng phc-trnh trn lm tiu-bi‹u. K-s h† Trnh vi‰t nh sau: "Cy ci y ch gm mt s t loi c tri hoc ht t cc vng duyn-hi ViŒt-Nam. Sarawak v cc o ln cn tri tp vo m†c ln.

Sinh-cnh thc-vt chnh trn hn o gm c Da v mt loi cy thch-hp vi mi-trܩng bi‹n m†c chung quanh:

Tournefortia argentea Loi Boraginaceae

Cocos nucifera Loi Palmae

Ngoi ra cn mt s t cy khc vi dy leo v c, m†c rt ti tt gm c:

-Bng Fagraea crenulata Maingay Loganiaceae

-Nhu Morinda angustifolia Roxb Rubiaceae

-M-u Calophyllum Inophyllum Lin Guttleferae

-Rau sam Portulaca Oleracea L. Portulacaceae

-Thuarea involuta R. Br Gramineae

K-s Trnh-tun-Anh c cng nhn-xt nh gio-s Sn-Hng-c vŠ viŒc canh-tc. Hai ng cho rng cc cy n tri nh mng-cu hay nhn v mt vi loi hoa-mu ph nh rau ci c th‹ thch-hp nht. Cy tri nn trng gia o v rau c nn trng vo ma ma.

12 - Ti-nguyn.

Ti-nguyn Bi‹n ng gm c phn bn trn cc o, c tm thu-hoch ngoi bi‹n v du kh nm su dܧi lng bi‹n:

12.1 - Phosphate.

Theo nhng bn phc-trnh vŠ ti-nguyn th khi d-tr phosphate qun-o Hong-Sa c th‹ ti hn 4 triŒu tn, ngha l cho nhu-cu phn bn ca ViŒt-Nam Cng-ha trong vng 25 nm (nhu-cu nhng nm 1970.) S lܮng do K-s Trn-Hu-Chu phng-nh vo ma thu nm 1973 l 3,595,000 m3 cho ring 6 o thuc nhm Lܫi LiŠm. Tr†ng-lܮng m‡i m3 phosphate l 1.5 tn. N‰u ch khai-thc mt na thi, s lܮng phosphate dng ܮc cng ti 2,700,000 tn.

Theo ti-liŒu ca Nha Khong-Cht (B Kinh-T‰ VNCH) th s lܮng d-tr phosphate (trn cc o chnh ca qun-o Hong-Sa) nh sau: *Hong-Sa, c t 560,000 ‰n 1,000,000 tn.

*Hu-Nht c li 1,400,000 tn.

*Quang-nh c t 700,000 ‰n 1,200,000 tn.

*Duy-Mng c t 600,000 ‰n 1,000,00 tn.

(trch bi ca Gio-s Sn-Hng-c, c-San S a 29, 1977, trang 204.)

Ÿ Trܩng-Sa, s lܮng phosphate cha ܮc tnh ton y , nhng ܧc-lܮng cng hng triŒu tn. Cng-viŒc khai-thc ngun li ny Trܩng-Sa nhiŠu ln d dang. Trܧc thi 1975, ngܩi ta cn thy trn cc o Trܩng-Sa nhiŠu ng phn chim gom li cha di-chuy‹n i h‰t.

12.2 - Ng-nghiŒp.

Hng nm, vng Bi‹n ng thu-hoch ܮc khong 5 hay 6 triŒu tn hi-sn, chi‰m vo khong 1/14 tng-s sn-lܮng ca th‰-gii (70 hay 80 triŒu tn.) Kh-nng thu-hoch cn c th‹ cao hn nhiŠu, t nht l 3 triŒu tn na.

Hnh 85 - Mc-Ƕ khai-thc ng-nghiŒp ti Bi‹n ng, cao nht ti vnh Bc-ViŒt, vnh Thi-Lai v d†c duyn hi.

C thu

Loi c ang ܮc khai-thc c k‰-hoch quy-m nht l c thu, danh-loi Thunnus Thynnus. Tht c ny n tht ngon, bn rt ܮc gi. C thu Yellowfin Tuna sng gn nh khp ni Bi‹n ng, sut d†c t pha bc Hong-Sa ‰n pha nam Trܩng-Sa, di-chuy‹n theo ma ti tn Mindanao v Borneo.

Ch ring trong khu-vc pha ng ca Trܩng-Sa, ܧc-lܮng thu-hoch hng nm ti 50 triŒu M-kim. Sau Yellowfin Tuna, cc loi Skipjack Tuna, Bigeye Tuna, Mackerels cng nhiŠu.

Ngoi cc tu nh c Phi-lut-Tn ang hot-Ƕng si ni nht trong k-nghŒ nh c thu, s tu Trung-Hoa cng tng-gia nhiŠu. ViŒt-Nam mi bt u khai-thc.

Hnh 86 - Bn- ch-n ܩng di-chuy‹n ca cc loi c thu theo ma qua nhng vng bi‹n do nhiŠu quc-gia ki‹m-sot.

Theo gio-s V-T-Lp th vng bi‹n Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa l i-tܮng tranh-chp vŠ ng-trܩng. Nhng tr-lܮng quan-tr†ng vŠ hi-sn ang b cc Tu nh c Nht-Bn v Nam-Hn khai-thc (Atlas du ViŒt-Nam, V T Lp & Christian Taillard, Reclus et La Documentation Francaise, 1994, trang 36.)

Hnh 87 - Loi lܧi bt c n ni.

 

Hnh 88 - Loi lܧi bt c n chm.

Ngoi c thu, cn nhiŠu loi c hay hi-sn khc c th‹ mang li nhng ngun li ln nh tm, cua, mc, bo ng, vi c, rong bi‹n ...

Trong thi-gian trܧc 1975, Nha Ng-NghiŒp thuc b Canh-Nng ca ViŒt-Nam Cng-Ha lp mt bng danh-sch cc hi-sn chnh ti Bi‹n ng nh sau:

-C n ni: C Cm, C Thu ng, C Bc m, C Nhm, C Ra, C S†c mܧp, C trch, C ng, C chun, C Nc, C Sng.

-C n chm: C chim, C Cht, C Gc, C Mi, C ThiŠu, C ng, C Bn xa, C ga, C H, C ui.

Hnh 89 - Cc loi c Bi‹n ng quan-tr†ng cho ng-nghiŒp. (Theo ti-liŒu ca Nha Ng-NghiŒp VNCH, 1970.)

Bi‹n ng kh kn gn nh a-trung-hi, ch thng ra ngoi i-dng qua cc ng hp nh eo bi‹n Malacca v Karimata pha Nam; cc eo Balabac v Mindanao pha ng, eo bi‹n i-Loan v Bashi gia Phi/ i-loan pha ng Bc. Ngy nay, s tranh-chp ng-trܩng ang xy ra. Tuy cha c chi‰n-trn gia cc lc-lܮng hi-qun nhng c mu ǰ ca thܩng-dn trong vnh Thi-Lan v nhiŠu ng-ph thuc cc quc-tch khc nhau b bt gi v t ti.

Mt khi hi-phn kinh-t‰ 200 hi-lš ܮc tt c cc quc-gia duyn-hi quy‰t-nh thi-hnh triŒt-‹, m ngy khng cn xa, s tranh-chp vŠ ch-quyŠn nh c s gia-tng.

Tnh-trng ch-quyŠn trn Bi‹n ng cn rt mp m. Ÿ ngoi khi, tu thuyŠn nh c cc nܧc hiŒn chen k nhau, khng bi‰t l mnh ang nh c trn hi-phn nܧc no.

Theo lut-gia Mark J. Valencia, ViŒt-Nam phi i u nhiŠu nht vi Thi-Lan v hai nܧc Trung-Hoa trong nhng tranh-chp vŠ hi-phn nh c.

Ngy nay nh Lut Bi‹n UNCLOS ܮc thi-hnh, cc nܧc quanh vng Bi‹n ng s c c-hi ngi li gii-quy‰t nhng tranh-chp vŠ ng-nghiŒp trong vng EEZ.

Theo iŠu-lut s 62 (UNCLOS, Article 62), ViŒt-Nam s phi xc-nh tng-s sn-lܮng hi-sn d-tr trong khu-vc kinh-t‰ ca mnh v ܧc-lܮng kh-nng thu-hoch ca ng-dn. HiŒn nay ViŒt-Nam cha pht-tri‹n mnh vŠ k-thut nh c nn cn li mt s lܮng hi-sn thng-d ng k‹. S hi-sn ny n‰u khng s-dng cng t-nhin b tiu-tn, nn khng th‹ ‹ ung-ph m phi nhܩng li cho cc quc-gia khc trong trܩng-hp ܮc yu-cu.

Nhng nܧc ni-a nh Ai-Lao cng c th‹ ܮc chia s ti-nguyn ca bi‹n-c. Chnh-ph nܧc ny cn khuy‰n-khch dn-chng theo ngnh hi-ng-nghiŒp. Quc-gia duyn-hi thun-li nht cho h† trong viŒc chia s s hi-sn thng-d l ViŒt-Nam. Ngoi ra, dn ni-a s c th‹ ܮc qun-tr viŒc khai-thc nhng vng bi‹n chung, nm bn ngoi ranh-gii hi-phn ca nhng quc-gia duyn-hi.

Hnh 90 - Vng bi‹n "quc-t‰" nh b nm ngoi nhng vng trn 200hl tnh t Hong-Sa, Pratas, Philippines v Trܩng-Sa.

ViŒt-Nam c tha-ܧc vŠ nh-c trong hi-phn vi Nga-S, c-i-li, i-Hn, Thi-Lan. Hi-sn trong vnh Thi-Lan b khai-thc qu ng gn nh kiŒt-quŒ, nn ng-ph Thi-Lan rt thm kht ngun-li bi‹n ViŒt-Nam.

Trong trܩng-hp tranh-chp Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa ܮc gii-quy‰t dt khot, nܧc no c ch-quyŠn d l mt hay ton th‹ qun-o cng c quyŠn i-hi "ch-quyŠn 200 hi-lš kinh-t‰" ny tnh t o ca h†. Cc viŒn i-h†c Hawai v Berkeley phc-h†a ra l "vng bi‹n quc-t‰" thu li rt nh. Di bi‹n diŒn-tch khng ng k‹ ny nm pha ng ca Qun-o Hong-Sa. N‰u nh mt nܧc no li ly lš-do ko di thm hi-phn (ti-a l 350 hi-lš) th chng cn st li g!

12.3 - Hi-sn ph.

Trong nhiŠu ngn nm qua, ngܩi dn duyn-hi ViŒt-Nam nh nhng hi-sn Bi‹n ng m sinh-tn. Ngoi nhng hi-sn chnh ܮc khai-thc nhiŠu nh k‹ trn, nhiŠu gia-nh ViŒt-Nam cn sng vo s khai-thc thng-mi cc hi-sn ph ca Bi‹n ng. Xin k‹ mt s hi-sn ph nh sau:

12.3.1 - –c bi‹n. V c vi nhiŠu hnh dng v mu sc ǥc-biŒt thܩng ܮc m†i ngܩi a thch, dng ‹ trng by, chn sch. Mt thi, v c v s ܮc con ngܩi s-dng nh vt trao ǰi ging nh chng ta ang dng tiŠn ng tiŠn giy ngy nay. V c ln dng lm t-v l mt nhc-c rt thܩng thy ng qu v trong qun-ng thi xa.

Bi‹n ng cung-cp nhng loi c cho tht rt ngon v nhng loi c cho v c gi-tr vŠ tiŠn-bc.

Cc v c X-c mu sc lng lnh khi ct ra thnh mi‰ng, dng ‹ cn ln cc t th, bn gh‰, cu i, tranh, lin... Mi‰ng x-c mu trng nh bc nhng nh phn-chi‰u nh-sng thnh nhiŠu mu sc rt p.

–c Bo ng (Abalone) hay cu-khng v trn v c 9 ci l‡ bi-ti‰t. Tht c bo ng khng nhng ni ti‰ng thm ngon m cn l mt v thuc tr cc bŒnh vŠ mt nh qung g, thng-manh, mt m rt hay.

Hnh 91 - c bo-ng v vi loi s c khc.

12.3.2 - a bi‹n. a bi‹n hay n-Ƕt l mt loi nhuyn-th‹ khng xng. a bi‹n pht-tri‹n mnh ni cc vng bi‹n nhiŒt-ǧi nh Bi‹n ng. Ging nh c mc phun mc en khi b tn-cng, i bi‹n phun ra mt loi cht Ƕc mu trng. Ngܩi Tu khai-thc loi hi-sn ny rt quy-m, h† g†i l Hi-sm. Ti cc tu-lu, Hi-sm l mn n quš nn bn rt ܮc gi. Ngܩi ViŒt cng rt thch n Ƕt, ng-bo ta lm gi n-Ƕt, hm n Ƕt vi gi heo, nu n Ƕt trong nhng mn lu thp-cm...

Hnh 92 - n-Ƕt v mt vi loi nhuyn-th‹ khc.

12.3.3 - Rung mui. Trung-bnh mt 1t nܧc bi‹n cha ti 35gram mui. Ngܩi ta c th‹ cho nܧc bi‹n bay hi ti rung mui. Khi nܧc bay h‰t, mt lp mui k‰t-tinh †ng li dܧi rung. NhiŠu lng ven bi‹n ViŒt-Nam sinh-nhai bng nghŠ ny.

Trong mt phm-vi nh hp, qun-nhn tr-ng Trܩng-Sa c th‹ khai-thc nghŠ lm mui ny.

12.4 - Tr-lܮng du kh bi‹n ng.

Mt s h†c-gi cho rng bo-co u-tin vŠ s hiŒn-hu du kh Bi‹n ng l k‰t-qu ca cc on nghin-cu thm-d ca Lin-hiŒp-quc trong nhng nm cui thp-nin 1960. Thi-gian trܧc , nhiŠu gio-s a-cht thuc viŒn i-h†c Si-Gn qu-quy‰t l theo ki‰n-thc chuyn-mn ca h†, ViŒt-Nam khng c du la. Cho ‰n u thp-nin 1970, mt s h†c-gi ngܩi ViŒt vn khng tin rng du ha c nhiŠu nh nhng bo-co thm d cho bi‰t. H† ngh rng du ha n‰u c th ch nh nhng ht sng bui sng †ng trn khp ng†n c, l cy ngoi cnh ng; chuyŒn "khng-tܪng" ca h† k‹ ra l k-nghŒ khai-thc lm sao thu ht ܮc tt c cc d†t du ri rc u nh vy m mang ra bn thng-mi!

Gn y niŠm tin-tܪng li khc hn. Cu chuyŒn "Bi‹n ng c du" khng nhng ܮc coi l iŠu hi‹n-nhin m cn c nhng ngܩi tin-tܪng rng tr-lܮng du kh Bi‹n ng ln khng thua g tr-lܮng ton th‹ vng Trung-ng.

Du la l mt cht hu c. Nܧc ta li l vng m thc-vt v sinh-vt pht-tri‹n rt phong-ph. NhiŠu cy ci v sinh-vt ch c nܧc ta m khng sinh-tn ܮc ni khc. Gio-s Phm-Hong-H cho bi‰t "thcvtchng ViŒtnam c l gm vo khong 12,000 loi, khng k‹ rong, ru, nm. l mt trong nhng thcvtchng phongph nht th‰gii. Vi mt diŒntch to hn nܧc ta ti ba mi ln, Canada ch c vo 4,500 loi, k‹ c loi dunhp".

Chng ta li bi‰t rng trong nhng khong thi-gian khi Bi‹n ng kh-cn, rng cy nhiŒt-ǧi trong vng cn ln rng hn ngy nay rt nhiŠu. N‰u thc-vt nhiŠu tc cht hu-c k‰t-tng trong t phi phong-ph, ngܩi ta c th‹ suy-lun rng s lܮng du la v kh t nm dܧi lng t v lng bi‹n khng th‹ no t oi ܮc.

Sau nhiŠu kho-st, ngy nay ngܩi ta v ܮc r rng bn- nhng khu-vc thy-tra-thch k‰t tng . Cc cng-ty du la cng khoan th nhiŠu ni v ghi-nhn nhng ti du kh ti duyn-hi Hoa-Nam, trong vnh Bc-ViŒt, ngoi khi Nam-phn, duyn-hi M-Lai- Brunei- Palawan, vng Bc Hong-Sa, bi C Rong Trܩng-Sa.

Vng bi‹n bao-la su trn 4,000m nm gia trung-tm Bi‹n ng cng ha hn cha ǿng nhng kho du kh khng-l. V k-thut khai-thc nhng vng bi‹n su cn qu tn-km, ngܩi ta ch-tm vo nhng vng nng-cn. Hai vng nm trn thŠm lc-a ViŒt-Nam lm Trung-Cng thm kht nht nm trong vnh Bc-phn v khu-vc bi T-Chnh ngoi khi Nam-phn.

Hnh 93- Nhng vng k‰t-tng thy-tra-thch v nhng vng bi‰t c du kh hay ang ܮc khai-thc. Ch v s hiŒn-hu ca du la m Trung-Cng quy‰t chia li Vnh Bc-ViŒt, chi‰m bi T-Chnh cng Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa.

Sau y l vi con s ܧc-lܮng:

Vng ng-Hi rng ti 1,460,000 dm vung chia ra hai phn gn bng nhau:

-720,000 dm vung cho bi‹n v

-740,000 dm vung thuc thŠm lc-a .

Trn thŠm lc-a, ti nhng khu-vc m cc lp thy-tra-thch k‰t tng dy ti 11.000 ft, thܩng thܩng l c cha du ha hay kh t. Vi k-thut hiŒn-i, cng viŒc khai-thc tng-i d dng ni nhng ch‡ nng cn ny.

Theo nh lš-thuy‰t ca L. G. Weaks th cch ܧc-lܮng nh sau:

-vo khong 1.75% thŠm lc-a (12,950 dm vung) m‡i dm vung cha 896,000 thng du la: 896,000 X 12,950 = 11,603,200,000 thng

-vo khong 15% thŠm lc-a (111,000 dm vung) m‡i dm vung cha 320,000 thng du la: 320,000 X 111,000 = 35,520,000,000 thng

Tng-s tr-lܮng du ha ca thŠm lc-a Bi‹n ng theo cch tnh-ton ny s l 47,123 triŒu thng.

D phng-nh mt cch bi-quan nht, thŠm lc-a ViŒt-Nam chi‰m khng dܧi 20% s lܮng ny.

Ngoi thŠm lc-a, vng su hn nm gia Bi‹n ng l ni tch-t nhng lp thy-tra-thch rt dy. Nhng hng du cho bi‰t tr-lܮng du kh dܧi cc vng lng cho "basin" cn ln hn thŠm-lc-a na. HiŒn nay k-nghŒ khai-thc du dܧi lng bi‹n su cn cha ܮc hon-b.

Cc o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa tng-i nng cn nn khng nm l†t vo trong nhng lng cho , tuy nhin khi tnh ton ‰n ranh-gii kinh-t‰ 200 hi-lš ngܩi ta phi tnh t o, nn quc-gia no c ch-quyŠn hai qun-o s s-hu lun c khi ti-sn khng-l cha khai-thc ny.

N‰u tng-k‰t cc ܧc-lܮng ny, ngܩi ta c mt con s qu sc ln lao m trܧc y ba chc nm khng ai ng ti!

Gia qun-o Hong-Sa v o Hi-Nam, gn khu-vc m Trung cng chi‰m ca ta, h† tm thy mt m kh t tr-lܮng 90 t› mt khi, hiŒn ang khai-thc (lch Vn-Ha ViŒt-Nam Tng-Hp, 1988.)

Ngay gia vng qun-o Hong-Sa, Trung-Cng cng khi-s thm d sau khi xm-lng. Trn nhiŠu bn- vŠ tnh-trng du la, ngܩi ta thy Trung-Cng cho in hnh mt dn khoan . Tuy vy s khai thc du kh c l cha thc-s ti‰n-hnh.

Ring trong khu-vc Trܩng-Sa, hai khu-vc ܮc bi‰t chc chn l c du kh:

-550 triŒu thng vng pha Ty bi T-chnh trn thŠm lc-a ViŒt-Nam

-bi C Rong do Phi-lut-Tn khai thc

12.5 - Du kh trong hi-phn do ViŒt-Nam ki‹m-sot.

Khng k‹ nhng khu-vc b Trung-Cng chi‰m-ng cng nh cc vng bi‹n ngoi khi ang tranh-chp, ti-nguyn vŠ du kh trong lng bi‹n ViŒt-Nam ܮc ܧc-tnh qua nhng s-lܮng nh sau:

-Theo ti‰n-s Charles Johnson thuc viŒn Est-West Center, tr-lܮng du ha ViŒt-Nam ܧc-lܮng vo khong t 1.5 ‰m 3.0 t› thng. ‹ so snh, ta ly trܩng-hp cc nܧc ang sn-xut du la trong vng nh c-i-Li v M-lai-. Hai quc-gia ny c tr-lܮng ln lܮt l 1.7 v 3.0 t› thng. VŠ kh t, tr-lܮng ca ViŒt-Nam c th‹ nhiŠu ti 10,000 t› cubic feet. Ba vng gi‰ng du kh ܮc thm d y v ang ܮc khai-thc c tr-lܮng nh sau:

*Bch-H 175- 300 triŒu thng,

*i-Hng 300- 600 triŒu thng,

*Rng 100- 150 triŒu thng.

(Investing in VietNam: Oil and Gas Exploration, Michael J. Scown, East Asian Executive Reports April 1992: 23.)

Hnh 94 - Cc l phn-chia ‹ khai-thc du-ha ngoi khi Nam-phn. Lu-š khu-vc tranh-chp ViŒt-Hoa ti vng Bi T-Chnh (Vn-An) v v-tr cc gi‰ng du: Rng, Da, Bch-H, i-Hng.

Nhng tin-tc lc-quan vo cui nm 1994 cho hay sn-lܮng du kh ca ViŒt-Nam vܮt qua mt Trung-Cng v phng-nhViŒt-Nam c s tr-lܮng du kh khng-l, vo hng th t trn th‰-gii. (The United States and Vietnam: Overcoming the Past and Investing in the Future, Thomas R. Stauch, bo The International Lawyer, Winter 1994: 1025.)

12.6 - Nhng ti-nguyn Bi‹n ng trong tng-lai.

Theo pht-tri‹n khoa-h†c k-thut, nhiŠu ti-nguyn quš-gi s dn dn ܮc khai thc t lng bi‹n. Con ngܩi s o thm du kh nhng vng bi‹n su hn, ly ܮc nhiŠu loi qung m cn-thi‰t cho k-nghŒ.

Ngܩi Ho-Lan vi k-thut -iŠu ngn-chn nܧc bi‹n, t cc th‰-k› trܧc chi‰m thm ܮc nhiŠu t ai sinh sng. Ngܩi Nht ngy nay khi-s canh-tc quy-m mt vi loi tho-mc sng trong nܧc mn nh rong bi‹n, nhiŠu loi s h‰n v ǥc-biŒt pht-t trong ngnh sn-xut ng†c trai nhn-to.

NhiŠu th-nghiŒm cho thy trong tng-lai, loi ngܩi s c th‹ sinh-sng trong lng bi‹n. Nhng khu nh-c ngoi khng-gian xem ra xa vi hn l nhng thnh-ph nm dܧi mt nܧc. Th‰-gii bi‹n-c ri ra s tr nn sinh-Ƕng i vi loi ngܩi khng thua g th‰-gii trn t liŠn.

Ngܩi ViŒt phi mt nhiŠu th‰-k› mi vܮt h‰t gii ni Trܩng-Sn ‹ st-nhp na phn miŠn Nam vo vi lnh-th. Nhng ri y, theo vi pht-tri‹n chung ca nhn-loi, c l dn ta s khng qu tn-km th-gi ‹ thu-nhn Bi‹n ng lm cho cn nh ViŒt-Nam rng ri hn, giu c hn.

NhiŠu loi nng-lܮng thin-nhin ca bi‹n c ang ܮc nghin-cu ‹ con ngܩi s-dng. Khng bao lu na, nhng dn duyn-hi nh ngܩi ViŒt s c nhiŠu nng-lܮng r tiŠn ly ra t sng, gi, thy-triŠu, t s chnh-lŒch nhiŒt-Ƕ ca nܧc bi‹n trn mt v dܧi y bi‹n, s sai-biŒt Ƕ mn gia nܧc sng v nܧc ngoi khi v.v...

Hnh 95 - Mt s rong bi‹n quen thuc nht ca ngnh canh-tc bi‹n.

Khc vi viŒc trng cy trn mt t, ngܩi ta c mt "hi-gian" bao la ‹ canh-tc "nng-phm" bi‹n theo c ba chiŠu. Nhng nh vi‰t chuyŒn khoa-h†c gi-tܪng cn ngh rng trong khong vi th‰-k› ti, nhn-loi s bt u c-tr thܩng-trc trong lng bi‹n c. "Ngܩi bi‹n", nh ti‰n-b khoa-h†c, sng thnh-thi v m†i sinh-hot cng bnh-thܩng nh chng ta ang sng ngy nay trn cn.

Lnh-hi s cng ngy cng c thm gi-tr.

13 - CC O thuc QUN-O HO€NG-SA.

on ny kho-st cc o Hong-Sa mt cch chi-ti‰t hn.

13.1 - Tn qun-o: Bi Ct Vng.

Chng ta thܩng quen miŒng m g†i qun-o Hong-Sa, nhng thc ra dy o ny t xa mang tn ViŒt-Nam l Bi Ct Vng hay Cn Vng. Tn ny xc-nh r rng s s-hu lu ǩi v ngܩi ViŒt bi‰t r ǥc-tnh qun-o ca mnh. Chung quanh cc o, r nht Quang-Ha, bi ct thܩng mu vng. Vo nhng ngy bi‹n m, ngܩi ta c th‹ trng sut ‰n y cc nŠn lng cho san-h v thy ct vng .

Ngܩi Trung-Hoa g†i qun-o bng nhiŠu tn thay ǰi mt cch bt-nht. Ch mi gn y, h† g†i l Hsisha hay Xisha Qundao (Ty-Sa.)

Trn hi- quc-t‰, Bi Ct Vng ܮc ghi l Paracel Islands hay Paracels.

Hnh 96 - Hnh-nh qun-o Hong-Sa trn nŠn y Bi‹n ng. (Geological Topographic Mapping Party of Fujian Province, 1980's.)

ng Thi-vn-Ki‹m dn hai thuy‰t vŠ "Paracel" l tn ngܩi ngoi-quc hay thܩng g†i nh sau:

-Theo gio-s Pierre Yves Manguin, Parcel l mt ti‰ng B-o-Nha. Ti‰ng ny ngha l ngm (rcif) hay cao-tng (haut-font.)

-Theo gio-s A. Brbion, Paracel l tn mt thng-thuyŠn Ho-Lan. Tu ny thuc cng-ty ng-ƒn b ǡm ti qun-o Ct Vng vo th‰-k› XVI. (Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa, Nguyn-q.-Thng, Si Gn 1988.)

V v s hn o, hn , cn n, bi cn lc ni lc chm theo vi mc nܧc thy-triŠn ln xung nn s lܮng o ty theo cch ‰m m k‹ l nhiŠu hay t. Gio-s Sn-Hng-c cho s lܮng l 120 o. Sch c ViŒt-Nam trong nhng th‰-k› trܧc y cho bi‰t c 130 o. S lܮng ny n‰u ch "cn" (trong nghi Cn Vng) tc sng "cn" th khng sai thc-t‰.

Dn Trung-Hoa, c ngܩi cho rng Hong-Sa ch gm 7 o nn g†i l Tht-Chu, c ngܩi li ni 9 o nn ǥt tn bi‹n Hong-Sa l Cu-o-dng. Chng ti ngh rng chng ta kh c th‹ chp-nhn c hai con s qu sai lc ny.

Hnh 97 - Bn- Qun-o Hong-Sa vi a-danh ViŒt-Nam. (Cc o-c, CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam, 1989.)

13.2 - ChiŠu cao cc o.

Cc o Hong-Sa khng cao. Hi- 5497 ca S Thy-o Hoa-K ghi nhn Ƕ cao nhng o bng b Anh m chng ti x‰p theo th-t cao thp nh sau: Rocky Island (o Hn ) 50ft, Pattle I. (o Hong-Sa) 30ft, Robert I. (o Hu-Nht hay Cam-TuyŠn) 26ft, Money I. (o Quang-nh) 20ft, Pyramid Rk. (Hn Thp) 17ft, Lincoln I. (o Linh-Cn) 15ft, Duncan I. (o Quang-Ha) 13ft, Triton I. (o Tri-Tn) 10ft.

Hai bi ngm Macclesfield v Scarborough nm vŠ pha ng ca qun-o Hong-Sa, lun lun nm dܧi mt nܧc.

Cc o chnh ca Hong-Sa gm thnh hai nhm :

-Nhm Lܫi LiŠm pha ng Bc

-Nhm An-Vnh pha Ty-Nam

13.3 - Cc Bi Ngm Macclesfield v Scarborough.

Trܧc khi Š-cp ‰n hai nhm Lܫi-LiŠm v An-Vnh, chng ti xin ni s qua vŠ cc bi ngm pha ng Hong-Sa nh Macclesfield Bank, Stewart Bank, Truro Shoal v Scarborough Shoal.

Hnh 98- Bn- tng-qut v-tr cc qun-o v bi ngm vng Bc ca Bi‹n ng

Nhm Macclesfield ch gm cc bi ngm khng c o nn thܩng b nhiŠu ngܩi b qun khng liŒt-k trong danh-sch cc o ca Bi Ct Vng. Khi thi-ti‰t tht tt, ngܩi ta ch thy mt bi‹n phng lng nhng khi sng gi, nhng cn nܧc trng xa ni ln sut mt vng rng ln trng rt hng-v cho du-khch thܪng-ngon nhng cng gi mi kinh-s mc cn cho ngܩi i bi‹n.

Nhng ti-liŒu c ViŒt-Nam Š-cp ‰n s lܮng cc o cc bi (130 o), diŒn-tch (di rng nhiŠu trm hi-lš), v-tr (ngang Qung-Ngi) xc nhn cc bi cn Macclesfield ny cng thuc qun-o Ct-Vng hay Hong-Sa vy !

Hnh 99 - Bi ngm Macclesfield vi cc v-tr neo tiŒn-li ngoi khi Bi‹n ng.

Nm vŠ pha ng-Nam ca qun-o Hong-Sa, bi ngm Macclesfield l khu-vc rt tiŒn-li cho viŒc neo tu. Trn ܩng hi-hnh t ViŒt qua Hng-Kng hay Phi-lut-Tn, cng nh nhiŠu tu ngoi-quc, nhng chi‰n-hm v thng-thuyŠn ViŒt-Nam khi cn ngng li, thܩng neo ‹ ngh tm y. Nhm bi ngm ny hu h‰t nm dܧi v-tuy‰n 16 Ƕ Bc v vo khong mt na ܩng hng-hi t -Nng i Phi-lut-Tn. Nhm Macclesfield chiŠu di ti hn mt trm hi-lš, rng khong 60 hi-lš, nh ܮc rng san-h m†c ngm dܧi bi‹n bao quanh nh bc tܩng cn sng nn mt bi‹n bn trong kh yn. Tuy gia mt vng bi‹n chung quanh su ti 3 - 4,000m, cc bi ngm nhm ny li ni cao ln. NhiŠu ch‡ y ct nng, t 5 ‰n 12 fathom (9 - 22m); giy neo tu ln di ‹ c th‹ neo tu li cho thy-th-on sa my hay ngh-ngi.

Trung-Cng v i-Loan cng tuyn-b ch-quyŠn trn bi Macclesfield, nhng v bi ngm su dܧi bi‹n nn khng c "cn-c qun-s" no ܮc xy-dng.

VŠ pha ng ca bi Macclesfield, gn b bi‹n Phi-lut-Tn c mt bi kh ln dܧi l ngm: Scarborough Shoal. Bi ny nm dܧi mt bi‹n chng 92 fathoms. Bn cnh , Truro Shoal su 10 fathoms v Stewart Bank (578 fathoms) gn o Luzon ca Phi-lut-Tn.

13.4 - Nhm Trng Khuy‰t.

Trng-Khuy‰t hay Lܫi LiŠm hay NguyŒt-ThiŠm hay Croissant hay Crescent l tn mt nhm o quan-tr†ng nm vŠ pha t liŠn ViŒt-Nam.

Theo gio-s Sn-Hng-c th t phi-c nhn xung nhm o ny c hnh nh hai chi‰c bnh "Croissant" (hay Crescent) u u vo nhau. C 7 o chnh k‹ ra dܧi y km theo tn Trung-Hoa:

-Hong-Sa - Shanhu Dao

-Hu-Nht - Guanquan Dao

-Duy-Mng - Jinqing Dao

-Quang-nh - Jinyin Dao

-Quang-Ho - Chenhang Dao

-Bch-Qu› - Panshi Yu

-Tri-Tn - Zhongjian Dao.

-Cc bi ngm

-V-s mm .

Hnh 100 - Nhm o Trng Khuy‰t.

13.4.1- o Hong-Sa.

o Hong-Sa (Pattle Island) tuy l o chnh ca qun-o nhng khng phi l o ln nht. NhiŠu nh qun-s cho rng o ny c v-tr quan-tr†ng nht, hn c o Ph-Lm trong viŒc phng-th b bi‹n nܧc ta.

o hnh bu dc, di khong 950m, rng khong 650m, diŒn-tch chng .32km2, c vng san-h bao quanh.

Trong thi-gian Hong-Sa dܧi ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-Nam Cng-Ha, ngܩi ta thy c nh ca cn-c qun-s, i kh-tܮng, hi-ng, miu B, cu tu, bia ch-quyŠn.

Hnh 101 - Khng-nh Hong-Sa trong thi-gian qun-Ƕi VNCH tr-ng.

-C-s qun-s ܮc thi‰t-lp t u thp-nin 1930. Sang thp-nin 1950, 1960; c lc nh ca ܮc xy ct thm, tm cho s tr-phng ca mt ti‹u-on Thy-qun Lc-chi‰n. Sau ny khi lc-lܮng VNCH gim xung cn mt trung-Ƕi a-phng-qun th nh ca bt i.

-Khong nm 1938, mt i Kh-tܮng bt u hot-Ƕng. C-s xy ct ca i cng nh n binh l hai ngi nh -s v kin-c. Ch tr t nm khi qun-o b Nht chi‰m, i quan-trc thi-ti‰t v ph-bi‰n tin-tc kh-tܮng trong nhiŠu thp-nin cho ‰n khi Trung-Cng cܫng-chi‰m vo thng 1/ 1974.

S hiŒu ca i ny l 48 860. Trong t-chc kh-tܮng th‰-gii World Meteorological Organization, nhm 48 ch vng ng-Nam-, s 860 dng cho i Hong-Sa.

-Hi-ng nm pha Bc ca o cng tr-gip ǡc-lc cho cc nh hng-hi khi dn l tu thuyŠn i ngang qua vng bi‹n Hong-Sa. n hiŒu ny thy xa chng 12 hi-lš, thuc loi hi-ng chp tt c chu-k m thi-khong sng di hn thi-khong tt (Hi- ghi: Occ -12.) Cc ti-liŒu hng-hi quc-t‰ nh List of Lights trong nhng thp-nin 40, 50, 60, 70 Šu ghi-ch r rŒt nhng i‹m ny.

Hnh 102 - Tri: Bia Ch-quyŠn ngܩi Php dng ln nm 1938, ghi li viŒc nhn ch-quyŠn chnh-thc ca chnh-quyŠn ViŒt-Nam t 1816.

Hnh 103- Phi: Mt ngܩi lnh ViŒt trong "Garde Indochinoise" ang tun-phng trn bi bi‹n Hong-Sa.

i kh-tܮng v hi-ng bi‹u-tܮng hng-hn cho s qun-tr lnh-th mt cch hu-hiŒu ca ViŒt-Nam Cng-Ha. Cc chng-c nh vy ni-ti‰p vi nhng chng c khc t ǩi L, Nguyn cho thy s lin-lc trong viŒc hnh-s ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-Nam trong sut mt khong thi-gian di nhiŠu th‰-k›.

-Miu B c Tܮng B cao 1.50m, ܮc xy gc Ty-Nam ca o, ni m t t liŠn ra l gp ngay. Mi‰u th chc chn ܮc xy nhiŠu ln. Theo sch "Chnh-bi‰n", vua Minh-Mng cho dng mt thn-t cng lc vi viŒc lp bia, trng thm cy ci trn cc o Hong-Sa vo nm 1835. Mi‰u ny cch to mi‰u c 7 trܮng.

-Bia ch-quyŠn ViŒt-Nam ܮc ǥt gn ni gia o. Nh Nguyn chnh-thc ǥt ch-quyŠn qun-o Hong-Sa nm 1816. Ngܩi Php xc-nhn li ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-Nam vo nm 1938 bng mt tm bia ghi nhng hng ch nh sau:

Rpublique Francaise

Empire d'Annam

Archipel des Paracels

1816-Ile de Pattle-1938

Hnh 104 - Mt vin chc ViŒt-Nam chp hnh trܧc Nh th trn o Hong-Sa.

 

-Mt nh th Thin-cha ܮc xy-dng vo thp-nin 1950 lm ch‡ cu-nguyŒn cho qun-nhn theo Thin-cha-gio

o c ܩng gong bng st di 180m dn ra cu tu dng cho viŒc vn-chuy‹n phn bn. Cu tu nm vŠ pha Nam ca o. Mt rch nܧc kh su dn t ngoi bi‹n vo cu tu . Trong thp-nin 60, cu tu ny dng ‹ cp cc x-lan ch phosphate. Sang thp-nin 70, cu v ܩng st b h hng nhiŠu.

o rng ‹ c th‹ thc-hiŒn mt sn bay nh. Ngay trܧc khi qun-o mt vo tay Trung-Cng, Qun-Ƕi VNCH ang chun-b thi‰t-lp mt phi-o ngn kh-nng ti‰p-nhn vn-ti-c Caribou (C7) hay cc loi phi-c khc cn dng phi-o ngn hn. Ton cng-binh tiŠn-phng mi ra ti ni th trn hi-chi‰n xy ra v o b Trung-Cng chi‰m-ng.

Mi y, Trung-Cng cng-b nhng bc hnh cho thy s thay ǰi. Trn o Hong-Sa cng nh trn cc o cn-kŠ tng i ln, chng xy ct thm nh ca, to-thnh nhng cn-c dnh cho c qun-s ln ng-nghiŒp.

13.4.2 - o Hu-Nht (Robert Island hay Cam-TuyŠn.) o mang danh mt Sut-Ƕi Thy-Qun triŠu Nguyn, tn Phm-hu-Nht. ng ngܩi Qung-Ngi ܮc vua Minh-Mng phi ra qun-o Hong-Sa ‹ o c thy-trnh v v bn- cc o vo nm 1836. o hi trn, rng Ƕ .32km2, nm vŠ pha Nam o Hong-Sa, cch 3 hi-lš. ViŠn quanh o c nhng cy nhu cao t 2 ‰n 3m. Bn trong lp cy, dy chng 30m, l khu lng cho nm gia o khng su. Trn lp t , ngoi t bi cy nh th c tranh m†c khp ni khng cao lm.

Ngoi ba o l mt vng san-h, c nhiŠu ch‡ ln hn vo bi ct. Rt nhiŠu rong ph kn mt bi‹n bao chung quanh. Vt thܩng ln b trng la liŒt trong khong hai ma Xun v H .

13.4.3 - o Duy-Mng (Drummond Island) cao khng qu 4 m. o hnh bu dc, diŒn-tch khong .41km2 c nhiŠu loi cy nh. Hi ging nh o Hu-Nht, gia o l mt vng t khng c cy. Ch‡ t trng ny c th‹ sinh sng ܮc. Li c mt lch nܧc nh nn ghe i theo ca lch vo ܮc st b. Tu ln c th‹ b neo cch b 2, 3 trm thܧc.

NhiŠu con vt v chim bi‹n sng trn o .

Vo u thng 1 nm 1974, trong nhng ngy Trung-Cng khi-s xm-lܮc nhm Lܫi-LiŠm ca qun-o Hong-Sa, chng tp-trung ti 11 chi‰m-hm pha ng o Duy-Mng ny.

13.4.4 - o Quang-nh (Money Island hay Vnh-Lc.) o mang tn mt nhn-vt lch-s: Phm-quang-nh, v i-trܪng Hong-Sa-Ƕi thi Nguyn. Theo lŒnh vua Gia-Long, ng em hi-Ƕi ra Hong-Sa nm 1815 ‹ thu-hi hi-vt.

o ny cao khi mt bi‹n ti 6 m, c l cao nht trong nhm o NguyŒt-ThiŠm. o hnh bu dc hi trn, diŒn-tch khong .5km2. C mt s cy ln m†c gia o cao ti 5m, ngoi l cc cy phosphorite v mt loi cy khc ging cy mt nhng khng c tri.

Chung quanh o c nhiŠu ngm v san-h. Tu ln khng th‹ li gn o v d mc cn, mun th neo phi thn-tr†ng v d mt neo.

13.4.5 - o Quang-Ha (Duncan Island.) o ny ln nht nhm o Lܫi LiŠm, diŒn-tch gn .5km2. Chung quanh o l bi ct mu vng. Vng san-h lan ra rt xa khi ba o. Cnh o ln cn c nhng o nh, ni liŠn nhau bng bi ct di. Mt vi bn- a-cht ghi Quang-Ha thnh hai o Quang-Ha ng v Quang-Ha Ty:

- Quang-ha ng c rng cy nhu v cy phosphorite m†c pha Ty ca o, nhiŠu cy cao ti 5m. Phn o pha ng tr tri ch c giy leo st mt t.

- Quang-Ha Ty l mt o nh, ch bng 1/10 o ng, cng nhng loi cy nh o ng nhng ch cao khong 3m.

Trn hi-chi‰n 19 thng 1 nm 1974 gia Hi-qun ViŒt-Nam v Trung-Cng din ra trong vng 5, 10 hi-lš pha Ty v Ty-Nam o ny.

Hnh 105- Khu-trc-Hm Trn-khnh-D HQ-4, mt n-v ca HQ/VNCH tng tham-chi‰n Hong-Sa. HiŒn chi‰n-hm ny trong HQ/ CHXHCN/VN thܩng m-nhiŒm hun-luyŒn, chi‰n s HQ-3.

13.4.6 - o Bch-Qu› (Passu Keah.) o ny l mt di san-h, ch tht-s ni hn ln khi mt nܧc khi thy-triŠu xung. a-th‰ tr tr†i , khng cho php ngܩi ta sinh-tn.

13.4.7 - o Tri-Tn (Triton Island.) o ny gn b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam nht so vi cc o khc ca Hong-Sa. o Tri-Tn thp, tr tr†i san-h, khng c cy c nhng nhiŠu hi-sn nh hi-sm, ba ba, san-h mu sc.

13.4.8 - Cc bi ngm. C ba bi ngm:

-Bi ngm Antelope Reef nm pha Nam o Hu-Nht v pha ng o Quang-nh hon ton l san-h cha ni ln mt nܧc.

-Bi ngm Vuladdore nm vŠ pha ng Nam ca nhm o Lܫi LiŠm, cch xa khong 20 hi-lš.

-Bi ngm Khm-ph (Discovery.)

Bi ngm Khm-ph ny l bi ngm ln nht trong c qun o. Mt vng san-h bao quanh chiŠu di ti 15 hi-lš, bŠ ngang chng 5 hi-lš.

‹ hnh-dung phn no quang-cnh cc bi ngm ni Bi‹n ng, chng ti tm g†n li phn m-t sau y ca ng Sn-hng-c vŠ bi ngm Discovery lm tiu-bi‹u. Trong mt chuy‰n vi‰ng-thm Hong-Sa vo u thp-nin 1970, v gio-s a-lš ny ghi li nh sau:

"ng trn i ch-huy ca tu nhn xung mt m bn trong m tiu san-h l mt th‰-gii yn lng, mc d bn ngoi sng b tng cn ln m tiu viŠn. Nܧc bc ua nhau, theo mt lch nh ‹ vo bn trong. Vo nhng ngy bi‹n yn, ngܩi ta c th‹ trng sut ‰n y lng cho ct vng y. NhiŠu loi thy-tc sng lu nm nn to ln d-thܩng. C nhng con c ui bng hai chi‰c chi‰u, c tai tܮng to bng ci bn nng 700 kš ..."

Nh a-cht-h†c A. Krempt cho rng m-tiu Discovery, tn Php l Dcouverte c hnh bn-nguyŒt kh i-xng nhau. Gia l m nܧc c Ƕ su trung-bnh 25m vi hng san-h ang tng-trܪng cch ‰n 4 hay 5m dܧi mc nܧc bi‹n thp. Krempt cho rng c th‹ gii-thch ܮc s thnh-lp cc m-tiu san-h. (Barrier Reefs) vng ng-Bc c-chu theo gi-thuy‰t gi ma ca ng. (La Forme des Rcifs Coralliens et le Rgime des Vents Alternants, Krempf A., Trong Rapport du Conseil du Gouvernement sur les Fonctionnements du Service Ocanographique des Pches de l'Indochine pendant l'Anne 1926-1927.)

13.5 - Nhm o An-Vnh (Amphitrite Group.)

Nhm o ng-Bc qun-o Hong-Sa ܮc g†i l nhm An-Vnh, theo tn mt x thuc tnh Qung-Ngi. X An-Vnh l mt a-danh t lu gn liŠn vi lch-s Hong-Sa. i-Nam Thc-lc TiŠn-bin quy‹n 10 ghi chp vŠ x ny nh sau: "Ngoi bi‹n x An-Vnh, huyŒn Bnh-Sn, tnh Qung-Ngi c hn 100 cn ct ... chiŠu di ko di khng bi‰t ti my ngn dm, tc g†i l Vn-lš Hong-Sa chu ... Hi quc s u triŠu Nguyn ǥt Ƕi Hong-Sa gm 70 ngܩi ly dn x An-Vnh sung vo, hng nm c ‰n thng ba cܫi thuyŠn ra o, ba m th ti ni ..."

Nhm o cn ܮc g†i l Amphitrite hay Tuyn-c. Amphitrite l tn ca mt trong nhng chi‰c tu u-chu u tin vo Bi‹n ng, gp nguy-khn Hong-Sa. Chi‰c tu Php ny sang bun-bn vi Trung-Hoa vo cui th‰-k› XVII (Journal de Voyage aux Paracels, Jean Yves Claeys, bo Indochine, Hni, cc s 44, 45, 46, nm 1941.)

Nhm o An-Vnh bao gm cc o tng-i ln v cao nht trong cc o ca Hong-Sa, v cng l cc o san-h ln nht Bi‹n ng nh:

-o Ph-Lm - Yongxing Dao

-o Cy hay C-Mc - Zhaoshu Dao

-o Lincoln -Dong Dao

-o Trung - Zhong Dao

-o Bc - Bei Dao

-o Nam - Nan Dao

-o Ty - Xisha Zhou

-o Hn - Shi Dao.

Sau y l m-t mt s cc o chnh:

13.5.1 - o Ph-Lm (Woody Island.) o Ph-Lm nm bn o Hn (Rocky Island- cao 50ft), diŒn-tch ln hn Hn nhng cao-Ƕ thp hn rt nhiŠu. y l o quan-tr†ng nht ca nhm o An-Vnh.

Hnh 106 - Bn- nhm o An-Vnh. Gc tri l hnh o Ph-Lm.

Trܧc th‰-chi‰n th hai khi cn lm ch ng-Dng, ngܩi Php cng khai-ph cc o thuc nhm An-Vnh. Ging nh trn o Hong-Sa, h† thi‰t-lp mt i quan-trc kh-tܮng o Cy, s hiŒu ܮc ghi trong danh-sch World Meteorological Organisation l 48 859.

Sau khi Nht u hng ng-minh, vo thng 6 nm 1946 Hi-Qun Php gi chi‰n-hm Savorgnan de Brazza ‰n chi‰m cc o Hong-Sa. V trn chi‰n ViŒt-Php bng n d di, vo thng 9/ 1946 ngܩi Php rt qun khi Hong-Sa. Vo ngy 26/ 6/ 1946 d chm tr, Trung-Hoa ly c ‰n gii-gii qun Nht (ng l phi lm nm 1945) ln ǰ qun ln Ph-Lm ri chi‰m-ng lun o ny v ti‰p-tc i chi‰m mt o na Trܩng-Sa.

Vo ngy 13/1/ 1947, Chnh-quyŠn Php chnh-thc phn-i hnh-Ƕng chi‰m-c bt-hp-php ca Trung-Hoa v gi chi‰n-hm Le Tonkinois ra Hong-Sa. Thy Ph-Lm ܮc Trung-Hoa phng-th k-lܫng, chi‰n-hm quay vŠ o Hong-Sa (Pattle) ‹ ǰ-b 10 qun-nhn Php cng 17 qun-nhn ViŒt-Nam ln chi‰m-ng o ny.

Khi Trung-Hoa Dn-quc chy ra i-Loan, h† cng rt qun Ph-Lm v Thi-Bnh vŠ i-Loan nm 1950. By nm sau khi ki‹m-sot ܮc lc-i Trung-Cng mi b mt gi qun ra chi‰m o Ph-Lm vo m 20 rng 21 thng 2 nm 1956.

HiŒn nay Trung-Cng ǥt B ch-huy ton-th‹ lc-lܮng qun tr-phng qun-o Hong-Sa y. Cn-c qun-s ny kin-c nht trn Bi‹n ng.

Sch Ocean Yearbook 10 (Chicago 1993) cho bi‰t c ti 4,000 binh-s Hi-qun v Thy-qun Lc-chi‰n trong vng bi‹n Hong-Sa. Phn ln s lnh ny ng ti o Ph-Lm, s nh trn o Lincoln v cc o thuc nhm Trng-Khuy‰t.

Hnh 107 - Cu tu o Ph-Lm. Hnh chp trܧc thng 8 /1945 ca ng Nguyn-vn-Tnh, trܪng s TSF Hong-Sa.

o c cu tu ln, phi-trܩng, i ki‹m-bo, kinh o v nhiŠu tiŒn-nghi qun-s khc. o di ti 1.7km, chiŠu ngang 1.2km, diŒn-tch 320 acres hay chng 1.3km2. o c nhiŠu cy ci ti tt nn mang tn Ph-lm.

13.5.2 - o Linh-Cn (Lincoln Island.)

o Linh-Cn nm vŠ pha cc ng ca nhm o An-Vnh v cng l o ln nht ca c qun-o Hong-Sa, diŒn-tch chng 1.62km2 hay 400 acres, bŠ cao chng 15 ft. Hi- ghi trn o c nܧc ng†t. Vng san-h bao quanh o ko di vŠ pha Nam nh mt con ln c ci u Lincoln vi ci thn di ti gn 15 hi-lš. NhiŠu o, san-h ti hng chc ci, nhp-nh trn mt nܧc bi‹n.

o ny ܮc Trung-Cng bi‰n thnh mt cn-c. Ngoi cng-s qun-s, cc c-s ng-nghiŒp cng ܮc xy ct kh nhiŠu vi cu tu rng ln, nh kho, nh my ch‰-bi‰n ...

Hnh 108 - i Radar Trung-Cng trn qun-o Hong-Sa (Bejing Review Feb 18, 1980.)

13.5.3 - Cc bi ngm chnh :

-Bi ngm Jehangire Bank

-Bi ngm Bremen Bank

-Bi ngm Bombay Reef

14 - Cc o thuc Qun-o Trܩng-Sa.

Qun-o Trܩng-Sa nm vŠ pha Nam ca Bi‹n ng, o gn nht cch qun-o Hong-Sa vo khong 350 hi-lš, o xa nht c ‰n 500 hi-lš. Qun-o ny gm khong trn mt trm o, n‰u tnh c nhng hn v bi cn. o Trܩng-Sa, (tn g†i ny dng chung cho c qun-o) cch Vng-Tu 305 hi-lš, cch Cam-Ranh 250 hi-lš, cch o Ph-Quš 210 hi-lš .

BŠ di nht ca bi‹n Trܩng-Sa o ܮc 500 hi-lš, tnh t Bi C Rong tn cng hܧng ng-ng-Bc ca qun-o ti Bi T-Chnh l ni tn cng hܧng Ty-Ty-Nam.

Cc o Trܩng-Sa nm ri rc trong mt khu-vc bi‹n khong t 4 Ƕ ‰n 12 Ƕ Bc v-tuy‰n v t 109 Ƕ 30 pht ‰n 118 Ƕ ng kinh-tuy‰n. Vng bi‹n ny chi‰m ti khong 360,000 km2, tc vi chc ln ln hn vng bi‹n Hong-Sa hay rng bng lnh-th ViŒt-Nam trn lc-a. Bi‹n tuy rng nhng diŒn-tch cc o, , bi ni ln khi mt nܧc li rt t, ch tng-cng vo khong 10 km2.

14.1 - a-danh.

VŠ danh xng, s ta chp l Vn-lš Trܩng-Sa, hay i Trܩng-Sa, ti‰ng quen g†i vn tt l Trܩng-Sa. Ngܩi Anh, M g†i l Spratley (hay Spratly) Islands, Spratley (hay Spratly) Archipelago v vn tt hn: Spratlies. Ngܩi Php g†i l Archipel des Iles Spratly. Ngܩi Trung-Hoa g†i l Nam-Sa (Nansha) Qun-o hay Nam-Uy (Nan Wei) Qun-o. Phi-lut-Tn g†i l Kalayaan. Trong thi Th‰-chi‰n II ngܩi Nht g†i l Shinnan Guto.

Hnh 109 - Bn- qun-o Trܩng-Sa vi a-danh ViŒt-Nam. (Cc o-c, CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam, 1989.)

14.2 - S lܮng o.

Theo lut gia Michael Bennett th c ti hn 500 hn t, , bi ring-biŒt to thnh qun-o Trܩng-Sa (more than 500 separate land masses making up the Spratlys), tuy vy ch c chng 100 a-danh. (Stanford Journal of International Law, Spring 1992: 429.) C ngܩi ܧc-lܮng con s 230 o nh Michael Hindley & James Bridge (Free China Review, August 1994: 44), hay 99 "n-v" nh Ting Tsz Kao (The Chinese Frontiers, Illinois 1980: 289.)

Cn ngܩi Phi-lut-Tn li liŒt-k mt danh-sch gm 53 hn o v c lao trong khu-vc 64,976 dm vung ca Trܩng-Sa, h† g†i l t T-Do "Freedomland".

Nhng hn o hay no ni hn ln khi mt bi‹n khi nܧc ln cn ܮc xc-nh tht ng v trn mt php-lš, o (island), cn (cay), n (dune) hay hn (rock) ny l cn-bn ‹ tnh-ton nhiŠu y‰u-t nh lnh-hi, thŠm lc-a v hi-phn kinh-t‰ cho quc-gia ch-nhn ca n .

HiŒn nay c nhiŠu ti liŒu bn ‰n s lܮng nhng o v ny Trܩng-Sa. Chng ti xin trnh-by mt trong nhng ti-liŒu ca nh xut-bn University of California Press (Atlas for Marine Policy in Southeast Asian Sea, edited by Joseph R. Morgan v Mark J. Valencia, 1983.) N‰u theo nhm cc h†c-gi thng-tho lut bi‹n ny, Trܩng-Sa gm 33 "n-v" chia ra bn loi nh sau:

Island gm 9 n-v:

FLat Island, Itu-Aba, Loaita Island, Namyit Island, Nanshan Island, Sin Cowe Island, Spratly Island, Thitu Island, West York Island.

Cay gm 15 n-v:

Alicia-Annie Reef, Amboyna Cay, Commodore Reef, Grierson Reef, Irving Reef, Lankiam Cay, Loaita Cay, London Reef Cay, Mariveles Reef, Northeast Cay, Pearson Reef NE, Pearson Reef SW, Southwest Cay, Sand Cay, Sandy Cay.

Hnh 110 - Bn- ghi-nhn 33 o v ni thܩng trc trn mt bi‹n. Tnh-hnh chi‰m-ng Trܩng-Sa u thp-nin 1980: Phi-lut-Tn chi‰m 7,ViŒt-Nam 5, i-Loan 1.Cn li 20"n-v"(13 o, 7) cha b chi‰m.

Dune gm 2 n-v:

Gaven Reef, Landowne Reef

Rock gm 7 n-v:

Barque Canada Reef, Fiery Cross Reef, Great Discovery Reef, London East Reef, Louisa Reef, Royal Charlot Reef, Swallow Reef.

Trong hng my trm o bi, ln nh, ni chm ca Trܩng-Sa k‹ trn, ch c mt s o cn ni ‰n v tm quan-tr†ng ca n m chng ti xin m-t ra dܧi y:

Theo cc din-bi‰n hiŒn nay vŠ tranh-chp ch-quyŠn, chng ti tm sp x‰p thnh 3 vng. Tnh t b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam tr ra, 3 vng nh sau:

1-Vng ViŒt-Hoa tranh-chp gm o Trܩng-Sa v cc bi cn pha Ty ca qun-o Trܩng-Sa.

2-Vng ViŒt v nm nܧc tranh-chp nm vŠ pha Nam ln ranh tuyn-co ca M-lai-.

3-Vng ViŒt-Hoa-Phi tranh-chp bao trm hu h‰t khu-vc tuyn-co ca Phi-lut-Tn. Vng ny ܮc chia lm 4 khu nh:

*khu Nam, quanh Ch Thp

*khu Trung gm hai qun-o: Sinh-Tn v Ba-Bnh/Nam-Y‰t

*khu Bc, khu Loi-Ta Song-T

*khu ng, cc bi cn st Phi-lut-Tn

14.3 - Vng ViŒt-Hoa tranh-chp.

Gm c:-Bi T-Chnh hay Vanguard Bank,

-Bi Phc-Nguyn hay Prince Consort Bank

-Bi Qu‰-ܩng hay Grainger Bank

-Bi Phc Tn hay Prince of Wales Bank

-Bi HuyŠn-Trn hay Alexandra Bank

-Bi Vng My hay Rifleman Bank

- Lt hay Ladd Reef

-o Trܩng-Sa hay Spratley Island.

Vng ny nm vŠ pha cc Ty ca qun-o v gn b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam hn tt c cc bi v o khc ca qun-o Trܩng-Sa. Bi T-Chnh nm st vi thŠm lc-a ViŒt-Nam, tuy ngn cch mt ci rnh cn nhng khng xa ܩng thm-thy 200m bao nhiu. su y bi‹n tng t Ty qua ng nhng khng Šu. Quanh bi Vng My, nܧc li cn v c ch‡ khng su qu 300 m.

14.3.1 - a-danh lch-s.

Hu h‰t a-danh vng ny ǥt theo cc tn lch-s nh:

T-Chnh l tn mt phܩng trܧc kia trn C-Lao R, thuc Ph Qung-Ngi. Theo Ph-bin Tp-lc ca L-quš-n, dn-c phܩng T-Chnh trng u (T chnh phܩng c dn u iŠn.) T ca bi‹n An-Vnh ra phi i bn trng canh.

Cng theo sch trn, L-quš-n k‹ mt a-danh na hi khc vi T-Chnh l T-Chnh. l tn mt thn thuc Ph Bnh-Thun (Phan-Thi‰t ngy nay.) Ngܩi dn thn ny cng vi dn lng Cnh-Dng ܮc tuy‹n-ch†n n‰u mun tnh-nguyŒn gia nhp Ƕi Bc-Hi. H† chuyn i thm-st v thu-lܮm sn-vt vng qun-o Trܩng-Sa (Qun-o Trܩng-Sa v Hong-Sa ca ViŒt-Nam, ViŒt-Nam tp-ch, Campbell thng 8- 1991, trang 23.)

Phc-Nguyn v Phc-Tn l tn hai v cha anh-hng ca nh Nguyn. Phc-Nguyn (Phܧc-Nguyn, 1562-1635) hay cha Si l cha th hai nh Nguyn. ng khng thn-phc cha Trnh, tr sc d li cho vua L vo nm 1630. Cha nhn xa, trng rng: ng thng-hi‰u vi vua Cao-Mn v a ngܩi ViŒt di-dn vo Nam-phn.

Phc-Tn (Phܧc-Tn, 1619-1687) hay cha HiŠn l cha th t nh Nguyn. V cha rt gii thy-chi‰n ny nh thng ܮc binh-thuyŠn Ha-Lan ‰n cܧp ph nm 1644, khi ng mi ch lm chc th‰-t. Nh chi‰n-cng, cha Phܧc-Tn chm dt ܮc cuc phn-tranh Nam-Bc ko di 45 nm (1627-1672.) Cha cng l ngܩi chi‰m ܮc vng t Nha-trang, m nܧc cho ‰n tn Phan-Rang. Bc qun-o Trܩng-Sa nm ngang v-tuy‰n vi Phan-Rang.

Qu‰-ܩng l tn hiŒu ca L-Quš-n (1726-1784), mt nh bc-h†c vŠ thi L, trܧc-thut nhiŠu tc-phm vŠ lch-s, a-d v vn-ha nܧc ta. Tc-phm ca ng c Š-cp ti a-lš Hong-Sa, Trܩng-Sa.

HuyŠn-Trn l tn cng-cha con gi vua Trn-Nhn-Tn (1279-1293.) Nh cuc k‰t-hn ca HuyŠn-Trn vi vua Chim Ch‰-Mn, nܧc ta c thm hai chu , Lš nh l snh-l. t ny ǰi tn l Thun-chu v Ha-chu. (Tn Hu‰ ngy nay do ch Ha m ra.) Hong-Sa nm ngang cng v-Ƕ vi vng t ny.

Ngoi cc bi cn mang tn lch-s, cn c bi Vng-My vi Hn Bng-Bay l mt v-tr tng-i cao.

Cc bi va k‹ Šu do t ct san h to nn. C bi nh c v ang ti‰p-tc ni cao ln, tuy vy khi nܧc rng st cng t khi cao qu mt nܧc.

Theo bn- quc-phng M (bn- s G9237.S63, nm 1992), qun tr-phng XHCN ViŒt-Nam hiŒn ng trn cc bi T-chnh, Phc-Nguyn, Qu‰-ܩng v Bi Vng-My (Rifleman Bank.) Theo ti liŒu ca bo-ch M mi y, ViŒt-Nam ang phng-th trn nhng dn ki‹u nh sn Bi T-Chnh (Vanguard Bank), Bi Phc-Tn (Prince of Wales Bank.) Qun ViŒt-Nam cng ng trn Lt (Ladd Reef) Bng-Bay (Bombay Castle, Rifleman Bank) vi n phng-th chnh trn o Trܩng-Sa.

Khu-vc bi‹n vŠ pha Ty bi T-chnh (Trung-Cng g†i l Bi Vn-An- Wan'an Bei) nm hon-ton trong thŠm lc a ViŒt-Nam ܮc bi‰t ch-xc l c tr-lܮng du la rt ln. Thanh-Long l tn g†i ti du ny, cha ti 500 triŒu thng. Trung-Hoa lc-a c cn tr ViŒt-Nam khng cho khi-cng khai-thc. nhiŠu phen h† ln ti‰ng phn-i v c ln gi chi‰n-hm xung ph m viŒc ti‰p-t‰ cho mt dn khoan thm-d y.

Hnh 111 - Bn- tng-qut vng tranh chp Crestone.

Nm ngoi, t-hp Nht-M MJC Petroleum Ltd. vi mt thnh-vin l cng-ty Hoa-K Mobil Oil ܮc CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam nhܮng-quyŠn thm d khai-thc vng T-Chnh. Mt cng-ty du khc l Conoco ang thng-thuy‰t vi H-Ni xin quyŠn khai-thc khu-vc pha Bc MJC Petroleum. Trܧc y vo nm 1992, Trung-Cng cho php hng Crestone Oil ca Hoa-K khai-thc du kh ngay trn vng ny. Trung-Cng ha cho Hi-qun bo-vŒ. Bi T-chnh nm trong khu-vc Trung-Cng cho sang-nhܮng ny. S can-thiŒp qun-s n‰u c, chc chn gy ǰ mu.

14.3.2 - o Trܩng-Sa.

o ln duy nht trong vng l o Trܩng-Sa m ngܩi Php g†i l o Bo-T (Ile de Tempte.)

Tn Trܩng-Sa ny ܮc dng ‹ g†i chung cho c qun-o. Nm gia nhng bi v vng Ty Nam Trܩng-Sa, o ny ln v l v-tr quan-tr†ng nht ca khu-vc. Bo Economist (Vol. 316, July 7, 1990: 36) cho rng o ny rng (2500ft X 1300ft) cho viŒc thi‰t-lp mt phi-o ngn.

VŠ i-mc, o khng c cy ln, vŠ loi thn tho c rau sm rt nhiŠu m†c khp ni. Sm l mt loi dܮc-tho dܫng-sinh rt tt v hiŒu-nghiŒm ‹ tr mt vi tt bŒnh.

Hi u thp-nin 1970, qun b-phng ViŒt-Nam Cng-ha y c ni c-tr rng ri, tiŒn-nghi ch thua Nam-Y‰t. o c mt cu tu nm vŠ pha Ty ca o, dng tm b cho cc xung cao-xu ǰ-b, hay ti‹u-nh ca chi‰n-hm ra v ti‰p-t‰.

Cu tu nay ܮc lm ln ra. Trung-Cng phn-khng viŒc XHCN ViŒt-Nam xy-ct cu Trܩng-Sa. Nhu-cu pht tri‹n qun-s v ng-nghiŒp bt buc phi c b‰n u cho tu thuyŠn. Mt cu tu loi ch I vn t b o ra bi‹n di 75 thܧc l mt cng-trnh rt ln vŠ xy ct Trܩng-Sa.

o Trܩng-Sa cao khng hn 15 ft v tr tri nn cn ܮc trng nhiŠu cy cao ‹ gi t. Cy cao vi cnh l xum xu cng gip cho viŒc phng-th rt nhiŠu. Nhng cy duyn-hi ViŒt-Nam loi phi-lao, bng b‹ rt thch-hp, nhng n‰u vn-Š ngy-trang, che du, tng-cܩng phng-th cng-s l khn-cp th cn nhng cy m†c nhanh ‹ lm sao trong vng t nm, o tr thnh xum xu, che kn h‰t m†i ki‰n-trc nhn-to bn trong.

Khu-vc bi‹n t o Trܩng-Sa xung T-Chnh tuy ch c hai nܧc ViŒt v Hoa tuyn-b ch-quyŠn nhng ang trong vng tranh-chp gay gt. V viŒc khai-thc du la, Trung-Cng c th‹ tn-cng qun phng-th ViŒt-Nam y trܧc khi chi‰m thm o trong khu trung-ng.

Mt B-ch-huy tr-phng mt cp-b no phi ǥt Trܩng-Sa ‹ gii-quy‰t nhiŠu cng-v, k‹ c hnh-chnh ln dn-s. Qun tr-phng CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam hiŒn ng ng nht trn o Trܩng-Sa, mt s trn cc bi v hn gn .

Hnh 112 - Bn- o Trܩng-Sa.

Ngoi ra, cc bi Jubilee nm vŠ pha Ty, v cc bi Coronation cng Duvalle nm vŠ pha Bc nhm ny cn ngp su nܧc nn khng c qun tr ng.

ViŒt-Nam nhn-thc ܮc viŒc thc-hiŒn cc n hi-hiŒu l quan-tr†ng nn thnh-lp mt nhm iŠu-hnh n hiŒu ti Trܩng-Sa. Ngoi viŒc cung-cp phng-tiŒn nh hܧng cho cc tu b hi-hnh trong vng ph-cn, hi-ng cng ni ln ch-quyŠn t nܧc. ‰n nay, CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam thi‰t-lp ܮc mt hŒ-thng gm 10 n trn cc o v hn chnh nh ti o Trܩng-Sa, ti hn Lt. Lt cng nh Bombay khng ܮc k‹ l mt o theo php-lš, nhng n‰u Hi-ng ܮc dng ln th Lt li ܮc chp-nhn theo Lut Bi‹n Quc-t‰ .

Trung-Cng nh thܩng-lŒ phn-khng liŠn ngay khi ViŒt-Nam ǥt hi-ng. Vo thng 8/94, Phi-lut-Tn cng ln ti‰ng phn-i ViŒt-Nam. H† ti xc-nhn ch-quyŠn trn qun-o m h† g†i l Kalayaan.

Bo-ch Hoa-K khng ni r l Trung-Cng c qun n-tr vng ny hay khng, tuy nhin tin-tc c ln-xn trong khi loan-bo lm ln viŒc Trung-Cng ng chi‰m Lt (hay Ladd Reef ?) vo nm 1992.

14.4 - Vng ViŒt v 5,6 nܧc tranh-chp.

Vng tranh-chp lin-hŒ ti t nht l su nܧc: ViŒt, Trung-Hoa, i-Loan, Phi-lut-Tn, Brunei v M-lai- (n‰u khng k‹ mt "tn-quc v-hnh" mt l Luconia), gm c:

-Bi Luconia Shoals

-o An-Bang tc Amboyna Cay

-Bi ThuyŠn Chi tc Barque Canada Shoals

- K-Vn hay Mariveles Reef

- v bi KiŒu-Nga hay Ardasier Reefs

-Bi Thm-Hi‹m hay Investigator Shoal

- Cng-o hay Commodore Reef

- Hoa Lau hay Swallow Reef

- Sc-Lt hay Royal Charlotte Reef

- Louisa Reef

Vng ny phn cc Nam ca Qun-o Trܩng-Sa, k‹ t 8 Ƕ 50 Bc tr vŠ Nam. M-Lai- tuyn-b c ch-quyŠn v v ranh gii ln ti pha Bc ca Bi ThuyŠn-Chi v o Cng-o.

o An-Bang l o ln nht. Nhng o, cn khc trong vng tht nh nh K-Vn, Hoa Lau, Sc-Lt, Louisa Reef. Kh nhiŠu bi cn v ngm cha ni ln mt nܧc.

Vo t†a-Ƕ, khong 5 Ƕ 00 N, 112 Ƕ 30 E c cc rng ngm, bi cn Luconia nm st b bi‹n M-lai-. Ch‡ ny xa Trung-Cng c ti gn mt ngn hi-lš, vy m Trung-Cng cng khng ngng ln ti‰ng lm-nhn ch-quyŠn.

Qun XHCN ViŒt-Nam tr ng trn Bi ThuyŠn Chi v v-tr tt nht l o An-Bang. o Ƕc nht ny nm pha Ty trong vng bi‹n nhiŠu nܧc tranh-chp. Bi ThuyŠn Chi ch mi ni ln mt nܧc, di khong 32 km, rng ti-a 6 km, tuy vy mt diŒn-tch dng ܮc cho viŒc chi‰m ng li rt nh hp.

Pha ng-Nam ca Bi ThuyŠn Chi, cch bi ny khong 40 ‰n 60 hi-lš c qun tr-phng ca M-lai- trn cc hn K-Vn (Mariveles Reef), KiŒu-Nga (Ardasier Reef) v Hoa-Lau (Swallow Reef.)

Pha ng vng ny, qun Phi-lut-Tn ng trn Cng-o (Rizal)

Hnh 113- Bn vng o An-Bang.

14.5 - Vng ViŒt-Hoa-Phi tranh-chp.

Vng ny rt rng ln nn ܮc chia lm 4 khu ‹ s m-t ܮc d dng hn: khu Nam, khu Trung, khu Bc, khu ng.

Hnh 114 - Vng ViŒt - Hoa - Phi tranh-chp.

14.5.1 - Khu Nam. Khu ny nm pha Nam ca qun-o Sinh-Tn (Union Reefs), gm cc hn :

Ty hay West Reef

Gia hay Central Reef

ng hay East Reef

Chu-Vin hay Cuarteron Reef

Ni Mn hay Maralie Reef v Bittern Reef

Hn Sp/ Hn Sp hay Pearson Reef NE&SW

Tc Tan hay Alison Reef

Ni Le hay Cornwallis South Reef

Tin-N hay Tennant Reef hay Pigeon Reef

Vng ny khng c o cng nh khng bi no ln, ch ni ln mt s hn nh m thi, cy ci rt t v thi‰u t.

Qun CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam ng trn ng (Cn .6m), Ty ( .6m) Gia (sp-s mt nܧc.)

C hai cc nh st nhau ca hn Ni-Mn (Maralie Reef v Bittern Reef) khng bi‰t c ngܩi chi‰m gi hay khng, bn hn khc l Hn Sp, Tc-Tn, Ni Le v Tin-N Šu do qun Cng-sn ViŒt-Nam tr-ng.

Qun Trung-Cng trn-ng trn Chu-Vin (Cuarteron Reef- Huang Jiao) t thng 1- 1988.

14.5.2 - Khu Trung.

Khu trung-ng ca Trܩng-Sa gm hu h‰t cc o ln nht ca qun-o v v vy tp-trung ng-o qun tr-phng nhiŠu nht.

Cc o quan-tr†ng k‹ t pha Nam ln nh sau:

- Ch Thp hay Fiery Cross Reef Qun Trung-Cng trn-ng trn Ch Thp (Fiery Cross Reef- Yung Shu Jiao) t thng 1- 1988. Ch Thp nm vŠ pha ng-Bc ca o Trܩng-Sa v cch o ny chng 80 hi-lš. Hn Ch Thp l ch‡ cao nht ca mt bi cn di khong 25 km, rng ti-a chng 6 km. Cn Chu-Vin ch cch ng ca qun XHCN ViŒt-Nam chng 15 hi-lš.

Tin-tc qua bo-ch Hoa-K cho hay Trung-Cng ǥt B ch-huy ton-th‹ qun tr-phng qun-o Trܩng-Sa trn Ch-Thp. Chng xy ct nhiŠu c-s v c mt phi-o (?.)

Hnh 115 - Cc nhm o quan-tr†ng ca qun-o Trܩng-Sa.

- Nhm o Sinh-Tn:

Gm c:- Gc Ma hay Johnson Reef South

- Collins hay Johnson Reef North hay Collins Rf

-o Len hay Lansdowne Reef

-o Sinh Tn hay Sin Cowe Island

-o Sinh Tn ng hay Sin Cowe East Island

- Ken Nan hay Kennant Reef hay Chiqua Reef

- Ba u

Cc o chnh c mt t cy nh l Sinh-Tn v Sinh-Tn ng, ri ‰n o Len. Ba o ny v mt s hn nh ni ln to thnh mt vng ai san-h c tn l Union Reefs. Hi nhng nm 1970, qun-nhn ViŒt-Nam CH n-tr y khng c tiŒn-nghi bng nhng ngܩi cc o Nam-Y‰t v Trܩng-Sa.

Vng bi‹n ny din ra trn nh nm 1988 m Hi-qun CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam b chm 2 (hay 3?) chi‰n-hm, ch‰t hn 70 ngܩi.

Hnh 116- Chi‰n-hm ny (s c: HQ-504 khi phc-v HQ/VNCH) b bn h-hi khi Trung-Cng tn-cng vo thng 3/ 1988

XHCN ViŒt-Nam c qun trn cc o Sinh-Tn, Sinh-Tn ng, o Len v Co Lin. Tnh-hnh qun-s y thܩng-trc cng thng. T u nm 1988, qun Trung-Cng ǰ-b v ng trn hai hn Ken Nan (Chiqua Reef hay Dongmen Jiao) v Gc Ma, nm chen k vi ViŒt-Nam; khong cch nhau ch khong 3 hi-lš. Vo u nm 1992, Trung-Cng li chi‰m thm hn Ba u (cc ng-Bc ca Union Reefs) v Hn Lc (c l l hn gn Nam-Y‰t.)

c-biŒt qun hai bn cng tr-ng trn mt rng ngm nh c tn Johnson Reefs. Nhn trn hi-, ta c th‹ ni: cng trn mt o m c hai lc-lܮng th-nghch: ViŒt u Bc ( Co Lin) v Tu u Nam ( Gc Ma.)

-Nhm Nam-Y‰t/ Ba-Bnh/ Ln- Nh.

Gm c: - Nh hay Discovery Small Reef

- Ln hay Discovery Great Reef

- Šn Cy C hay Western Reef

-o Nam-Y‰t hay Namyit Island

- Ga Ven Gaven Reef

-o Thi-Bnh hay Itu-Aba Island

-o Sn-Ca hay Sand Cay

- -Th hay Petley Reef.

Cc hn ng ring r: Nh, Ln, n Cy C.

Cc o cn li nm trn mt vng san-h Tizard Bank. Khu ny c o rng nht ca qun-o l Ba-Bnh v cng c o cao nht ca qun-o l Nam-Y‰t. Nhng lm cy ln nht cng m†c ti y. Mt Ƕ qun tr-phng ba nܧc tht cao trong mt vng bi‹n nh hp.

Hnh 117 - Nhm o Tizard Bank .

-o Nam-Y‰t. Nam-Y‰t, Namyt hay Nam-Ai, tuy nh hn Ba-Bnh ...nhng li l hn o cao nht ca qun-o. ChiŠu di vo khong 700m, ngang 250m, cao 4.7m (15ft.) Sch China's Boundaries ca Ying Cheng Kiang (Illinois, 1984) ghi o ny cao ti 61 ft, Ocean Yearbook 10 (Chicago 1993) vi‰t 20m k‹ c cy; c hai cao-Ƕ ny c l Šu l qu ng.

Chung-quanh o c vng san-h v nhiŠu bi ngm. Trn o c nhng cy da, cy bng, m u, nhu v nhiŠu ging cy nh, c gai vng nhiŒt-ǧi.

Cng-s phng-th ܮc Cng-binh VNCH xy ct kh kin-c. Trong khong l974-1975, B Ch-huy ton-th‹ qun-o ܮc ǥt y. Trn o c nh ca, h nܧc ma, tiŒn-nghi kh y . Nܧc gi‰ng khng ng†t, hi l l; khng dng nu n nhng dng tm ܮc cho tm git. Vi nhng dng-c l†c nܧc thng-mi ngy nay, ngܩi ta c th‹ chuy‹n-bi‰n nܧc gi‰ng thnh nܧc ung ܮc.

Quy‰t-nh sng sut ca Hi-Qun VNCH khi ǥt B-ch-huy phng-th Trܩng-Sa Nam-Y‰t da trn cc y‰u-t binh-a nh sau:

-Tr Ba-Bnh, o ny ng k‹ l quan-tr†ng hn h‰t trong vng. Nam-Y‰t l o nhiŠu sinh-Ƕng, li c li-th‰ l o cao nht ca qun-o.

-Phng-th d dng da vo thin-nhin, cy ci gip bao-ph cng-s, san-h bao b†c gn khp chung quanh, li c mt vng y ct lm ch‡ neo rt tt vŠ pha Bc.

-Nm khu trung-ng, lin-lc d dng vi c cc ton phng th Song-T Ty pha Bc v ton phng-th o Trܩng-Sa pha Nam.

-V-tr tt nht ‹ canh chng hot-Ƕng ca i-Loan Ba-Bnh v c Phi-lut-Tn khu-vc ng v ng-Bc qun-o.

o Nam-Y‰t c cu tu nm pha Bc, i-diŒn vi o Ba-Bnh ca Trung-Hoa QG. Cu tu ny tng-i mi.

Khi qun Cng-Sn ViŒt-Nam khi-s chi‹m-ng qun-o Trܩng-Sa, b ch-huy chnh khng cn ܮc ǥt y na.

-o Ba-Bnh. Ba-Bnh hay Thi-Bnh hay Itu-Aba l o ln nht ca qun-o Trܩng-Sa.

i-Loan chi‰m o ny thng 6/ 1946, h† rt qun vŠ i-Loan nm 1950. Khi anh em Cloma ngܩi Phi-lut-Tn tuyn-b khm-ph Trܩng-Sa, i-Loan gi qun tr li o Ba-Bnh ny 20 thng 5 nm 1956.

Hnh 118 - Bn- o Ba Bnh

Trn hi-, chiŠu di o o ܮc khong 1.2km, chiŠu ngang khong 450m. diŒn-tch 0.41 km2 (chng 100 acres.) cao chng 13 ft ( 4.0m), thp hn o Nam-Y‰t mt cht. Trung-Hoa i-Loan xy ct nhiŠu c-s qun-s, c sng ln, c i ki‹m-thm, c cu tu pha nam ca o dnh cho cc ti‹u-nh i tun-tiu. Чc-lܮng qun tr-phng ti mt ti‹u-on, tuy vy n‰u ni c s 800-1000 lnh v c-dn (?) th c v qu ng. Cn-c ny ܮc b-phng ki‰n-c nht qun-o trong tnh-trng hiŒn nay v c l c trong tng-lai na.

Nin-gim 1993 ca Trung-Hoa i-Loan cho kch-thܧc o Ba-Bnh hi khc: di 1,360m, rng 350m, cao trung bnh 3.8m, diŒn-tch 489,600 m2. BŠ mt o c v ܮc ܧc-lܮng sai qu ln. o khng th‹ ln hn diŒn-tch hnh ellipse v chc-chn nh hn hnh ch-nht 1360m x 350 rt nhiŠu !

Hnh 119,120,121 - Hnh ca Trung-Hoa i-Loan cng-b vŠ hot-Ƕng ca h† trn o (1994.)

Nhng hnh-nh i-Loan cng b gn y nht cho thy Thy-qun Luc-chi‰n ca h† ci-bi‰n o khc hn hi thp-nin 1960, 1970. Nhn xa thy o Ba Bnh nh to cao hn xa. Cy ci m†c rt nhiŠu v ti tt, che-ph cc hŒ-thng b-phng kin-c. Qun tr-phng c c-s sinh-sng thoi-mi, tp-luyŒn thܩng-xuyn, trang-b y vi c xe li nܧc..

o ny ln, thun-tiŒn nht trong viŒc thi‰t-lp mt phi-trܩng cho nhng phi-c chi‰n-thut cn phi-o ngn. Cu tu nay ܮc ni rng rt ln. Nh hng san-h bao quanh, mt nܧc kh yn-tnh nn ti‹u-nh c ni cp b‰n kh tt.

Php v ViŒt-Nam thi‰t- lp mt i kh-tܮng y. Trܧc Th‰-chi‰n II, i hot-Ƕng rt hu-hiŒu mc d gp kh khn tm ki‰m ngܩi tnh-nguyŒn. ng Trn-vn-Mnh cho bi‰t, khi ang phc-v ti y b lnh Nht giam gi khi chng chi‰m o vo nm 1941. (White Paper on the Hoang-Sa and Truong-Sa, Republic of Vietnam, Saigon 1975, trang 78.)

i Ba-Bnh mang ch-danh l 48 919. S hiŒu ny do World Meteorological Organisation cp-pht cng vi cc i quan-trc cc o Hong-Sa (48 860) v Ph-Lm (48 859)

14.5.3 - khu Bc-

Gm c -o Loi Ta hay Loaita I. (Kota)

-o Lankiam Cay (Panata)

- Su-Bi hay Subi Reef

-o Th-T hay Thitu I. (Pagasa)

-o Sandy

- Men Di hay Menzies Reef

-o B‰n Lc hay West York I. (Licas)

- Nam hay South Reef

-Song-T Ty hay South West Cay

-Song-T ng hay North East Cay (Parola.)

- o Loi Ta. o Loi-Ta nm vŠ pha cc Nam ca bi ngm Loaita Bank. Bi ny di ti 60 hi-lš chy t hܧng Ty-Nam ln ng-Bc. Pha ng o Loi-Ta c o Lankiam nh b hn, pha Ty c Hn Loi-Ta Nam. Tn cng pha Bc ca Bi Loaita Bank l Men Di. Pha ng ca Men Di c o B‰n Lc rng hn tt c cc hn o kia, diŒn-tch ti gn 20 acres.

Hnh 122 -

Bia ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-Nam thi‰t-lp trn o Loi-ta trong thp-nin 1960 . HiŒn Phi-lut-Tn ang chi‰m-ng o ny.

- o B‰n Lc v o Loi-Ta cu to bi san-h v ct. Trn o c mt s cy v rt nhiŠu phn chim.

Qun phng-th Phi-lut-Tn tr-ng trn ba o Loi-Ta (Loaita Island, Kota), Lankiam (Panata) v B‰n Lc (West York Island, Licas.)

- o Th-T. o ny hnh bu dc, chung quanh o c rt nhiŠu rong bi‹n v cc bi ngm. Trn o c mt s cy nh cy m-u, cy bng.

Cng nm trn rng ngm Thitu Reefs c o ct Sandy.

Qun Phi-lut-Tn phng-th trn o Th-t (Thi Tu Island, Pagasa), xy phi-o ni di ra bi‹n.

Qun Trung-Hoa chi‰m-ng Hn Su-Bi (Subi Reef, Jhubi Jiao) cch o Th-T chng 14 hi-lš vŠ hܧng Ty-Bc.

Hnh 123 - Khng-nh ca phi-o trn o Th-T. (Hnh AFP,1995) .

-o Song-t ng, Song-t Ty. Song-t ng hay Northeast Cay v Song-t Ty hay Southwest Cay l hai o thuc rng ngm North Danger Reefs.

Hai hn o ny nh anh em sinh i nm vŠ pha Bc ca qun-o ngang v-Ƕ vi Phan-Rang. Trn o c nhng cy cao trung-bnh, nhiŠu phn chim c th‹ ch‰-bi‰n thnh phn bn. Vng quanh hai o ny, vŠ pha ng v Nam chng nm hi-lš c nhiŠu mm ngm. Rong bi‹n m†c nhiŠu y.

Song-t ng (North East Cay, Parola) hi trn hn, rng gn 20 acres, c qun tr-phng Phi-lut-Tn.

Song-T Ty hnh lܫi liŠm, diŒn-tch nh hn Song-T ng. Hn Nam cch xa o Ty ny chng 5 hi-lš vŠ pha Nam Ty Nam.

Qun ViŒt-Nam chi‰m-ng o Song-t Ty v hn Nam. Hai o ng v Ty ch cch nhau khong 3 hi-lš, cc qun tr-phng ViŒt v Phi nhn thy quc-k ca nhau kh r rng.

Hnh 124 - Khi Php rt khi ViŒt-Nam, H-tng-hm Tuœ-ng, HQ-04 l chi‰n-hm HQ/VNCH u-tin cng-tc tun-tiu Trܩng-Sa (22/8/1956.)

14.5.4 - Khu ng.

Khu ng ca qun-o Trܩng-Sa l mt vng bi‹n rng ln nm gn qun-o Phi-lut-Tn. Khu ny l vng bi‹n xa nht trong Bi‹n ng n‰u tnh t thŠm lc-a -chu tr ra, n cch b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam 500 hi-lš.

C l c th‰-gii ang ch-tm nhiŠu ‰n cc vng bi‹n pha Ty Trܩng-Sa l khu-vc ang c tranh-chp gay gt nht din ra gia ViŒt-Nam v Trung-Cng m qun i vng bi‹n ny trong mt thi-gian kh di.

Tht ra vng bi‹n rng ln ny rt quan-tr†ng v nhng i‹m sau:

-Chi‰m ti mt phn ba diŒn-tch ton-th‹ bi‹n Trܩng-Sa, sušt-sot vi Nam-phn ViŒt-Nam.

- Ch c qun tr-phng ca mt quc-gia duy nht l Phi-lut-Tn.

- DiŒn-tch ch‡ y bi‹n nng cn dܧi 200m chi‰m ti hai phn ba tng-s diŒn-tch nhng vng nng cn tng-t ca qun-o. Li th‰ ny ng k‹ v hiŒn nay k-thut khai-thc lng bi‹n cn rt kh khn, tn km ti nhng ni y bi‹n qu su.

- Ch‡ Ƕc nht trong c hai qun-o Trܩng-Sa cng nh Hong-Sa ܮc thm-d y . Cho ‰n nay v-tr ti du v tr-lܮng du cng kh t ܮc bi‰t ch-xc nht v cng l ch‡ Ƕc nht ang ܮc khai thc.

- Trung-Cng khi-s hnh-Ƕng gi-dng ng-dn lng l ln-chi‰m k‹ t thng 2 nm 1995.

- Cc o Bnh-Nguyn v Vnh-Vin. Vng ny rt t o, ng k‹ ch c hai o l:

-o Bnh-Nguyn hay Flat Island (Patag.)

-o Vnh-Vin hay Nanshan Island (Lawak.)

DiŒn-tch m‡i o c l vo khong trn dܧi 15 acres vi cng tnh-cht a-lš nh cc o khc ca Trܩng-Sa. Qun Phi-lut-Tn chi‰m-ng c hai o Bnh-Nguyn (Patag) v o Vnh-Vin (Lawak.)

o Vnh-Vin di chng 580m, cao khng qu 2m. o Bnh-Nguyn thp hn, rt hp bŠ ngang (240mX90m), nŠn o ang b soi mn. Trn mt hai o san-h ny ch c lp ct t mng v phn chim. C mt t cy nh v lm bi c vng nhiŒt-ǧi. Tuy o nh nh vy, chnh-ph Phi cho bi‰t thi‰t lp ܮc phi-trܩng trn o Vnh-Vin v thܩng-xuyn c hai chuy‰n my bay ni liŠn cc o vi ni-a Phi-lut-Tn.

-Cc bi cn. Vng ny c nhiŠu bi cn khng su qu 200m. Nhng bi rng ln nh sau:

-Bi C Rong hay Reed Tablemount di ti hn 100 hi-lš, rng nht l 70 hi-lš. Ti-nguyn du kh vng ny ng k‹ l ngun li ln lao nht ca quc-gia Phi-lut-Tn. Cc dn khoan du ang hot-Ƕng v d-tr cung-cp t nht 10 phn trm nhu-cu cho c x.

-Bi Cn Nam hay Southern Reef nm vŠ pha Nam ca Bi c Rong, di khong 45 hi-lš, rng khong 25 hi-lš.

-Bi C Nga hay Sea Horse Shoal l bi ngm san-h nm tn cng hܧng ng ca qun-o Trܩng-Sa.

-Cc bi Vnh Khn Sa-Bin, Bi C My, Bi Sui Ng, Bi Sui Ng†c, Bi Trng Khuyn (hay Trng Khuy‰t?) nm vŠ pha Nam nhng bi ܮc k‹ nhng on trn. Khu-vc cc bi chy ri rc d†c ngoi khi ca Palawan, cch o ny t 50 ‰n 100 hi-lš.

Hnh 125, 126 - Hnh-th‹ ca Atolls v Tablemount theo sch American Practical Navigator ca Bowditch

Hu h‰t khu-vc bao quanh Bi Bi C Rong, bi Trng Khuy‰t (Half Moon Shoal), bi C Nga v b bi‹n Palawan Šu ܮc chnh-ph Phi-lut-Tn cho chia l v thm-d. Cc cng-ty Du Kh cho bi‰t tiŠm-nng dܧi lng bi‹n rt di do.

Trong khu-vc ngang v-Ƕ vi Trܩng-Sa, nhiŠu v-tr ܮc tm thy m du kh, ang ܮc khai-thc. Ti thŠm lc-a ViŒt-Nam, bn gi‰ng du ln l Bch-H, i-Hng, Da v Thanh-Long gi lng tham v y ca Trung-Cng. Chc chn ngܩi Tu cng bi‰t r tiŠm-nng du-kh vng C Rong, nhng chng cha p-dng biŒn-php mnh vi Phi-lut-Tn ‹ tranh-dnh. Chnh-sch "tm n du" mi ܮc Trung-Cng khi-s cho thi-hnh t cui nm 1994, khi chng ln chi‰m ngm Vnh Khn.

Phi ang c gng y mnh viŒc khai-thc ti Bi C Rong. Song song vi s hot-Ƕng mnh m ca nhng dn khoan du nm st b bi‹n bc o Palawan, Phi-lut-Tn hy-v†ng trong tng-lai s tr nn mt quc-gia t-lc vŠ du la khng cn nhp-cng.

Hnh 127 - Nhng khu-vc Phi-lut-Tn cho u-thu khai-thc du kh.

-Tranh-chp vŠ vng ngm Vnh Khn.

Vo u thng 2/1995, chnh-ph Phi-lut-Tn pht-hiŒn Trung-Cng chi‰m ng hn ngm Vnh Khn. Trn hi- quc-t‰, hn ngm ny mang tn Mischief Reef, ngܩi Phi g†i l Panganiban, t†a-Ƕ 9.58 N., 115.42 E. Vnh Khn l mt vnh san-h nm dܧi mt nܧc bi‹n mt vi thܧc. Ngoi Vnh-Khn, trn cc bi ngm Jackson, Half Moon (Trng Khuyn), Sabina (Sa-Bin) cng c du v‰t xy ct ca Trung-Cng.

C l khi-s t cui nm 1994, Trung-Cng cho qun-Ƕi gi dng lm thܩng-dn nh c, bt-thn chi‰m hn ngm Vnh Khn. Mt ghe ca ng-ph Phi hnh-nghŠ ln qun gn th b bt, Ch khi Trung-Cng th ghe ny ra, Phi-lut-Tn mi bi‰t l nhiŠu c-s ca Tu ܮc xy-dng trn nhng vng quanh hn ngm ny.

Hnh 128- Ki‰n-trc xy-ct trn hn ngm Vnh Khn m Trung-Cng tuyn-b l ch‡ tr-n cho dn nh c.

V Mischief v Half Moon ch cch o Palawan chng 135 v 70 hi-lš, li nm qu su trong hi-phn 200 hl EEZ ca h†, Chnh-ph Phi-lut-Tn rt lo ngi. (VŠ v-tr - xin xem hnh 114.) S phn-i lc u rt mnh m, Phi cho cng-b hnh chp cc ki‰n-trc kh ln do Trung-Cng xy dng trn nhng dn ki‹u nh sn. Phi cng cho bi‰t c 3 tu ln, 5 tu nh v mt s ghe nh ang neo hay chy quanh qun gn .

Bi‰n-c ny chng t Trung-Cng vn ti‰p-tc s-dng biŒn-php qun-s, nhng khn kho hn, ‹ chi‰m tr†n cc o ngoi Bi‹n ng.

Lc u, Trung-Cng chi rng khng c m mu g, sau li ni ci dn do dn nh c Trung-Hoa t-Ƕng xy ct lm ni tr-n.

Hnh chp khng-nh cho thy r trn mt nܧc l mt cn-c qun-s vi bn cha nhin-liŒu, c cm c Trung-Cng. C-s ln ‹ c th‹ trang-b nh my iŒn v i Radar.

VŠ tu b Trung-Cng hot-Ƕng gn , Phi cho bi‰t c mt chi‰c thuc loi Dashi Class (Dazhi ?.) N‰u tin-tc ny ng th tnh-hnh cng thm nghim-tr†ng. Theo ti-liŒu Jane's Fighting Ships, chi‰n-hm Dazhi Class gi nhiŒm-v ca mt trm y‹m-tr tiŠm-thy-nh lu-Ƕng.

Hnh 129- c-tnh loi tu Dazhi theo Jane's Fighting Ships nm 1995, trang 132.

NhiŠu hnh-nh, tin-tc, bnh-lun chng-bng Trung-Cng ܮc ng trn cc bo-ch th‰-gii. Sau my tun-l khng c mt thay ǰi g khc xy ra. Mc d tht-bi nhiŠu ln trong qu-kh, Nam-Dng li c gng mi cc phe phi lin-hŒ ‰n tham-d mt hi-ngh ha-bnh Bi‹n ng. ThiŒn-ch ca Nam-Dng rt ng ca ngi, tuy vy n‡-lc ca nܧc ny chc khng i ܮc ‰n u. Trung-Cng vn ti‰p-tc i h‰t ti‰n-trnh vch sn l chi‰m tng hn o mt cho ‰n khi no nut tr†n gi Trܩng-Sa. Phi-lut-Tn ni rng s a ni-v ra Ta-n Quc-t‰.

Tuy th‰, ln ny s bi‰n-chuy‹n vŠ tnh-hnh qun-s v ngoi-giao li khc hn, i ra ngoi d-on ca Trung-Cng. Vo cui thng 3/ 1995, khi va bt u thng-thuy‰t vi Trung-Cng mt ngy ti Bc-Kinh, Phi-lut-Tn bt-thn a hi-qun ti ngay vng ngm ngoi khi Palawan. Ly danh-nghi bo-vŒ hi-phn, phi-c ca Phi triŒt-tiu cng-trnh xy ct ca Trung-Cng trn cc bi ngm Jackson, Sabina, Half Moon. 62 ng-ph ngܩi Tu b bt. Cnh-st Phi-lut-Tn t-co 62 ngܩi ny xm-nhp lnh-th nܧc h† mt cch bt hp-php, mang theo cht n hy-hoi hi-sn v sn bt ra bi‹n l loi Ƕng-vt ang ܮc nhiŠu nܧc bo vŒ. Th-tc truy-t ra ta ang ti‰n-hnh. ViŒc thng-thuy‰t Phi-Tu ngng li.

Tnh-hnh Bi‹n ng hiŒn thm cng thng. Vo ngy 31/ 3/ 1995, i-Loan lo ngi, gi ba tun-tiu-hm xung tng-cܩng vng Pratas v c l c Trܩng-Sa. Bi‹n ng m m ܮc my nm, nay li ni sng-gi bo-bng. Trung-Cng khng ‹ mt nܧc lng giŠng no sng yn n!

15 - Ki‰n-thc vŠ Bi‹n ng v Cc cuc kho-st vng Hong-Sa, Trܩng-Sa .

Bi‹n ng nh ni, l khu-vc bi‹n quan-tr†ng nn c nhiŠu cuc kho-cu trn kha cnh. VŠ phng-diŒn khoa-h†c, khng ai dm nhn l bi‰t nhiŠu vŠ lp nܧc bao b†c gn 3/4 i-cu. Nhng cuc kho-st, nghin-cu vŠ Bi‹n ng v cc o ca n vn ti‰p-tc. Cc nh khoa-h†c hy-v†ng cng ngy ngܩi ta cng thu-lܮm ܮc thm nhiŠu ki‰n-thc vŠ bi‹n c, ‹ ng-dng lm cho ǩi sng con ngܩi thm ti p hn.

Trong v-s cuc kho-st Bi‹n-ng qua, chng ti xin lܮc duyŒt mt s cng-trnh nh sau y:

15.1 - Ki‰n-thc Bi‹n ng t nhng ngy xa xa.

Ngܩi ViŒt hi-hnh ngang d†c Bi‹n ng t nhng thin-k› trܧc cng-nguyn. Trng ng ng-Sn cng cc sn-phm khc ca ngܩi ViŒt ܮc phn-phi i nhiŠu ni ng-Nam-. Vng Bi‹n ng trong c c Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa khng xa l g vi ngܩi ViŒt. Bi‹n ny v nh ci sn trܧc ca cn nh ViŒt-Nam vy. Cc o thn-yu nh cy ci trong vܩn. C o cn-kŠ b bi‹n ViŒt-Nam khng ti mt ngy chy bum, nh Tri-Tn ca qun-o Hong-Sa ch cch C-lao R c 123 hi-lš m thi.

Mun gii-thch s hiŒn-hu ca cc chng-tch Lc-ViŒt trn t Phi-lut-Tn, Borno, Nam-Dng, M-Lai; ngܩ ta ch cn cch v ܩng hi-hnh t Bc-ViŒt ngang qua Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa ‹ ‰n ! Trn ܩng thng-bun khp ng-Nam-, ghe thuyŠn ViŒt ta vin-duyn nhiŠu ngn hi-lš (Nanhai Trade, Wang Gungwu, Kuala Lumpur 1959) nn ki‰n-thc vŠ nhng o cn-kŠ trm dm nh Hong-Sa ܮc cha truyŠn con ni.

Nhng chuy‰n hi-hnh ra Thi-bnh-Dng cng tng ܮc dn Bch-ViŒt thc-hiŒn hng ngn nm trܧc cng-nguyn (Science and Civilisation in China, Vol.4, Cambridge 1971.) Tuy c pho sch khng-l ny bn vŠ vn-minh Trung-Hoa, nhng cc tc-gi ca n l Joseph Needham, Wang Ling v Lu Gwei-Djen li oan-quy‰t rng ngܩi Tu khng pht-tri‹n hng-hi, cn ngܩi ViŒt (Yueh) thi c mi chnh l ging dn tiŠn-phong trong lnh-vc . Ly nhng dn-chng cn-bn t sch s Trung-Hoa, 3 h†c-gi gm mt Anh-ct-Li, hai Trung-Hoa truy-cu ra rng t ngay thin-k› th nht trܧc Ty-Lch, dn Bch-ViŒt tng bun bn vi Ty-b-li-.

TruyŠn-thng hng-hi nh vy vn ti‰p-tc lu-truyŠn v pht-tri‹n sau nhiŠu ngn nm. Trong thi cn-i i khi v s sinh-tn, ngܩi ViŒt "thuyŠn-nhn" tng nhp b†n vi c hi-tc ‹ tn-cng b bi‹n Trung-Hoa t thi nh Tng, nh Thanh.

Ngܩi ViŒt theo nh ngoi-giao Anh u th‰-k› 19 nh John Crawfurd, l nhng nh hng-hi can-m v gii giang nht vng ng-ƒn (The Mandarin Road to Old Hu, Alastair Lamb, Edinburgh 1970: 263-264.) Khi ‰n -Nng, Crawfurd li khen nhng thuyŠn ca ta cng-tc Hong-Sa ng theo ki‹u M-lai rt chc chn.

Hnh 130 - Ghe bu, mt loi thuyŠn bum Trung-ViŒt ki‰n-trc tt, vn-tc cao, c khi chy ti 12 gt.

Nh qun-s Php nh -dc d'Estaing th khm-phc s phng-th ca ta khi a ra nhn-xt: ViŒc tun-tiu ܩng bi‹n k‹ c Hong-Sa kh nghim-ngt. Cha V-Vng c ti 400 sng i-bc ch‰ theo ki‹u B-o-Nha, mt s ܮc ly vŠ t nhng con tu ǡm Hong-Sa. ("Une tentative ignore d'tablissement francais en Indochine au 18e sicle", Louis Malleret, Bulletin de la Socit des tudes Indochinoises, No 1, Hanoi 1942.)

Cng theo nhng sch nghin-cu ca cc h†c-gi Joseph Needham v ca G.R.G. Worcester, s Trung-Hoa ghi-chp rt t vŠ cc hot-Ƕng hng-hi ca nܧc h†. N‰u c ni ‰n hng-hi thi c chng na, sch s Tu cng ch ghi ܮc nhng mnh vn vt m h† thy ܮc t nhng sc dn khc-biŒt vi h† nh ViŒt, nh Ng v.v...

Tht k l, ln u tin chnh-s Trung-Hoa k‹ tn mt nh hng-hi th ngܩi l chng phi l mt ngܩi Tu chnh-hiŒu. Wang Gungwu vi‰t trong cun Nanhai Trade, Kuala Lumpur 1959, trang 64-65 nh sau: "Nm 607, vua Ty nghe ni c mt nܧc ngoi khi Phc-Chu, ra lŒnh m cuc vin-chinh... Trong chi‰n-dch xm-chi‰m i-Loan (nm 610), c hai thnh-tch lin-quan ‰n mt v Hm-trܪng tn H-Man l iŠu ng lu-tm. y l ln u tin chnh-s (Official Annals) Š-cp ‰n mt nh hng-hi, nhng tn tui li khng c v g l Tu h‰t. Ci tn "h† H ngܩi (Nam-) Man" cho thy ng ta l ngܩi ViŒt (Tu -ha) hay c th‹ l ngܩi ViŒt miŠn Nam ... on vin-chinh gm nhiŠu sc dn miŠn Nam, k‹ c ngܩi ni ti‰ng Mon-Khmer."

Xin ghi thm: i-Loan l o nm vŠ pha cc bc ca Bi‹n ng khng xa l g vi nhng dn hng-hi nh ging ViŒt. Nhng chuy‰n vin-hnh ca h† ܮc nhc nh ti trong s Trung-Hoa t trܧc thi Xun-Thu Chi‰n-quc. Khoa kho-c cng xc-nhn du-tch ca ging dn ny pha Nam ti Nam-Dng, pha Bc ti Ty-b-li-. (Science and Civilisation in China, Vol 4, Cambridge 1971.)

i vi ki‰n-thc ca ngܩi Trung-Hoa vŠ bi‹n c ni chung, ngܩi vi‰t xin khng bn nhiŠu, ch xin thay li mt s nh nghin-cu m chp li nh sau :

- James Fairgrieve vi‰t trong sch "Geography and World Power" (London, 1921, p.242) rng ngܩi Tu l ging dn lc-a vi cc thi quen v cch suy-ngh ca ngܩi sng trn t. Nguyn vn nh sau: "China has never been a sea-power because nothing has ever induced her people to be otherwise than landmen, and landmen dependent on agriculture with the same habit and ways of thinking drilled into them through forty centuries."

- E. B. Elridge vi‰t trong sch "The Background of Eastern Sea Power" (Melbourne, 1948, p.47) rng tm-tr ngܩi Tu hܧng vŠ ni-a v ki‰n-thc ca h† vŠ bi‹n c tht l t i. Nguyn-vn nh sau: "Essentially a land people, the Chinese cannot be considered as having possessed sea-power... The attention of the Chinese through the centuries have been turned inward towards Central Asia rather than outward, and their knowledge of the seas which washed their coast was extremely small."

15.2 - Thi L-Nguyn.

Sch s ViŒt-Nam ghi-chp vŠ Hong-Sa t th‰-k› XVII vi chi-ti‰t a-lš r rng trong sch "Thin Nam T Ch L Th" (1630-1653) ca ‡-B.

Sau sch ny, ta c "Ph-bin Tp-lc" mt tc-phm ca L-quš-n m trong ng tܩng-thut nhng cng-tc thi-hnh ch-quyŠn ViŒt-Nam trn Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa. Cc Ƕi Hong-Sa trch-nhiŒm nhng o Ct Vng v Ƕi Bc-Hi trch-nhiŒm Trܩng-Sa, Ph-Quc; tun-hnh theo lŒnh Cha Nguyn.

Khi-s vo cui th‰-k› XVII, sau nhng chuy‰n i bi‹n hng nm thܩng di ti 6,7 thng, cc Ƕi Hong-Sa bo-co li m†i din-bi‰n trn hi-trnh lm kinh-nghiŒm cho nhng chuy‰n cng-tc sau ny. T ǩi cha Nguyn-phc-Nguyn (1613-1615) hay c th‹ trܧc na, cc Ƕi Hong-Sa ܮc thnh-lp ‹ thu-lܮm hi-vt. H†c-gi L-quš-n (1726-1784) tng tham-kho s bin ca Cai-Ƕi Thuyn-c-Hu (mt chc-quyŠn Hi-Qun cao-cp ngy trܧc) thy nm 1702 Ƕi Hong-Sa ly ܮc 30 thi bc, nm 1704 ܮc 5,100 cn thi‰c, nm 1705 ܮc 126 thi bc... V khng c ti-liŒu ghi tai-nn ǡm tu, ta thy rng viŒc nghin-cu ܩng bi‹n trong thi cc Cha Nguyn kh y .

Nm 1815, vua Gia-Long sai i-trܪng Hong-Sa l Phm-quang-nh thm-st v bo-co ܩng bi‹n Hong-Sa. Nm sau , nh vua chnh-thc sai ǥt bia v tuyn-b xc-nhn ch-quyŠn.

Nm 1834, vua Minh-Mng sai i-trܪng Trng-phc-S o c v v bn- Hong-Sa.

Nm 1836, vua Minh-Mng li sai Thy-qun Xut-Ƕi Phm-Hu-Nht nghin-cu thm chi-ti‰t a-hnh, hi-o Hong-Sa.

15.3 - Thi Php-thuc.

Nm 1899, ton-quyŠn ng-Dng Paul Doumer cho nghin-cu vŠ hng-hi Bi‹n ng, Š-ngh xy ct hi-ng trn Hong-Sa .

Sau , nhiŠu cuc nghin-cu vŠ hi-o, a-cht, sinh-vt-h†c c thc-hiŒn. Thi-gian ny, ki‰n-thc vŠ cc hi-o Bi‹n ng gia-tng rt nhiŠu v nhng gi-thuy‰t vŠ s thnh-lp cc o san-h em cng-b. Hi- vi y chi-ti‰t nng su gip cho viŒc hi-hnh ngoi Bi‹n ng thm an-ton. Tai-nn ǡm tu gim hn xung.

Mt hi-h†c-viŒn ܮc xy ct ti Nha-Trang.

Chng ti xin k‹ nhng hot-Ƕng kho-st chnh trong thi Php-thuc nh sau:

Nm 1925, mt cuc nghin-cu i-quy-m vŠ a-cht Hong-Sa ti‰n-hnh dܧi s ch-huy ca Ti‰n-s A. Krempf, gim-c ngnh Hi- Dng-H†c ng-Dng. Tu Lanessan ܮc dng trong cng-tc ny. Krempf cng cc k-s thy-o, hm m v thy-lm ca on thy rng Hong-Sa l mt hnh-lang ni di ca dy ni Trܩng-Sn chy ra bi‹n. ng k‰t-lun: "VŠ phng-diŒn a-cht, Hong-Sa ng l mt phn ca ViŒt-Nam" (Gologiquement, donc, les Paracels font partie du ViŒt-Nam.)

Hnh 131 - Bn- Hong-Sa do ngܩi Php v vo thp-nin 1920, sau nhng kho-st i-hnh y bi‹n. (BSEI Dec. 1934.)

ng Krempf cng l tc-gi ca mt gi-thuy‰t mi vŠ s to-lp cc o san-h m hnh-dng chu nh-hܪng ca gi ma. Krempf cho rng khi san-h ni ln th b sng v gi xm-thc, nhng vt-liŒu b gi ma xm-thc s b cun ri vo bn trong lp san-h bn trong v gi‰t ch‰t i. Ti ma gi ma nghch li th vng bn kia li b xm-thc v vt-liŒu cng ri vo bn trong... Vng ai san-h v th‰ thܩng c hnh bu dc ko di theo chiŠu nh-hܪng ca gi ma.

Nm 1927, tu Lanessan li thc-hiŒn cng-tc nghin-cu a-cht ti qun-o Trܩng-Sa, thm-d tr-lܮng pht-pht.

Nm 1928, cng-ty t-nhn Socit nouvelle des Phosphates du Tonkin, sau khi nghin-cu phn chim Hong-Sa, xin php Chnh-ph Bo-h cho khai-thc.

Nm 1934, P. Chevey thuc viŒn Hi-h†c ng-Dng vi‰t tܩng-trnh vŠ nhng lš-thuy‰t hnh-thnh cc o san-h do hi Nghin-cu ng-Dng t-chc. Ni-dung ܮc ng li trong bi "Iles et Rcif de Coraux de la Mer de Chine" bo Bulletin de la Socit des Etudes Indochinoises, b IX, s 4, Saigon ngy 10-12-1934, trang 48-56.

Thi thp-nin 1940 l giai-on nhiŠu ngܩi Php tham-gia nhng cuc nghin-cu k-thut vŠ tu thuyŠn trn Bi‹n ng. H† ǥc-biŒt lu-tm nhiŠu ‰n cc loi thuyŠn ca ViŒt-Nam. Hai cun sch quan-tr†ng nht ra ǩi l :

-"Esquisse d'une Ethnographie Navale des Peuples Annamites" ca Pierre Paris, ng trn tp-ch Le Bulletin des Amis du Vieux Hu No. 14, Octobre- Decembre 1942; in ln hai ti Rotterdam, Holland nm 1955.

-"Voiliers d'Indochine" ca J. B. Pitri, nh sch S.I.L.I. Saigon xut-bn (Nouvelle dition) 1949.

Hai ti-liŒu ny cng mt s bi kho-cu khc vŠ hng-hi ng ܮc k‹ l gia-ti vn-ha quš-bu, khng nhng cho ring ViŒt-Nam m cn cho chung ton-th‹ nhn-loi. Chng ti xin k‹ mt s nh trong nhng pht-ki‰n Ƕc-o vŠ kh-nng hnh-thy ca dn ViŒt nh sau:

-Khng nhng dn miŠn xui sng gn Bi‹n ng m c dn miŠn ni nh dn Rhads cng l dn hng-hi tng vng vy trn bi‹n.

-Tu b ViŒt-Nam rt a-dng v a-nng. Nhng loi Ƕc-o nh ghe b, ghe bu ܮc m t k cng. Vn-tc tu thuyŠnViŒt-Nam rt cao, vܮt tri cc loi tu thuyŠn khc trn th‰-gii. ThuyŠn bum Tr-C trong nhiŠu ln th-nghiŒm chy vܮt qu 14 gt. (so snh vi vn-tc cc tu cn-duyn ngy nay chy ܩng Si gn- nng-Hi phng thܩng l 8 gt.)

-nh-hܪng k-thut ki‰n-trc ghe thuyŠn ViŒt-Nam lan trn ra tn ƒn-Ƕ-Dng v Thi-bnh-Dng. S lin-hŒ hng-hi gia ViŒt-Nam v cc dn-tc khc i xa ti tn Nam-M v M-o.

15.4 - Thi ViŒt-Nam Cng-Ha.

Sau khi thu-hi Ƕc-lp, ViŒt-Nam ti‰p-tc nhng cng-cuc kho-st cc o Bi‹n ng. Hi-H†c-ViŒn Nha-Trang, viŒn i-h†c Si-Gn cng nh cc c-quan chnh-ph khc n‡-lc trong nhng cng-tc ny. Hi-qun VNCH thܩng cung cp phng-tiŒn di-chuy‹n phi-on ra nhng o ngoi khi. Mt s bn tܩng-trnh ng lu-š nh ca ng L-vn-Hi nm 1957 vŠ thc-vt, ca b L-th-Ng†c-Thanh nm 1957 vŠ phn bn, ca ng Trnh-tun-Anh nm 1973 vŠ cuc thm-st Nam-Y‰t, ca ng Trn-Hu-Chu vŠ cng-cuc nghin-cu pht pht ti qun-o Hong-Sa cng nm 1973.

Nhng ngܩi ngoi-quc ‰n tr gip ViŒt-Nam trong cc ngnh khoa-h†c cng gp cng nghin-cu Hong-Sa, Trܩng-Sa v Bi‹n ng nh cc ng Edmond Saurin, Raoul Serene, Henry Fontaine ...

Dܧi chnh-th‹ ViŒt-Nam Cng-Ho, cng-tc nghin-cu khoa-h†c Naga phi ܮc k‹ l quy-m nht. Trong hn hai nm di t 1959 ‰n 1961, cc khoa-h†c-gia ca ViŒt-Nam hp-tc cht ch vi cc chuyn-gia Hoa-K v Thi-Lan. Nhng chuy‰n kho-st trn bi‹n ca chng-trnh Naga din ra sut d†c hnh-lang thŠm lc a pha Nam V-tuy‰n 17 qua khp vnh Thi-Lan. Nh k-thut cao, phng-tiŒn tt ca Hoa-K, chng-trnh Naga din-ti‰n tt p. Thm nhiŠu ki‰n-thc vŠ a-cht, hi-dng ca Bi‹n ng trong khu-vc VNCH v Thi-Lan ܮc cp-nht-ha.

15.5 - Trung-Cng li-dng kho-cu ‹ xm-lܮc.

Trung-Cng mt ln li-dng kho-cu ‹ tn-cng qun ViŒt-Nam, nh chm chi‰n-hm v cܫng-chi‰m mt s o ca ta.

Theo tin hng thng-tn UPI t V†ng-Cc nh i th ngy 14-3-1988 c mt cuc ng Ƕ gia hi-qun CSVN v Trung-Cng ti vng qun-o Trܩng-Sa. Trung-Cng t-co l cc tu Trung-Cng ang b neo ‹ y‹m-tr cho mt nhm nghin-cu thm-d m du y th b chi‰n-hm CSVN tn-cng, v th‰ hi-qun Trung-Cng bt buc phi t-vŒ.

Hnh 132-

Mt trong nhng chi‰n-hm Trung-Cng (s 502, 506, 531) tham-d hi-chi‰n Trܩng-Sa 1988.

Khi hm-Ƕi ca h† ti‰n xung xm-lng Trܩng-Sa, Trung-Cng mp m ly danh-ngha a phi-on khoa-h†c Lin-hiŒp-quc i kho-st. Sau ny Trung-Cng cn lm ki‹u "mo khc chut", tuyn-b rt ti‰c l bi‰n-c xy ra. Lin-hiŒp-quc cng ln ti‰ng thanh-minh khng c cng-tc kho-st no Trܩng-Sa. (South China Sea Treacherous Shoals, tp-ch Far Eastern Economic Review, 13 Aug 92: 14-17.)

ƒy th‰ m ri ra, lng-tm nhn-loi cng ... ch‰t, m†i quc-gia tr li im lng nh khng c g xy ra.

15.6 - ChuyŒn kho-cu tc cܩi !

Trܧc khi qua phn k‰t-lun chng ti mi quš-v Ƕc-gi nghe vi mu "chuyŒn cܩi" lš-th vŠ viŒc kho-st a-lš hi-o ki‹u Tu .

Ngoi chuyŒn tr trn mang mt n "kho-st ‹ xm lng" Trܩng-Sa mi y nh vy, ngܩi Trung-Hoa cng thܩng ru rao lm nhiŠu cuc kho-st Hong-Sa trong qu-kh. Chuy‰n i ca Š-c Lš-Chun vo nm 1909 m cho ‰n nay, vn cn ܮc h† mang ra tuyn-truyŠn.

C l ngܩi Trung-Hoa thch lm nhng chuyŒn nc cܩi l bch hay sao m ngܩi ngoi nh chng ta khng bao gi hi‹u ni. Vo nm 1974, khi Hi-qun ViŒt-Nam Cng-Ha tc-chi‰n Hong-Sa, Trung-Cng pht-hnh mt tp th anh-hng-ca, trnh-by rt ho nhong, mu m k‹ rng lc khi u nhng dn nh c Trung-Cng ch c chi bi, d†a dm t cu l lc-lܮng VNCH thy s m chy.

Thi-phm cn ngm nga ti‰p rng dn-binh ca h† gia khi tc chi‰n dng ti‹u-nh v ghe c ti‰n st vo Khu-trc-hm, Tun-dng-hm, H-tng-hm ca ta, tung lu-n sang, dng sng tay tiu-diŒt v loi Hi-qun ta khi vng chi‰n vnh-vin. (Battle of the Hsisha Archipelago -Reportage in Verse, Chang Yung-Mei, Peking PRC, 1974.)

VŠ cng-trnh kho-st ca Trung-Hoa, chng ti xin nhܩng li li cho mt ngܩi Php, ng Jourdan Chauvaire. Hi u th‰-k› ny hi-qun Php lm ch Bi‹n ng, nht c nht Ƕng ca Trung-Hoa ngoi bi‹n Šu b theo di nn tܩng-trnh ca h† cng ng ‹ ta xem qua v nhn-xt.

Sau chuy‰n cng-tc vng Bi‹n ng tr vŠ, hm-trܪng Chauvaire vi‰t mt bi ng trong bo La Nature s 2916, xut-bn ti Paris ngy 01-1-1933, trang 385-387 m mt on i-š nh sau:

"Nhc li chuyŒn hai chi‰c pho-nh nh b ca tnh Qung-ng mang hiŒu-k Š-c Lš-Chun ‰n Hong-Sa trong nm 1909, gh li qun-o mt khong thi-gian khng qu 24 gi. Vy m ‰n ngy 20-6-1909, i-nht-bo Qung-ng, t Kouo Che Pao cho ng tin ln...

Ti ngh (li Hm-trܪng Chauvaire) tht l khi-hi. ng "Š-c nh ta" v m th-h t oi ca ng khng nhng kho-st k-lܫng h‰t thy cc hn o, n, cn, b cn bi chm ca vng bi‹n Hong-Sa m cn trong giy lt v ra ܮc mt bn- tng-qut ton-th‹ qun-o cng 15 chi‰c bn- y chi-ti‰t chuyn-mn na... Trong vi gi thi nh! Sau h‰t, Š-c gom y‰u-t ‹ xem xt su xa v k‰t-lun l Trung-Hoa c th‹ xy-dng ܮc ‰n hai hi-cng trong vng!"

Ni-dung cu chuyŒn ng Ty ni vŠ ng Tu thm-st nhiŠu t l nh vy. Bng i 41 nm sau, cc bo Tu do ng Cng-Sn ki‹m-sot k‹ li chuyŒn ny khc hn i. Bo Ming pao (Minh-Bo NguyŒt-san) s 101, thng 5/ 1974, ng ni trang 19 nh sau: Ph-tܧng-qun (Vice-General) Wu Ching-yung v Š-c Li Chun (Lš-Chun) vi ba chi‰n-hm Fu po, Ch'en hang v Kuang chin ‰n thm-st Hong-Sa vo thng 4/ 1902. Chuy‰n th hai, cng Ph-tܧng-qun Wu v Š-c Lš li ‰n Hong-Sa cng-tc ba tun-l trong nm 1908. Cn t Hsing-chou chou-k'an, xut-bn Hng-Chu ngy 10 thng 2 nm 1974 cho rng chuy‰n thm-st thc-hiŒn vo nm 1913. (Disputed Islands in the South China Sea, Dieter Heinzig, Wiesbaden, 1976, trang 22, 26-27.)

Hnh 133 - Dn-qun Trung-Cng nh chm chi‰n-hm VNCH bng lu-n v sng tay. (Ba sch Battle of the Hsisha Archipelago.)

V c nhiŠu i‹m nghi-ng trong li vi‰t lch ca ngܩi Trung-Hoa, chng ta kh m bi‰t r h thc. Ch trch g 65 nm sau ln thm-st (t 1909 ‰n 1974), nܧc Tu vn ti‰p-tc ti‰n ln v chuyŒn thn-thoi xem ra cn khng-khi‰p hn li ܮc "thi-vn ha" nh "li chi ti‰ng Tu" y lui hi-Ƕi v nhng "cnh tay -hng- qung lu-n" ca dn-qun nh c tiu-diŒt chi‰n-hm ViŒt-Nam. D trong viŒc kho-st a-lš cng nh trong phng-cch tc-chi‰n, my ng Con Tri Šu siu-ǣng c chng ?!

Cc chuyŒn trn nghe hi chn v ri thi-gian cng qua i. Cho ‰n mi y khi Trung-Cng chun-b ln chi‰m ngm Vnh Khn, ngܩi ta li c dp ܮc nghe nhiŠu ti‰ng cܩi khc khch ca dn-chng Phi-lut-Tn t bn kia Bi‹n ng v†ng vŠ:

Ngoi-trܪng Roberto Romulo ca Phi phn-ng l khng my tin-tܪng vŠ mt bi ca t Quang-Minh Nht-bo ra ngy 5 thng 12 nm 1994. Bn tin loan rng sau 10 nm di kho-cu, 400 h†c-gi v chuyn-vin ni ti‰ng Trung-Quc chng-minh rng Bc-Kinh hi‹n-nhin t xa nm ch-quyŠn trn ton th‹ vng qun-o Trܩng-Sa. (Bo Philippines Daily Inquirer, Sunday, Dec. 11, 1994.) Theo lš l , ngܩi Tu cho rng chng cn g phi tranh ci trn bn thng-tho.

Ngܩi Trung-Hoa Cng-Sn ngy nay cn vܮt hn c cc th‰-hŒ trܧc y. Ln ny h† to ܮc "k-tch chuy‹n-bi‰n t khng qua c" c trong viŒc nghin-cu tܪng nh l y tnh-cch khoa-h†c na!

16 - K‰t-Lun.

Chng ti xin tm-lܮc cc ǥc-i‹m ca Bi‹n ng c tnh-cht thun-lš khoa-h†c nh sau y:

-Bi‹n ng l ci ni khai-sinh v nui-dܫng nŠn vn-ha nhum mu hng-hi ca ging ni ViŒt-tc.

-Bi‹n ng c nhiŠu hiŒn-tܮng vt-lš k-diŒu hi‰m thy bt c mt vng bi‹n no trn th‰-gii.

-Bi‹n ng mang mi-trܩng sinh, thc-vt m nt ring-biŒt ViŒt-Nam.

-Bi‹n ng l ni cha ngun nng-lܮng khng-l. Ti-nguyn nm dܧi lng bi‹n ܮc tch-t bi-ǡp t lu ǩi. Cc ti du kh, to-lp bi cc cht hu-c chy theo nhng dng Hng-H, Cu-long-Giang v cc con sng khc, hi‹n-nhin l cc ti-sn ca t nܧc ViŒt-Nam.

-Ngܩi ViŒt tng hi-hnh ngang d†c khp mt Bi‹n ng nhiŠu ngn nm trܧc khi ngܩi Tu lp-quc ti vng ng ba Hong-H v sng V. Hai qun-o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa nm g†n trong Bi‹n ng vn l a-bn sinh sng ca ging ViŒt ngay t thi Bng .

-Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa khng nhng vŠ phng-diŒn v-tr gn ViŒt-Nam hn Trung-Hoa m vŠ phng-diŒn a-lš hnh-th‹, c hai qun-o r rng nm trn phn t ni di ca lc-a ViŒt-Nam.

-Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa ܮc cc Vua Cha ViŒt-Nam gi binh-thuyŠn thܩng-trc chi‰m-c trܧc bt c mt quc-gia no khc. n bt do lin-qun Php-ViŒt thi‰t-lp v tr-ng thܩng-trc trn cc o ngoi Bi‹n ng cng trong thi-gian cha c qun-Ƕi no khc lm nh vœ.

-ViŒt-Nam, trܧc bt c mt quc-gia no khc thc-thi nhng phng-tiŒn tr gip tu thuyŠn quc-t‰ hi-hnh trn Bi‹n ng nh trng cy trn o cho d quan-st, ǥt hi-ng gip cho viŒc nh-hܧng v cu vt thy-th cc tu gp tai-nn...

Trn phng-diŒn a-lš cng nh trn nhiŠu phng-diŒn khc, Hong-Sa Trܩng-Sa ch-thc l lnh-th ViŒt-Nam, tuy vy nhng sc mnh qun-s mun ǩi vn nm vai tr quy‰t-nh.

Su chc nm vŠ trܧc, bo Nam-Phong (Hni s 172, thng 5- 1932) cho rng "vn Š cng-gii Hong/Trܩng-Sa s ch ܮc gii-quy‰t bng gm sng". Cn Hong-o, trong mc "Ngܩi v ViŒc", bo Ngy Nay, Hni 24-7-1938 cng a š-ki‰n: "Ly lš l mi c ra m ni th n (Hong-Sa/ Trܩng-Sa) l ca Annam. Nhng trܩng quc-t‰, ngܩi ta khng ai theo lut mi c c. N ch l ca sc mnh".

Cho ‰n nay Trung-Cng vn bt cn lut-php, v nht l lut-php quc-t‰. Trung-Cng cho rng Ta-n Quc-t‰ ch l "sn-phm ca ‰-quc phng Ty".

Ngoi chi‰n-trn, vi lc-lܮng hng-hu hn h‰t trong vng -chu, Trung-Cng chc-chn ton-thng khi i-diŒn vi bt c mt quc-gia no trong vng. Cn trn bn thng-thuy‰t song-phng, Trung-Cng cng hi‹n-nhin th‰ thܮng-phong v s p buc cc nܧc y‰u t hn nh ViŒt-Nam hay Phi-lut-Tn chu phn thiŒt-thi.

Lm th‰ no ‹ Trung-Cng tn-tr†ng lut quc-t‰ l mt iŠu kh. Kinh-nghiŒm qu-kh cho thy trong nhng ln ViŒt-Nam b tn-cng vo 1974 v 1988, khng mt quc-gia no gip ViŒt-Nam, cho d rng hm-Ƕi M vn qua li trn Bi‹n ng v hm-Ƕi Nga ng cn-c ti Cam-Ranh.

Hai ln hi-qun ca h† ra tay l hai ln tn-st ngܩi ViŒt trn Bi‹n ng. Ngܩi Trung-Hoa cha bao gi lm nh vy vi mt nܧc lin-bang. Trong tnh-th‰ hiŒn nay, n‰u c mt trn hi-chi‰n na th Trung-Cng s li thm mt ln na, gi‰t ViŒt-Nam m thi!

N‰u bn-cht ca Trung-Cng l "d-ng" vi To-n v Lut Bi‹n quc-t‰, ViŒt-Nam khng nn ‹ h† mi mi th‰ thܮng-phong. Ti sao li khng a Trung-Hoa vo chn "php-nh" bt-li ‹ xem h† ci lš ra sao?

HiŒn nay cng-ng th‰-gii ang trong thi-k m du, cc dn-tc Šu chn chi‰n-tranh, ch hy-v†ng khng c ǰ mu. Hoa-K v Nga-S gim bt hn s hiŒn-diŒn qun-s ti Bi‹n ng, to nn mt khong trng m Trung-Cng mun iŠn vo. Th‰-gii ni chung, hiŒp-hi ng-Nam- ni ring, kh c biŒn-php no ngn-chn Trung-Cng. Chnh-quyŠn ViŒt-Nam cn phi t mnh lo phng-th. Mt khi Trung-Cng kh-nng l chng xm-ln, khng c ai cn ܮc.

Nܧc ViŒt-Nam s-hu khu-vc ni-hi, lnh-hi v cn-hi rt ln. Vi hi-phn kinh-t‰ v thŠm lc-a trong khong 200 ‰n 350 hi-lš ngoi khi, cho d khng chi‰n-tranh vi Trung-Cng, lc lܮng qun-s gn-gi lut-php cng cn phi gia-tng. HiŒn Hi-qun CHXHCN ViŒt-Nam ܮc trang b rt y‰u km, ch c my chi‰c tu qu c, k-thut ti tŒ. Hai ch-lc-hm HQ1, HQ3 l loi WHEC/DER ca M ngoi 50 tui, cn my chi‰c Petya ca Nga th rt y‰u sng, my mc h hng lun, khng bao gi t ܮc vn-tc tc-chi‰n d-tr. Qun-s thc-s c kh-nng i bi‹n t i dm ba ngn ngܩi lm sao chng tr†i ܮc li mt hi-qun tiŠn-ti‰n nh Trung-Cng vi hng trm tiŠm-thy-nh, qun-s hn 300,000 lnh, chi‰n-hm ng-o ch thua st c Hoa-K v Nga-s. i-th ng s ny li ang canh-tn, chuy‹n-bi‰n qua mt th‰-hŒ mi vŠ tiŠm-thy-nh chy bng nguyn-t-nng v sp sa ܮc trang-b mu-hm cho hi-qun khng-chi‰n.

‹ gi trch-nhiŒm tun-tiu, phng-th mt diŒn-tch bi‹n c nhiŠu ln ln hn lnh-th trn b v ti-nguyn ri ra cng khng km, hi-qun CHXHVN vi 9,000 chnh-quy ph-lc bi 3,000 tr-b dܧi bi‹n, li ch chi‰m mt t›-lŒ qun-s qu nh nhoi l 1% trong mt lc-lܮng qun-Ƕi/ cng-an hng triŒu ngܩi. Cho d c 27,000 lnh thy nh b chuyn-gi cn-c b hay hi-o, qun-lc qu tnh ch lm cnh, khng cht kh-nng tc-chi‰n ngoi khi.

Trܩng-hp ViŒt - Hoa c nh nhau hay khng, ViŒt c ly li ܮc Hong-Sa hay khng, ViŒt c gi ܮc phn ln Trܩng-Sa hay khng; ViŒt-Nam cng Trung-Cng, i-Loan v cc nܧc khc trong vng duyn-hi ng-Nam- ri ra cng bt buc phi chp-nhn mt s thc hi‹n-nhin: l s hiŒn-diŒn ca nhiŠu dn-tc cng sinh-hot vi mnh trong Bi‹n ng. Tt c s phi tm cch thch-nghi trong cuc sng chung ‹ trnh ng chm, ‹ cng sinh-tn, cng khai-thc ti-nguyn thin-nhin...

ViŒt-Nam cng nh cc quc-gia lng giŠng khc cn tham-d nhng d-n chung nh nghin-cu khoa-h†c, bo-vŒ mi-trܩng, lu-thng hng-hi v hng-khng, cp-cu tai nn trn bi‹n, ngn-chn hi-tc, chng bun lu ma-ty v.v...

Trong tng-lai gn, ViŒt-Nam cn sa ǰi mt vi iŠu lut quc-gia ‹ ph-hp vi Lut Bi‹n quc-t‰ vŠ nhng ܩng cn-bn duyn-hi, vŠ lu-thng trn lnh-hi, cn-hi cng hi-phn kinh-t‰, vŠ chng -nhim bo-vŒ mi-sinh.

ViŒt-Nam cng cn ngay nhng chuyn-gia thng sut lut bi‹n v nhiŠu k-thut-gia trong m†i ngnh khai-thc bi‹n c.

Nh ni phn m u, sch ny nng phn ki‰n-thc khoa-h†c a-lš nn nh phn bn-ci php-lš cng cc nܧc ln-bang. Cc ti-liŒu nghin-cu su xa lin-hŒ ‰n cc lnh-vc khc vŠ Bi‹n ng cng nh Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa xin nhܩng li cho cc nh chuyn-mn trong nhng lnh-vc trnh-by.

*

* *

Sau h‰t, ܮc hn-hnh mang danh tc-gi, chng ti xin chn-thnh cm t tt c nhng nh kho-cu tiŠn-phong vŠ cc ki‰n-thc m†i ngnh khoa-h†c nh a-lš, lch-s, php-lš, sinh-vt-h†c, kho-c-h†c ... lin-hŒ ‰n Bi‹n ng.

V-Hu-San

Thng 5 / 1995.