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V-Hu-San xin gii-thiŒu bi:

Vn-Š Ch-QuyŠn i vi hai Qun-o Hong-Sa v Trܩng-Sa:

Vi Nhn-Xt VŠ Lp Lun Ca hai chnh-ph Bc-Kinh v i-Loan

T-quc-Tun

Cuc tranh-chp vŠ ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa ko di hn bn chc nm ri. Ngoi tr trn ng-Ƕ ln gia hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha v hi-qun Trung-Cng ti qun-o Hong-sa ngy 19 v 20 thng 1 nm 1974, trong Trung-Cng vi mt lc-lܮng ln hn li khng b phn-tn cng nh suy-y‰u v ni-chi‰n nn cܫng-chi‰m ܮc qun-o ny, v mt trn n sng nh ngy 14.3.1988 ti vng qun-o Trܩng-sa gia hi-qun ca hai nܧc cng-sn ViŒt-nam v Trung-hoa, phn nhiŠu s tranh-chp Šu din ra dܧi hnh-thc tranh-biŒn qua cc li tuyn-b, thng-co, vn-th hay bch-th ca cc chnh-ph ViŒt-nam v Trung-hoa thuc c hai phe quc-gia v cng-sn. Ngoi ra, cn c nhiŠu bi bo, bin-kho hay sch vi‰t vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa ca mt s h†c-gi, nh vn, nh bo hai bn na.

‹ biŒn-minh hnh-Ƕng xm-lng ca mnh nm 1974 tri vi tinh-thn ca bn Hi‰n-chng Lin-hiŒp-quc m Trung-Cng t khi gia-nhp vo thng 10 nm 1971 cam-k‰t tn-tr†ng v bo-vŒ, Trung-Cng ni c hai qun-o Hong-sa (hay l Ty-sa trong t-ng Trung-hoa) v Trܩng-sa (Trung-hoa g†i l Nam-sa) vn t lu l mt phn lnh-th ca Trung-quc nhng b Nht-bn xm-chi‰m trong Th‰-chi‰n II v ܮc chnh-ph Trung-hoa Dn-quc thu hi li nm 1946, sau khi trn chi‰n ny chm dt. Trung-hoa Dn-quc cng ph-h†a s biŒn-minh ny. Cc lun-c ca Trung-Cng cn ܮc nhiŠu ti-liŒu ngoi-quc nhc i nhc li.

Trong bi ny chng ti s a ra nhng nhn-xt vŠ cc lun-c ca cc gii trong chnh-ph Trung-hoa, quc-gia ln cng-sn, c-gng chng-minh ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa. Tuy cc phe tranh-chp gm c ViŒt-nam (trܧc l ViŒt-nam Cng-ha, sau l Cng-ha X-hi Ch-ngha ViŒt-nam), Trung-quc (c Trung-hoa Dn-quc ln Trung-hoa Nhn-dn Cng-ha-quc), Phi-lut-tn, v gn y li cn thm c M-lai-, Brunei, v.v..., nhng hai phe tranh-chp chnh l ViŒt-nam v Trung-hoa. Chng ti khng nghin-cu lun-c ca ViŒt-nam v nhiŠu ngܩi lm viŒc ny ri, Tri li, chng ti ch cu-xt lun-c ca Trung-quc thi, v ngoi lš-do Trung-quc l mt trong hai phe tranh-chp chnh ra m cn v lš-do l d l quc-gia hay cng-sn, Trung-quc vn c mt nh-hܪng v mt th‰-lc quan-tr†ng ti ng-nam -chu.

Mt khc, chng ti cng gii-hn thi-gian nghin-cu vo t sau trn Th‰-chi‰n th II tr li y thi, khng Š-cp ti thi-gian trܧc . Ch t khi vn-Š Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa ܮc Š-cp ti trong mt hiŒp-ܧc quc-t‰, Ho-ܧc Cu-kim-Sn kš ngy 8 thng 9 nm 1951, nht l t khi ngܩi ta tm thy c nhiŠu ti du rt quan-tr†ng trong vng ny, s tranh-chp ch-quyŠn mi tr nn ngy mt mnh. Thm vo l bi‰n-c ng Cng-sn Trung-quc nm ܮc chnh-quyŠn Hoa-lc ngy 1.10.1949, lm si-Ƕng chnh-trܩng quc-t‰, nht l vng ng- v ng-nam -chu, t thp-nin 1950 tr i.

Sau h‰t, bi ny ch cu-xt cc lun-c chnh-thc ca c hai chnh-ph Trung-Cng v i-loan thi. Lun-c ca cc nhn-vt hay c-quan ngoi chnh-quyŠn s l i-tܮng ca mt bi nghin-cu khc.

Cc ti-liŒu s-dng trong bi ny n‰u l ca chnh-ph Šu pht-xut t Bc-kinh hay i-bc. N‰u c nguyn-bn Hoa-vn th chng ti dng lm ti-liŒu chnh; n‰u khng, chng ti dng bn dch Anh-ng cng ca hai chnh-ph . Trong trܩng-hp khng c hai loi ti-liŒu ny, chng ti cn-c vo bn dch Anh-ng ca nhiŠu ngun khc, nht l ca Ta Tng Lnh-s Hoa-k ti Hng-cng (nh cc nh nghin-cu cc vn-Š Hoa-lc dng trܧc nm 1971) hay ca cc i pht-thanh Hoa-k, Anh-quc, v.v...

V s-dng cc ti-liŒu thuc nhiŠu loi khc nhau nh vy nn khng c s thun-nht trong viŒc ghi chp nhiŠu a-danh v ǥc-biŒt l nhn-danh Trung-hoa. Chng ti c-gng ghi cc t bng ViŒt-ng. Tuy nhin khi khng bi‰t r mt t vi‰t bng Hoa-ng nh th‰ no, chng ti s khng ghi bng ViŒt-ng v s c th‹ ghi sai v bt-buc gi li li ghi m trong ti-liŒu m chng ti dng. Li ghi m ny c khi l bng pinyin (phan-m) ܮc dng Hoa-lc hay trong cc ti-liŒu ca cc ngܩi hay c-quan ngoi-quc bin-son t thp-nin 1980 tr i, hoc bng phng-php Wade-Giles hiŒn vn ܮc dng trong phn ln cc ti-liŒu pht-xut t i-loan hoc ca cc tc-gi thuc phe Trung-hoa Dn-quc cng nh trong cc ti-liŒu ngoi-quc trܧc thp-nin 1980.

Ngoi ra, c mt s danh-t ring hay a-danh m ngܩi Trung-hoa dng khc ngܩi ViŒt-nam. Trong ti-liŒu ny, khi ng vŠ phng-diŒn Trung-quc, chng ti s dng cc t theo li ca ngܩi Hoa, cn khi ng vŠ phng-diŒn ViŒt-nam chng ti dng cc t theo ngܩi ViŒt.

Chng hn ngܩi Hoa ni Ty-sa, Nam-sa, Nam-hi (hay Nam Trung-quc-hi), Quc-v ViŒn (Trung-Cng), Hnh-chnh ViŒn (i-loan), v.v..., cn ngܩi ViŒt li ni Hong-sa, Trܩng-sa, ng-hi (hay bi‹n ng), Chnh-ph...

 

Nhn-xt vŠ cc lun-c

Lun-c ca cc chnh-ph Trung-hoa Dn-quc (g†i tt l i-loan) v Trung-hoa Nhn-dn Cng-ha-quc (tc Trung-Cng) thܩng ܮc pht-bi‹u nhng khi c mt bi‰n-c hay s viŒc no c lin-quan ti vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa.

I. Phn-ng i vi li tuyn-b ca Tng-thng Phi-lut-tn Quirino (1951)

Nm 1945 Nht-bn b cc nܧc ng-minh nh bi Thi-bnh-dng phi u-hng. Mt trong nhng viŒc nܧc ny phi lm khi u hng l t-b cc t-ai ngoi-quc m Nht-bn chi‰m ܮc trong thi-k ton-thnh ca ch‰-Ƕ qun-phiŒt, trong c hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa. Bn nm sau, ng Cng-sn Trung-quc chi‰m ܮc ton-th‹ Hoa-lc v Trung-hoa Nhn-dn Cng-ha-quc ra cho ǩi ngy 1.10.1949, cn chnh-ph Trung-hoa Dn-quc phi lnh nn sang i-loan. Vi hai bi‰n-c tr†ng-i ny vn-Š tranh-chp ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa bt u bܧc vo giai-on mi.

Ln u tin Trung-Cng chnh-thc ln ti‰ng vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o ny l khi trong mt cuc h†p bo Manila ngy 17.5.1951 Tng-thng Phi-lut-tn Quirino tuyn-b l v qun-o Trܩng-sa k‰-cn qun-o Phi-lut-tn nn n phi thuc vŠ Phi-lut-tn. Hai ngy sau, ngy 19 thng 5, Bc-kinh c phn-ng. Chnh-ph Trung-Cng tuyn-b nh sau:

"Li tuyn-truyŠn v-lš ca Chnh-ph Phi-lut-tn i vi lnh-th ca Trung-quc r-rng l sn-phm ch-th ca Chnh-ph Hoa-k. B†n khiu-khch Phi-lut-tn v nhng k Hoa-k ng-h chng phi b ngay mu- mo-hi‹m i, n‰u khng th hnh-Ƕng ny c th‹ a ti nhng hu-qu nghim-tr†ng. Nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa khng bao gi ‹ cho bt c mt ngoi-bang no xm-lܮc qun-o Nam-sa hay bt c t-ai no khc thuc vŠ Trung-quc."(1) (1) Š-cp ti trong bi "Notes on the Nanwei and Sisha Islands," ng trong PEOPLE'S CHINA, Bc-kinh, tp IV, s 5, ph-trng ng. 1.9.1951, tr. 7.)

Tuy nhin Trung-Cng ch ni qua-loa nh vy thi ch khng a ra ܮc mt bng-chng no, d l lch-s hay php-lš, cho thy Trܩng-sa thuc quyŠn Trung-hoa lm ch. S thi‰u-st ny ko di cho ti hiŒn-ti.

II. Dp c Ho-hi Cu-kim-sn (1951)

‰n u thng 9 nm 1951, theo li mi ca Chnh-ph Hoa-k, nm mi mt quc-gia trܧc kia tng tham-gia hay c lin-hŒ ti cuc chi‰n chng xm-lng Nht-bn t nm 1939 ‰n nm 1945 tham-d Hi-ngh Ho-bnh nhm h†p Cu-kim-Sn (Hoa-k) ‹ tho-lun vn-Š chm-dt tnh-trng chi‰n-tranh v ti-lp bang-giao vi Nht-bn. i‹m ng ch-š l c hai phe Quc-gia v Cng-sn Trung-hoa Šu khng ܮc mi tham-d hi-ngh. Trong hi-ngh, vn-Š chnh l tho-lun bn d-tho ha-ܧc do hai nܧc Anh v Hoa-k Š-ngh ngy 12.7.1951. Ngy 8.9.1951, ngoi-tr Lin-s v mt s nܧc n em, cc nܧc tham-d hi-ngh kš ha-ܧc vi Nht-bn(2) (2) Ton vn bn Ha-ܧc Cu-kim-sn ng trong: (a) UNITED NATIONS TREATY SERIES, tp 136, tr. 46 v ti‰p theo, v (b) AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY, 1950-1955: BASIC DOCUMENTS do b Ngoi-giao Hoa-k xut-bn nm 1957, n-bn s 5446, tr. 425-439.).

V thy mnh b Hoa-k gt ra ngoi ho-hi, cc nh lnh-o Bc-kinh, ngay t cui nm 1950, c phn-ng. Mt mt h† ra mt s tuyn-b chnh-thc, mt khc h† cho php ng cc bi bo ‹ ln n viŒc khng mi Trung-Cng tham-d ho-hi v ‹ trnh-by quan-i‹m ca Bc-kinh vŠ mt s vn-Š cn phi ܮc tho-lun, trong c vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa. V gii-hn ca Š-ti, y chng ta ch xt ti cc lun-c ca chnh-ph Trung-Cng i vi vn-Š ch-quyŠn ny thi.

Ngy 4.12.1950 Chu n-lai, lc l B-trܪng Ngoi-giao, trong bn tuyn-b u tin ca ch‰-Ƕ, nu ra cn-bn chnh ‹ kš mt ho-ܧc vi Nht-bn:

"Bn Tuyn-co Cairo, Tha-ܧc Yalta, bn Tuyn-ngn Potsdam v cc chnh-sch cn-bn i vi Nht-bn sau khi nܧc ny u hng ܮc cc quc-gia trong y-hi Vin-ng tha-thun v thng-qua ngy 19.6.1947 -- cc vn-kiŒn quc-t‰ m Chnh-ph Hoa-k kš-kt l cn-bn chnh cho mt ha-ܧc lin-hp vi Nht-bn."(3) (3) "Chou En-lai's Statement on the Peace Treaty with Japan," ng trong PEOPLE'S CHINA, tp II, s 12, ph-trng ngy 16.12.1950, tr. 17 (vi‰t tt: Chou En-lai's Statement). Nhn mnh thm.)

Chu n-lai cn ni thm:

"Nhn-dn Trung-quc rt ܧc mun sm c mt ho-ܧc lin-hp vi Nht-bn cng vi cc quc-gia ng-minh khc trong thi-k Th‰-chi‰n th hai. Tuy nhin cn-bn ca ho-ܧc phi hon-ton thch-hp vi bn Tuyn-co Cairo, Tha-ܧc Yalta, bn Tuyn-ngn Potsdam v cc chnh-sch cn-bn i vi Nht-bn sau khi nܧc ny u hng ܮc qui-nh trong cc vn-kiŒn ny."(4) (4) Chou En-lai's Statement, tr. 19. Nhn mnh thm.)

Tuy bn tuyn-b trn ca Trung-Cng khng Š-cp ‰n vn- ch-quyŠn i vi Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa m ch Š-cp ti cc vn-Š khc, nhng v n nu ra quan-i‹m chnh-y‰u ca Bc-kinh nn chng ta cn phi nghin-cu k n cng vi bn tuyn-b ngy 15.8.1951 l tuyn-b chnh-thc ca Bc-kinh vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa ‹ tm hi‹u gi-tr cc lun-c ca Trung-Cng.

Thc vy, khi nghin-cu d-tho ho-ܧc Cu-kim-sn ca Anh-M gi cho cc quc-gia ܮc mi tham-d ho-hi, Chnh-ph Trung-Cng thy iŠu 2 ca bn d-tho ny khng qui-nh l hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa m Nht-bn t-b phi dܮc trao cho quc-gia no. V th‰ ngy 15.8.1951, sau khi Š-cp ti quan-i‹m ca Trung-Cng vŠ tng vn-Š mt ܮc nu trong bn d-tho(5) (5) Bn Anh-ng nhan-Š "Foreign Minsiter Chou En-lai's Statement on the U.S.-British Draft Peace Treaty with Japan," (vi‰t tt: Foreign Minister) ng trong (a) PEOPLE'S CHINA, tp IV, s 5, ph-trng ngy 1.9.1951, tr. 3-6 (Chng ti trch-dn theo bn ny); hay (b) bn tin Tn Hoa-x s 777, Bc-kinh ngy 16.8.1951, tr. 75-78.), Chu n-lai tuyn-b:

"... D-tho HiŒp-ܧc qui-nh l Nht-bn s t-b m†i quyŠn i vi o Nam-uy (o Spratly) v qun-o Ty-sa (qun-o Paracel), nhng li c š khng Š-cp ti vn-Š ti-lp ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o ny. Thc ra, cng nh cc qun-o Nam-sa, qun-o Trung-sa v qun-o ng-sa, qun-o Ty-sa (qun-o Paracel) v o Nam-uy (o Spratly) lc no cng l lnh-th ca Trung-quc. D cc o ny c lc b Nht-bn chi‰m ng trong mt thi-gian trong trn chi‰n-tranh xm-lng do ‰-quc Nht-bn gy ra, sau khi Nht-bn u hng Chnh-ph Trung-hoa thu-hi nhng o ny.

"Chnh-ph Nhn-dn Trung-ng nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa do tuyn-b: d D-tho HiŒp-ܧc Anh-M c cha ǿng cc iŠu-khon vŠ vn-Š ny hay khng v d cc iŠu-khon ny c ܮc son-tho nh th‰ no, ch-quyŠn bt-kh xm-phm ca nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa trn o Nam-uy (o Spratly) v qun-o Ty-sa (qun-o Paracel) s khng v th‰ m b nh-hܪng."(6) (6) Foreign Minister, tr. 4. Nhn mnh thm.)

H† Chu sau k‰t-lun vn-Š ny bng cch ph-nhn gi-tr bt c mt tha-ܧc no kš vi Nht-bn m khng c s tham-d ca Bc-kinh:

"Chnh-ph Nhn-dn Trung-ng nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa mt ln na tuyn-b: N‰u khng c s tham-d ca nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa trong viŒc chun-b, son-tho v kš ha-ܧc vi Nht-bn d ni-dung v k‰t-qu mt hiŒp-ܧc nh vy c nh th‰ no, Chnh-ph Nhn-dn Trung-ng cng coi ha-ܧc y hon-ton bt-hp-php, v v vy s v-hiŒu."(7) (7) Foreign Minister, tr. 6.)

Tuy rng li k‰t-lun ny nhm chung ton-th‹ ha-ܧc vi Nht-bn, n cng bao-trm lun c vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa.

Trong bn tuyn-b ny chng ta nhn thy c nhng i‹m ng ch-š sau:

Th nht, tuy tuyn-b l o Nam-uy v qun-o Hong-sa lc no cng l lnh-th ca Trung-quc, Chu n-lai li khng nu ra mt chi-ti‰t no ‹ chng-minh ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc i vi cc o ny.

nh rng trong mt bn tuyn-b chnh-thc ca chnh-ph khng th‹ no k‹ h‰t m†i chi-ti‰t hay dn-chng, nhng t nht n cng phi nu ra mt vi th-d c-th‹ ‹ h‡-tr li tuyn-b v ‹ gip ngܩi ngoi-cuc c th‹ hi‹u r mt cch khch-quan hn nhng iŠu ܮc trnh-by trong bn tuyn-b. Lm th‰ no ngܩi ngoi-cuc c th‹ thng-cm v ng-h li tuyn-b n‰u n khng mang mt chi-ti‰t no, d l nh nht, ‹ gip ngܩi ngoi-cuc c th‹ ki‹m-chng tnh-cch xc-thc v chn-thc ca li tuyn-b? N‰u tuyn-b ch ‹ tuyn-b th li tuyn-b rt y‰u. Chng ta cng nn bi‰t rng trong bn tuyn-b ny khi Š-cp ‰n cc vn-Š khc h† Chu nu nhiŠu chi-ti‰t ‹ chng-minh hay biŒn-h.

V vy s khng dn-chng ca Chu n-lai i vi vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa tht ng cho chng ta phi ngc-nhin v khi‰n chng ta phi t hi phi chng v bi‰t Trung-Cng qu khng c mt cn-bn no vng-vng, vŠ php-lš cng nh vŠ lch-s, ‹ chng-minh ch-quyŠn ny nn Trung-Cng phi b khng viŒn-dn chng-c?

Th hai, bn tuyn-b ny, cng nh cc bn tuyn-b khc sau ny ca Trung-Cng, v c ca i-loan, Š-cp ti viŒc Chnh-ph Trung-hoa thu-hi Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa sau khi Nht-bn u hng thng 8 nm 1945.

Mt cu hi ܮc ǥt ra: viŒc Chnh-ph Trung-hoa (khi l Trung-hoa Dn-quc) thu-hi hai qun-o ny c phi l mt hnh-vi hp-php khng?

Chng ta bi‰t rng nm 1938, trܧc khi xy ra trn Th‰-chi‰n th II, Nht-bn chi‰m Lm-o thuc qun-o Hong-sa, ni l ‹ khai-thc thng-mi nhng thc ra chnh l ‹ lp cn-c chi‰n-lܮc lm bn p tn-cng vng ng-nam . Theo R. Serene th "Nm 1938 Nht-bn mܮn c khai-thc thng-mi chi‰m Lm-o ‹ bnh-trܧng s ki‹m-sot ti cc o Cam-tuyŠn v Linh-cn..."(8) (8) R. Serene, "Petite Histoire des Paracels," ng trong SUD-EST ASIATIQUE, Bruxelles, s 19, th. 1/1951, tr. 38.). Ri ‰n ngy 31.3.1939, B Ngoi-giao Nht-bn ra mt thng-co loan tin l ngy hm trܧc, 30.3,

Nht-bn quy‰t-nh ǥt qun-o Trܩng-sa dui quyŠn ki‹m-sot ca Nht-bn v lš-do ti y thi‰u mt chnh-quyŠn hnh-chnh a-phng nn lm thiŒt-hi ‰n quyŠn-li ca Nht-bn(9) (9) Xem: (a) B.B., "Les Iles Spratlys," ng trong L'ASIE FRANCAISE, Paris, tp 39, s 269, th. 4/1939, tr. 123; (b) Charles Rousseau, "Chine, France, Japon, Philippines et Vietnam -- Diffrend Concernant l'Appartenance des Iles Spratlys et Paracels," ng trong REVUE GENERALE DE DROIT INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC, Paris, nm th 76, tp 76, s 3, th. 7-9/1972, tr. 828.). Trong sut thi-gian ca trn Th‰-chi‰n th II, Nht-bn ng qun trn hai qun-o ny cho ti khi u hng qun-Ƕi ng-minh.

Vo cui nm 1943, trong lc chi‰n-tranh ang mc-Ƕ c-liŒt nht th cc nh lnh-o ti-cao ca Hoa-k, Anh v Trung-hoa Dn-quc b-mt gp nhau ti Cairo, th- nܧc Ai-cp, t 23 ‰n 27 thng 11(10) (10) Chi-ti‰t vŠ hi-ngh ny v hi-ngh Tehran ܮc in trong tp THE FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES -- DIPLOMATIC PAPERS: THE CONFERENCES AT CAIRO AND TEHRAN, 1943, (vi‰t tt: FRUS Cairo-Tehran), Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1961.) ‹ tho-lun cc chi‰n-lܮc tiu-diŒt phe Trc (c--Nht). Ngy 26, Tng-thng Hoa-k Franklin D. Roosevelt, Th-tܧng Anh Winston Churchill v Tng-thng Trung-hoa Dn-quc Tܪng Gii-thch kš mt bn tuyn-co chung (thܩng ܮc g†i l Tuyn-co Cairo) trong c mt on nh sau:

"i-tܮng ca cc nܧc ny [tc l ca ba nܧc ng-minh] l phi tܧc b quyŠn ca Nht-bn trn tt c cc o Thi-bnh-dng m nܧc ny cܫng-ot hay chi‰m-ng t khi c trn Th‰-chi‰n th I nm 1914 v tt c cc lnh-th Nht-bn cܧp ca ngܩi Trung-hoa, nh l Mn-chu, i-loan v Bnh-h, phi ܮc hon tr Trung-hoa Dn-quc. Nht-bn cng s phi b trc-xut khi cc lnh-th khc chi‰m ܮc bng v-lc v lng tham."(11) (11) FRUS Cairo-Tehran, tr. 448-449.)

†c on trch-dn trn chng ta thy Tuyn-co Cairo c hai qui-nh quan-tr†ng. Th nht, ch c cc t Mn-chu, i-loan v Bnh-h ܮc qui-hon cho Trung-quc thi. Th hai, cn cc lnh-th khc m Nht-bn chi‰m ܮc th bn tuyn-co ny ch qui-nh viŒc trc-xut Nht-bn thi, ch khng hŠ ni ti viŒc qui-hon chng cho Trung-quc. Ch c iŠu ng ti‰c, v cng l nguyn-nhn gy ra nhng v tranh-chp vŠ ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa sau ny, l Tuyn-co Cairo khng ni cc lnh-th khc y phi ܮc qui-hon cho nܧc no.

Quy‰t-nh ny ܮc Tng Th-kš ng Cng-sn Lin-s Joseph Stalin tn-thnh. Trong mt ba n tra cng-tc gia ng, Tng-thng Roosevelt v Th-tܧng Churchill ti Ta i-s Lin-s Tehran (Ba-t) ngy 30.11.1943, khi Churchill hi ng †c bn Tuyn-co Cairo cha th Stalin cho bi‰t ng †c ri v cn ni thm l mc d ng khng th‹ cam-k‰t iŠu g, ng hon-ton tn-thnh bn tuyn-co v tt c nhng iŠu ni trong . ng cho hay viŒc hon Mn-chu, i-loan v Bnh-h li cho Trung-quc l phi(12) (12) Xem bi "Roosevelt-Churchill-Stalin Luncheon Meeting", trong FRUS Cairo-Tehran, tr. 566.). Ngoi ra, Stalin hon-ton khng hŠ ni g ‰n hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa.

Mt nm rܫi sau, quy‰t-nh ca tam-cܩng ti Hi-ngh Cairo ܮc ti xc-nhn trong mt hi-ngh thܮng-nh tam-cܩng khc nhm ti Potsdam t 17.7 ‰n 2.8.1945 ‹ n-nh cc iŠu-kiŒn cho Nht-bn u hng. Tng-thng Hoa-k, Th-tܧng Anh (13) (13) Mi u l Winston Churchill, sau l Clement Attlee khi ng bo-th Anh tht-c.) v Tng-thng Trung-hoa Dn-quc ra mt tuyn-ngn (thܩng g†i l Tuyn-ngn Potsdam) ngy 26.7.1945 trong c ghi l "Cc iŠu-khon ca bn Tuyn-co Cairo s ܮc thi-hnh"(14) (14) DOCUMENTS ON AMERICAN FOREIGN RELATIONS, do Raymond Dennett v Robert K. Turner bin-tp v Prince University Press xut-bn nm 1948, tp VIII: 1.7.1945 - 31.12.1946.).

Ti hi-ngh Potsdam ny cc nh lnh-o tam-cܩng quy‰t-nh chia ng-dng lm hai khu-vc ‹ cho tiŒn viŒc gii-gii qun-Ƕi Nht-bn ng ti y. V-tuy‰n th 16 ܮc ch†n lm ranh-gii: viŒc gii-gii khu-vc bc v-tuy‰n y-thc cho Quc-qun Trung-hoa v khu-vc pha nam do lin-qun Anh-ƒn m-nhn(15) (15) Jean R. Sainteny, HISTOIRE D'UNE PAIX MANQUE: INDOCHINE 1945-1947, Amiot Dumont, Paris, 1953, tr. 50.). V qun-o Hong-sa nm gia hai v-tuy‰n th 15 v 17 nn viŒc gii-gii qun-Ƕi Nht tr-ng y thuc thm-quyŠn Quc-qun Trung-hoa. Tri li, viŒc gii-gii qun-o Trܩng-sa phi do lin-qun Anh-ƒn m-nhn do l qun-o ny nm gia hai v-tuy‰n th 8 v 12.

Nht-bn khi u hng chu iŠu-kiŒn qui-nh trong bn Tuyn-co Cairo v ghi nhn trong Vn-kiŒn u hng ngy 2.9.1945(16) (16) Xem UNITED STATES STATUTES-AT-LARGE, trong Executive Agreement Series, s 493, tp 59, phn II, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 1945, tr. 1734-1735.). ng-thi, khi ra lŒnh cho qun-Ƕi Nht-bn ngoi-quc u hng v np v-kh cho qun-Ƕi ng-minh, Nht-hong Hirohito ban-hnh Tng MŒnh-lŒnh s 1, trong iŠu I khon (a) qui-nh l:

"Cc t-lŒnh Nht-bn v tt c lc, hi-qun cng cc lc-lܮng ph-thuc trn t Trung-hoa (ngoi tr Mn-chu), i-loan v ng-Php 16 Ƕ bc v-tuy‰n u hng i Nguyn-soi Tܪng Gii-thch"(17) (17) Herbert Feis thut li trong sch JAPAN SUBDUED: THE ATOMIC BOMB AND THE END OF THE WAR IN THE PACIFIC, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1961, tr. 139.

ViŒc gii-gii qun-Ƕi Nht-bn ca Quc-qun Trung-hoa bc v-tuy‰n th 16 ܮc coi l bt u t ngy 9.9.1945, khi Quc-qun Trung-hoa do Tܧng L-Hn ch-huy ti‰n vo thnh-ph H-ni ‹ thi-hnh nhiŒm-v ny, v chm-dt vo cui thng 8 nm 1946 khi Ƕi qun chi‰m-ng Trung-hoa cui-cng ri khi ViŒt-nam(18) (18) Xem thm chi-ti‰t trong VIETNAM AND CHINA: 1938-1954 ca King C. Chen, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1969, tr.115-154.) sau khi Trung-hoa Dn-quc kš vi Php mt tha-ܧc ngy 28.2.1946 nhܩng li quyŠn gii-gii cho qun-Ƕi Php(19) (19) Ngy 28.2.1946 Php v Trung-quc kš (a) mt hiŒp-ܧc 13 iŠu mŒnh-danh l "HiŒp-ܧc gia Trung-hoa Dn-quc v Php-quc vŠ viŒc Php-quc Khܧc-t Tr-ngoi Php-quyŠn v Cc QuyŠn Lin-hŒ Khc Trung-quc", (b) mt tha-ܧc 11 iŠu mang tn l "Tha-ܧc gia Chnh-ph Trung-hoa Dn-quc v Chnh-ph Php-quc Lin-quan ti Quan-hŒ Trung-hoa v ng-dng", v (c) mt vn-th trao-ǰi. Cc ti-liŒu ny in trong: (a) TREATIES AND AGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF CHINA AND OTHER POWERS, do Chen Yin-ching bin-son, Sino-American Publishing Service xut-bn ti Washington, D.C., 1957, tr. 258-270; (b) King C. Chen, sd, tr. 360-374.). Tuy nhin theo Bnh Phm-quang vi‰t trong bi "Qun-o Nam-sa tiŠn-n phng-th lnh-hi" th:

"Ngy 26.10.1946, hm-Ƕi ǥc-biŒt ca Trung-hoa Dn-quc gm 4 chi‰n-hm, m‡i chi‰c ch mt s i-diŒn ca cc b v 59 binh-s thuc trung-Ƕi Ƕc-lp vŠ cnh-vŒ ca hi-qun (tiŠn-thn ca thy-qun lc-chi‰n) t cng Ng-tng xut-pht ngy 29 thng 10 v ngy 29 thng 11 th cc tu Vnh-hng v Trung-kiŒn mi ti o Vnh-hng thuc qun-o Ty-sa v ǰ-b ln y. Ngy 4 thng 12 chi‰n-hm Vnh-hng cn i qua o La-bt, o Ba-bt v.v... ri tr li. Cn hai chi‰n-hm Thi-bnh v Trung-nghiŒp ‰n ngy 9 thng 12 mi ti qun-o Nam-sa. Thng 12 hon-tt cng-tc chi‰m ng o Thi-bnh, ngy 15 thng 1 chi‰n-hm Thi-bnh ti cc o I-thi, ‰-, Song-t, Nam-cc, v.v... ri tr vŠ. ‰n y cng-tc chi‰m ng v ti‰p thu qun-o Ty-sa v Nam-sa hon-tt v ln-lܮt tr vŠ cng Du-lm."(20) (20) TRUNG-HOA BO, i-bc, ng. 14.7.1971.)

Nh vy viŒc Quc-qun Trung-hoa ǰ-b ln hai qun-o ny, m c hai Chnh-ph Trung-hoa Dn-quc v Trung-Cng g†i l "ti‰p-thu", l mt hnh-vi bt-hp-php v nhiŠu lš-do:

a) Theo quy‰t-nh ca hi-ngh Potsdam, Quc-qun Trung-hoa ch c quyŠn gii-gii qun-Ƕi Nht-bn trn qun-o Hong-sa ch khng c quyŠn trn qun-o Trܩng-sa vn thuc thm-quyŠn lin-qun Anh-ƒn. Chng ti khng bi‰t v cng khng thy c ti-liŒu no cho thy l lin-qun Anh-ƒn hay chnh-ph hong-gia Anh y-thc viŒc gii-gii qun-Ƕi Nht-bn y cho Quc-qun Trung-hoa.

b) ViŒc gii-gii phi thc-hiŒn trܧc cui thng 8/1946. Tuy nhin Quc-qun Trung-hoa li ǰ-b qun lnh ln hai qun-o ny vo hai thng 11 v 12 nm 1946 v thng 1 nm 1947, nh th‰ l lm mt hnh-vi xm-lܮc ch khng phi l hnh-vi th-y hp-php, v t thng 8/1946 hnh-vi gii-gii ca Quc-qun Trung-hoa khng cn cn-bn php-lš na.

Thc vy, theo HiŒp-ܧc VŠ ViŒc Php Khܧc-t Tr-ngoi Php-quyŠn v cc QuyŠn Lin-hŒ khc Trung-quc, do i-s Php ti Trung-hoa l Jacques Meyrier kš vi B-trܪng Ngoi-giao Trung-hoa Dn-quc Wang Shih-chieh ngy 28.2.1946 v c hiŒu-lc t ngy 8.6.1946, lnh-th ca Quc-dn Chnh-ph Trung-hoa l Trung-hoa Dn-quc (ngha l Hoa-lc v cc o ln-cn) v ca Chnh-ph Cng-ha Php l Php-quc, Algeria, tt c cc thuc-a, cc x bo-h hi-ngoi cng l cc thc-qun a ca Php (iŠu 1). Mt khc, theo vn-th trao-ǰi cng ngy, viŒc qun-Ƕi Php thay-th‰ Quc-qun Trung-hoa (lc ang chi‰m ng Vit-nam phi bc v-tuy‰n th 16) ‹ canh gi t-binh Nht-bn, duy-tr an-ninh trt-t ܮc thc-hiŒn t ngy 1 ‰n ngy 15 thng 3 v chm-dt tr nht l ngy 31 thng 3.

Trong khi , theo Ho-ܧc Php-Hoa do Khm-sai i-thn Thanh-triŠu l Tng-c Trc-lŒ Lš Hng-chng kš vi i-diŒn Php l Trung-t Hi-qun Fournier ti Thin-tn ngy 11.5.1884, Trung-quc khܧc b m†i quyŠn i vi ViŒt-nam v ViŒt-nam t ngy tr i khng cn l mt thuc-quc ca Trung-hoa na. Ho-ܧc ny ܮc ti-xc-nhn hn mt nm sau trong mt ha-ܧc khc kš ngy 9.6.1885. Mt khc, sau khi Th‰-chi‰n th II chm-dt, hong-‰ ViŒt-nam khi l Bo-i (1925-1945) ngy 11.3.1945 hy b tt c cc hiŒp-ܧc bo-h Php-ViŒt v tuyn-b ViŒt-nam Ƕc-lp. NŠn Ƕc-lp ca ViŒt-nam ܮc ti-xc-nhn ngy 2.9.1945 khi ng Cng-sn ViŒt-nam nm chnh-quyŠn (19.8.1945). Chnh nܧc Php cng cng-nhn nŠn Ƕc-lp ca ViŒt-nam trong iŠu 1 ca Tm-ܧc Php-ViŒt kš ngy 6.3.1946. Ni cch khc, k‹ t 11.3.1945 tr i lnh-th ca nܧc ViŒt-nam Ƕc-lp gm gii t t i Nam-quan ‰n mi C-mu v cc o ph-thuc ViŒt-nam ngoi khi, k‹ c hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܪng-sa. Nh vy i vi c hai nܧc Php v Trung-hoa, ViŒt-nam khng phi l thuc-quc ca nܧc no c.

Do , viŒc "ti‰p-thu" hay "gii-gii" ca Quc-qun Trung-hoa do Bnh Phm-quang bo-co k‹ trn, d l ‹ thi-hnh quy‰t-nh ca cc quc-gia ng-minh trong trn Th‰-chi‰n th II, ng l mt hnh-vi bt-hp-php, tri vi cc nguyn-tc cn-bn ca lut quc-t‰. N vi-phm ‰n ch-quyŠn ca nܧc ViŒt-nam Ƕc-lp.

c) Bn Tuyn-co Cairo v Tuyn-ngn Potsdam hon-ton khng Š-cp ti vn-Š trao-hon cho Trung-quc hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa m Nht-bn cܫng-chi‰m vo u trn th‰-chi‰n th II. S thi‰u-st ny c phi l do cc nh lnh-o ng-minh s-š hay qun khng? L d-nhin l khng. Tri li, chng ta phi gii-thch l cc v y khng quan-niŒm hai qun-o ny l phn lnh-th ca Trung-quc. i‹m ǥc-biŒt ng ch-š hn na l chnh Tng-thng Trung-hoa Dn-quc, i Nguyn-soi Tܪng Gii-thch, tham-d c hai hi-ngh v kš vo c Tuyn-co Cairo ln Tuyn-ngn Potsdam, ch khng phi mt ngܩi i-diŒn no khc ‹ bo l c th‹ khng thi-hnh ng ch-th ca Chnh-ph Trung-hoa Dn-quc. N‰u hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa thc-s thuc ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc th khng c lš g h† Tܪng ch i trao-hon c Mn-chu, i-loan v Bnh-h thi m li khng i lun Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa. Hn na, trong bn vn ca Tuyn-co Cairo v Tuyn-ngn Potsdam chng ta cng khng thy t "vn vn" ‹ c th‹ ni l vn-Š dܮc bao-hm trong hai vn-kiŒn ny.

Mܩi hai nm sau khi tham-d Hi-ngh Cairo v kš bn Tuyn-co, ngy 8.2.1955 Tܪng Gii-thch vn cn nhc li l:

"Trong thng-co cng-b vo lc b‰-mc hi-ngh, chng ti tuyn-b l tt c cc lnh-th do Nht-bn 'cܧp' ca Trung-hoa, k‹ c ng-tam tnh, i-loan v Bnh-h phi ܮc trao-hon li cho Trung-hoa Dn-quc. Li tuyn-b ny ܮc bn Tuyn-ngn Potsdam cng-nhn v Nht-bn chp-nhn khi nܧc ny u hng."(21) (21) Xem bi "Review of International Situation" ng trong PRESIDENT CHIANG KAI-SHEK'S SELECTED SPEECHES AND MESSAGES IN 1955, do China Publishing Co. n-hnh ti i-bc nm 1956, tr. 22. (vi‰t tt: Review) ng-tam tnh ni y l danh-xng ngܩi Trung-hoa vn dng ‹ g†i Mn-chu.)

Mt ln na, ng hon-ton khng ni g ‰n viŒc phi trao-hon hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa cho Trung-quc. Vo lc ng ni li trn ng khng phi l khng bi‰t c s tranh-chp vŠ ch-quyŠn i vi hai qun-o ny m c chnh-ph ca ng ln chnh-ph ca Mao Trch-ng ang i.

d) Gii-gii qun-Ƕi Nht-bn Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa khng th‹ hi‹u l ti‰p-thu hay thu-hi ܮc. Hai hnh-Ƕng ny c bn-cht khc nhau. Gii-gii ch c ngha l tܧc b tt c v-kh ca mt Ƕi qun no ‹ cho Ƕi qun khng th‹ dng vo viŒc chi‰n-tranh ܮc na. D viŒc gii-gii ܮc thc-hiŒn trn phn lnh-th ca mt nܧc khc vi nܧc c phn-s gii-gii n cng khng th‹ l lš-do ‹ cho nܧc gii-gii chi‰m lnh-th ܮc, tr phi trong hiŒp-nh y-thc viŒc gii-gii c qui-nh thm cho php nܧc gii-gii ܮc chi‰m ly lnh-th . Ngܮc li, ti‰p-thu hay thu-hi ng š ch nܧc lm cng viŒc ny ti‰p-nhn li phn lnh-th ca mnh trܧc b mt nܧc khc chi‰m ot.

Nh chng ta ܮc bi‰t, c Tuyn-co Cairo ln Tuyn-ngn Potsdam ch cho php Trung-hoa Dn-quc gii-gii qun-Ƕi Nht-bn qun-o Hong-sa thi, ch khng hŠ cho php Trung-hoa Dn-quc thu-hi qun-o ny cng l gii-gii qun-Ƕi Nht-bn qun-o Trܩng-sa hay thu-hi qun-o . V th‰ viŒc chi‰m ng v thu-hi hai qun-o ny ca Trung-hoa Dn-quc l bt-hp-php v vi-phm trm-tr†ng lut quc-t‰ v i tri vi quy‰t-nh ca Tuyn-co Cairo v Tuyn-ngn Potsdam.

V cc lš-do va k‹ trn, chng ta phi nhn-nhn rng li tuyn-b ngy 15.8.1951 ca Chu n-lai mu-thun vi li tuyn-b ngy 4.12.1950 cng ca h† Chu. Mt Ǣng Trung-Cng i cc quc-gia phi tun theo hai vn-kiŒn quc-t‰ ny v cc chnh-sch cn-bn i vi Nht-bn sau khi nܧc ny u hng, trong viŒc chia i ng-dng ‹ gii-gii qun-Ƕi Nht-bn ng ti y cng l mt chnh-sch cn-bn, mt Ǣng li cho viŒc ti‰p-thu hai qun-o khng hŠ ܮc qui-nh trong hai vn-kiŒn quc-t‰ l mt hnh-vi hp-php.

Th ba, Trung-Cng coi bt c mt ha-ܧc no kš vi Nht-bn m khng c s tham-d ca Trung-Cng vo viŒc chun-b, son-tho v kš-k‰t l bt-hp-php v v-hiŒu.

Ha-ܧc Cu-kim-sn ngy 8.9.1951 kš vi Nht-bn c phi l mt ha-ܧc bt-hp-php v v-hiŒu khng?

Theo nh-ngha ca lut quc-t‰, mt hiŒp-ܧc b coi l bt-hp-php khi no n nhm theo ui mt i-tܮng v-lun, khi no n to ra nhng ngha-v bt-hp-php tri vi cc nguyn-tc ca lut quc-t‰ ܮc m†i quc-gia cng-nhn, tri vi nhn-quyŠn, tri vi cc nguyn-tc cn-bn ca Hi‰n-chng Lin-hiŒp-quc, hoc-gi mt hiŒp-ܧc m s thi-hnh s to nn mt bt-cng php-lš cho mt quc-gia Œ tam, hoc khi n ܮc ܮc kš-k‰t bt-xng hay mu-thun vi cc ngha-v ca hiŒp-ܧc c trܧc m tt c hay mt trong cc nܧc k‰t-ܧc kš (22) (22) Th-d xem L. Oppenheim, INTERNATIONAL LAW: A TREATISE, do H. Lauterpacht hiŒu-nh, Longmans, Green & Co., xut-bn Lun-n, tp I, n-bn th 7, 1948.). Chnh Trung-Cng cng chp-nhn gii-thch ny v quan-i‹m ca Trung-Cng ܮc hai h†c-gi lut quc-t‰ ni ti‰ng l ThiŒu Kim-ph v Trn Th‹-cܩng trnh-by trong hai bi bin-kho.

Khi bn vŠ Ha-ܧc Cu-kim-sn, Trn Th‹-cܩng nhc li nh-ngha ca lut quc-t‰ l "mt quc-gia c bn-phn khng ܮc kš cc hiŒp-ܧc no khng ph-hp vi cc ngha-v ca cc hiŒp-ܧc c trܧc. ViŒc kš-k‰t nhng hiŒp-ܧc nh vy l mt hnh-vi bt-hp-php khng th‹ to nn nhng k‰t-qu hp-php c li cho quc-gia vi-phm lut.(23) (23) Ch'en T'i-ch'iang, "Taiwan -- A Chinese Territory", ng trong Law in the Service of Peace: International Association of Democratic Lawyers' Review, s 5, 1956, tr. 42.)

Mt khc, trong bi "'Lܫng C Trung-Quc' Mu-Lun Ha Quc-T‰-Php Nguyn-Tc"(24) (24) ng trong bo Quc-t‰ Vn-Š Nghin-cu, s 2, 1959, tr. 7-17 v bn dch Anh-ng in trong sch Oppose the New U.S. Plots to Create "Two Chinas" ca nh Xut-bn Ngoi-vn, Bc-kinh, 1962, tr. 85-97.), ThiŒu Kim-ph viŒn-dn li ca L. Oppenheim cho rng "HiŒp-ܧc phi ph-hp vi lut-php, bi‹u-hiŒn trong cc nguyn-tc ca lut quc-t‰ ܮc cng-nhn mt cch ph-bi‰n cng nh trong cc tp-tc ca cc quc-gia"(25) (25) Oppenheim, I, tr. 808.) v "cc ngha-v mu-thun vi cc nguyn-tc ca lut quc-t‰ ܮc m†i quc-gia cng-nhn th khng th‹ l i-tܮng ca mt hiŒp-ܧc ܮc."(26) (26) Oppenheim, I, tr. 807.) Ngoi ra, ng cng viŒn-dn iŠu 103 ca Hi‰n-chng Lin-hiŒp-quc ni rng khi c s phn-tranh gia cc ngha-v ca mt quc-gia hi-vin Lin-hiŒp-quc theo Hi‰n-chng ny v cc ngha-v do hiŒp-ܧc quc-t‰ khc to nn, ngha-v theo Hi‰n-chng Lin-hiŒp-quc s u-thng. Ri ng k‰t-lun l hiŒp-ܧc no khng ph-hp vi Hi‰n-chng Lin-hiŒp-quc s b coi l v-hiŒu khng th‹ chp-hnh ܮc.

em p-dng cc nh-ngha nu trn vo Ha-ܧc Cu-kim-sn, chng ta thy cc quc-gia kš ha-ܧc vi Nht-bn l ‹ chm-dt tnh-trng chi‰n-tranh c t khi xy ra trn Th‰-chi‰n th II, khi-phc a-v ca Nht trn trܩng quc-t‰, lm gim tnh-trng cng-thng trn th‰-gii ng hu xc-ti‰n viŒc to-dng v duy-tr ha-bnh trn th‰-gii, v.v... Nh vy cc quc-gia ny tun-th cc nguyn-tc cn-bn ca Hi‰n-chng Lin-hiŒp-quc v theo ui mt i-tܮng cao-quš, ch khng phi l v-lun. Ring i vi Trung-Cng, n‰u mun, nܧc ny c th‹ viŒn c khng ܮc mi tham-d ha-hi Cu-kim-sn ‹ coi ho-ܧc khng th‹ chp-hnh i vi mnh thi, ch khng th‹ coi n l ha-ܧc bt-hp-php v v-hiŒu ܮc.

Ngܮc li, ng vŠ phng-diŒn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa, chnh Trung-Cng c hnh-vi bt-hp-php khi nh cm quyŠn Bc-kinh c-v v biŒn-minh cho viŒc Trung-hoa Dn-quc em qun ‰n chi‰m hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa dܧi danh-ngha ti‰p-thu.

Thc vy, iŠu 2 ca Ho-ܧc Cu-kim-sn sau khi ni vŠ viŒc Nht t-b m†i quyŠn, danh-ngha v i-hi i vi tt c cc lnh-th no khng phi l lnh-th chnh ca Nht-bn m nܧc ny chi‰m ܮc t khi c trn Th‰-chi‰n th I cho ‰n khi chm-dt trn Th‰-chi‰n th II qui-nh thm trong on (f) nh sau:

"Nht-bn khܧc-t m†i quyŠn, danh-ngha v i-hi trn qun-o Trܩng-sa v qun-o Hong-sa."

Cc qui-nh trong iŠu 2 nh vy theo ng vi quy‰t-nh ca Hi-ngh Cairo nm 1943 ܮc din-t trong bn Tuyn-co Cairo m Trung-Cng vn lun i phi ܮc coi l cn-bn chnh cho mt ha-ܧc kš vi Nht-bn ni bn trn. Ni cch khc, chnh Trung-Cng coi quy‰t-nh ca cc i-cܩng l hp-lš, hp-tnh v hp-php.

VŠ gi-tr ca bn Tuyn-co Cairo v Tuyn-ngn Potsdam, c hai phe Quc-Cng Trung-hoa Šu nhn-nhn l c hiŒu-lc. Chng ta c th‹ nu ra vi th-d.

VŠ pha Trung-hoa Dn-quc, ngy 8.2.1955, khi duyŒt-xt tnh-hnh th‰-gii, Tng-thng Tܪng Gii-thch, ni nh sau:

"Ti cn nh rng nm 1945, c Tng-thng Hoa-k Roosevelt v ng-kim Th-tܧng Anh Churchill cng ti h†p hi-ngh Cairo ‹ tho-lun vŠ cc vn-Š lin-quan ti viŒc ti‰n-hnh chi‰n-tranh chng Nht-bn v hu-qu ca n. Trong thng-co cng-b vo lc b‰-mc hi-ngh, chng ti tuyn-b l tt c cc lnh-th do Nht-bn 'cܧp' ca Trung-quc k‹ c ng-Tam tnh, i-loan v Bnh-h phi ܮc trao-hon cho Trung-hoa Dn-quc. Li tuyn-b ny ܮc bn Tuyn-ngn Potsdam cng-nhn v Nht-bn chp-nhn khi nܧc ny u hng. Nh vy gi-tr ca n, tc l ca bn Tuyn-co Cairo, da trn mt s tha-thun v khng ai c th‹ hoi-nghi ܮc ...........

"C ngܧi ph-nhn gi-tr ca bn Tuyn-co Cairo ... N‰u ngܩi ta c th‹ ph-nhn gi-tr ca bn Tuyn-co Cairo, th bn Tuyn-ngn Potsdam v tt c cc hiŒp-ܧc, tha-ܧc quc-t‰ ܮc kš-k‰t t khi chm-dt Th‰-chi‰n th II s ra sao? C th‹ ph-nhn gi-tr ca nhng vn-kiŒn ny ܮc khng? N‰u nh cc nܧc dn-ch khng tha-nhn bn Tuyn-co Cairo m chnh h† kš-k‰t th lm th‰ no m by gi hay trong tng-lai h† c th‹ ch-trch khi Cng-sn xm-lng x b cc hiŒp-ܧc, tha-ܧc ܮc?..."(27) (27) Review, tr. 22-23.)

VŠ quan-i‹m ca Bc-kinh i vi vn-Š gi-tr ca hai vn-kiŒn quc-t‰ quan-tr†ng ny, chng ta thy (a) khi cuc tranh-lun ti Lin-hiŒp-quc vŠ a-v ca o i-loan ang ti‰n-hnh, ngy 24.8.1950 nh cm quyŠn Cm-thnh gi mt bc cng-iŒn cho t-chc quc-t‰ ny trong c Š-cp ti Tuyn-co Cairo v Tuyn-ngn Potsdam coi l "nhng tha-ܧc c ܧc-thc-lc" m cc quc-gia kš-k‰t phi tn-tr†ng v tun-hnh(28) (28) TRUNG-HOA NHN-DN CNG-HA-QUC I-NGOI QUAN-HŒ VˆN-KIŒN-TP, Bc-kinh, tp I, tr. 134 (vi‰t tt: i-ngoi). Nhn mnh thm.), (b) hoc nh qua li tuyn-b ngy 4.12.1950 ca Chu n-lai ni trn, (c) cng nh trong li tuyn-b ngy 15.8.1951 ca Chu n-lai nh sau:

"D xt vŠ th-tc m ha-ܧc ܮc chun-b hay vŠ ni-dung, ta thy D-tho Ha-ܧc Anh-M trng-trn vi-phm cc tha-ܧc quc-t‰ quan-tr†ng, m Anh-M Šu l phe k‰t-ܧc, nh l ... bn Tuyn-co Cairo, ... bn Tuyn-ngn Potsdam ...

Vi-phm s tha-thun theo bn Tuyn-co Cairo v bn Tuyn-ngn Potsdam, D-tho Ha-ܧc ch qui-nh l Nht-bn s khܧc-t cc quyŠn i vi i-loan v Bnh-h..."(29) (29) I-NGOI, tp II, tr. 30 v 36.)

Bn cnh quan-i‹m ca nh cm quyŠn Bc-kinh cn c quan-i‹m ca h†c-gi na. Chng hn Trn Th‹-cܩng vi‰t mt bi nhan-Š "i-loan ch Ch-quyŠn Thuc Trung-quc," trong ng c ni:

"Bn Tuyn-co Cairo ... l mt vn-kiŒn quc-t‰ 'rng buc vŠ php-lš cc quc-gia ng-s.' Hn na, bn Tuyn-ngn Potsdam do Trung-quc, Hoa-k v Anh-quc kš ngy 26 thng 7 nm 1945 ‹ thc Nht-bn u hng ti xc-nh cc ngha-v trong bn Tuyn-co Cairo. Bn Tuyn-ngn Potsdam qui-nh l 'cc iŠu-khon ca bn Tuyn-co Cairo s ܮc th-hnh.' Cu 's ܮc thi-hnh' nh vy chng-t rng bn Tuyn-co Cairo l mt vn-kiŒn to nn ngha-v quc-t‰, ch khng phi ch l li tuyn-b vŠ cc š-nh ca cc ngܩi kš ...

ng vŠ phng-diŒn h†c-lš ca lut quc-t‰, khng th‹ no nghi-ng hiŒu-lc ܧc-thc ca bn Tuyn-co Cairo, mt hiŒp-ܧc quc-t‰ ." (30) (30) NHN-DN NHT-BO, Bc-kinh, ng. 8.2.1955, tr. 4. Nhn mnh thm.)

Nh vy l c hai phe Quc-Cng Trung-hoa Šu ng-š l bn Tuyn-co Cairo c hiŒu-lc i vi cc quc-gia k‰t-ܧc. Trung-hoa, mt trong nhng quc-gia , c bn-phn phi tun-th nhng iŠu cam-k‰t. Do , tuy khng tham-d viŒc chun-b, son-tho v kš Ha-ܧc Cu-kim-sn, Trung-Cng khng th‹ no coi ha-ܧc ny bt-hp-php ܮc v l n qui-nh ng nhng quy‰t-nh ca bn Tuyn-co Cairo m Trung-Cng vn i m†i quc-gia k‰t-ܧc phi tun theo. Ni cch khc, v Ha-ܧc Cu-kim-sn l mt vn-kiŒn quc-t‰ nhm thi-hnh nhng quy‰t-nh ca Hi-ngh Cairo 1943, n cng phi c hiŒu-lc nh bn Tuyn-co Cairo, k‹ c i vi Trung-Cng vn t nhn l "i-diŒn duy-nht chn-chnh ca nhn-dn Trung-hoa."

Hn mt thng sau khi ln ti‰ng ngy 15.8.1951 vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa ni trn, khi bnh-lun vŠ viŒc kš Ha-ܧc Cu-kim-sn, trong mt thng-co ca B Ngoi-giao Bc-kinh ngy 18.9.1951, Chu n-lai khng hŠ ni g vŠ vn-Š hai qun-o ny c m ch lp li lp-trܩng c, ph-nhn gi-tr v hiŒu-lc ca ha-ܧc v ܮc kš-k‰t m khng c s tham-d ca Trung-Cng(31) (31) Ton bn vn nhan-Š "Foreign Minister Chou En-lai's Statement on San Francisco Peace Treaty" ng trong PEOPLE'S CHINA, tp IV, s 7, ngy 1.10.1951, tr. 39. V bi ny khng Š-cp ti hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa nn chng ti khng trch-dch ni y.).

S im-lng ny cng kh hi‹u hn na khi chc-chn l Trung-Cng phi bi‰t rng ha-hi Cu-kim-sn bc-b Š-ngh ca phi-on Nga-s i trao tr hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa cho Trung-Cng v vŠ phn-ng ca phi-on Quc-gia ViŒt-nam(32) (32) T 2.6.1948 ‰n 26.10.1955 phn t do chnh-quyŠn quc-gia (khng Cng-sn) cai-tr g†i l Quc-gia ViŒt-nam. Sau mi g†i l ViŒt-nam Cng-ha.).

Thc vy, ngy 5.9.1951, trong phin h†p khong-i hi-ngh th 2 ca Ha-hi Cu-kim-sn, i-bi‹u Nga-s Andrei A. Gromyko sau khi ch-trch tnh-cch bt-hp-php v s v-ngha ca bn d-tho ha-ܧc ca Anh-M ‹ kš vi Nht-bn a ra mt Š-ngh 7 i‹m g†i l ‹ hܧng-dn viŒc kš-k‰t ha-ܧc thc-s vi Nht-bn. i‹m 6 Š-ngh trao tr hai qun-o ny cho Trung-Cng. Hai ngy sau, 7.9.1951 Th-tܧng kim Ngoi-trܪng Trn-vn-Hu, trܪng phi-on Quc-gia ViŒt-nam, ln ti‰ng ti xc-nh ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-nam trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa.

VŠ Š-ngh ca Gromyko, chnh-ph Bc-kinh khng chnh-thc ln ti‰ng. Ch c bn nguyŒt-san Anh-ng ca Trung-Cng People's China (Nhn-dn Trung-quc) tܩng-thut li trong mt bi nhan-Š "At the San Francisco 'Conference'" (Ti "Hi-ngh" Cu-kim-sn), trong c ghi i‹m 6 ca Š-ngh Nga-S nh sau:

"Qui-hon i-loan, qun-o Bnh-h (Pescadores), qun-o Ty-sa v cc lnh-th Trung-hoa khc cho nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa." (33) (33) PEOPLE'S CHINA, tp 4, s 6, ngy 16.9.1951, tr. 4. Nhn mnh thm.)

Ngoi i‹m ny ra, bi tܩng-thut cng khng -Ƕng g ‰n viŒc ha-hi bc-b Š-ngh ca Nga-s v phn-ng ca Quc-gia ViŒt-nam. S im-lng ny ng l v bi tܩng-thut ܮc vi‰t trong khong thi-gian gia cc ngy 5.9.1951 (ngy Gromyko nu Š-ngh 7 i‹m), ngy 7.9.1951 (ngy trܪng phi-on Quc-gia ViŒt-nam ti xc-nh ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-nam) v ngy 16.9.1951 (ngy bo pht-hnh). Nh vy khng th‹ no Trung-Cng khng bi‰t g ‰n phn-ng ca ViŒt-nam i vi Š-ngh ca Nga-s v khng c lš no nh cm quyŠn Cm-thnh li qun ܮc, nht l bi bo ni trn trܧc khi ܮc in phi ܮc nh cm quyŠn Trung-Cng ki‹m-duyŒt v cho php.

Mt i‹m khc chng ta cng nn nh l bt c mt hnh-vi no ca Quc-gia ViŒt-nam (v sau ny ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha) Šu b Trung-Cng theo di rt k v, khi thy thun-tiŒn, ph-bnh, ch-trch rt nng-nŠ. N‰u qu thc hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa l ca Trung-quc th viŒc trܪng phi-on Quc-gia ViŒt-nam ti xc-nh ch-quyŠn trong ha-hi khng th‹ no m khng b Trung-Cng ch-trch d-di v ln n, e-d†a nh sau ny Trung-Cng s lm.

S im-lng li cng tr nn kh hi‹u hn na khi trong bn tuyn-b ngy 5.5.1952(34) (34) Ton bn vn ng trong PEOPLE'S CHINA, tp V, s 10, ng. 16.5.1952, tr. 4.) vŠ ha-ܧc m Trung-hoa Dn-quc kš vi Nht-bn ngy 28.4.1952, Chu n-lai khng ni g ‰n hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa, mc d hai qun-o ny ܮc Š-cp ti trong iŠu 2 ca ha-ܧc nh sau:

"iŠu 2.- Hai bn nhn-nhn l theo iŠu 2 Ha-ܧc vi Nht-bn kš ngy 8 thng chn nm 1951 ti Cu-kim-sn Hoa-k, Nht-bn khܧc-t m†i quyŠn, danh-ngha hay i-hi lin-quan ‰n i-loan (Formosa) v Bnh-h (the Pescadores), cng nh qun-o Trܩng-sa v Hong-sa."(35) (35) Ton bn vn ha-ܧc gia Trung hoa Dn-quc v Nht-bn ng trong TREATIES AND AGREEMENT, sd, tr. 454-456. V khng c bn vn bng Hoa-ng nn chng ti dch hai danh-t Spratly Islands v Paracel Islands bng danh-t thng-dng ca ViŒt-nam l qun-o Trܩng-sa v qun-o Hong-sa.)

Theo iŠu-khon ny, Nht-bn ch nhc li viŒc khܧc-t thi ch khng ni r l Nht-bn qui-hon hai qun-o ny cho Trung-hoa Dn-quc. C mt s khc-biŒt rt ln gia hai hnh-Ƕng khܧc-t v qui-hon. Khܧc-t l mt hnh-Ƕng tiu-cc do ngܩi (hay nܧc) khܧc-t nhn-nhn l t ngy c (hay kš) quy‰t-nh khܧc-t ngܩi (hay nܧc) y s khng cn bt c mt th quyŠn hp-php no i vi vt m ngܩi (hay nܧc) y t-b. Tuy nhin, ngܩi (hay nܧc) ny khng chuy‹n-giao hay chuy‹n-nhܮng vt cho mt ngܩi (hay nܧc) khc. Tri li, qui-hon l mt hnh-Ƕng tch-cc, c ngha l ngܩi chi‰m-hu mt vt g, d l chi‰m-hu hp-php hay l bt-hp-php, tr vt li cho s-hu-ch hp-php ca n. S-hu-ch ca vt ܮc qui-hon l i-tܮng xc-nh ca hnh-Ƕng qui-hon.

V mc-ch ca chng ti trong bi bin-kho ny ch l tm hi‹u cc lun-c ca Trung-quc vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa thi nn chng ti khng tm hi‹u nguyn-nhn ca s im-lng ca Trung-Cng.

III. Phn-ng ca Trung-quc i vi viŒc Phi-lut-tn li i ch-quyŠn trn qun-o Trܩng-sa (1956)

Sau khi ha-hi Cu-kim-sn b‰-mc, c Trung-Cng ln i-loan khng c dp no ‹ ln ti‰ng vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa cho ti nm 1956 khi Phi-lut-tn ln ti‰ng i ch-quyŠn trn qun-o Trܩng-sa.

Trong hai nm 1949 v 1950, Tomas Cloma, ch mt Ƕi ng-thuyŠn v thng-thuyŠn v gim-c mt trܩng hng-hi(36) (36) y khng phi l Hi-h†c-viŒn Phi-lut-tn nh nhiŠu ti-liŒu cho ti nay vn Š-cp ti mt cch sai lm.) khm-ph thy mt nhm o ln nh cch o Palawan ca Phi-lut-tn(37) (37) Palawan l mt hn o khong 4.550 dm vung ty-nam th- Manila v bc Borneo.) khong 400 dm vŠ pha ty. ng hy-v†ng lp mt nh my nܧc v mt nh my ng hp trn mt hn o ln nht y, cng nh l khai-thc phn chim trong nhng hn o k‰-cn.

Tuy nhin, mi ‰n u nm 1956 Cloma mi li ti‰p-tc khm-ph nhng hn o ny trong mt chuy‰n du-hnh 38 ngy. Ngy 15.3.1956, chi‰c tu PMI IV -- vn ܮc dng ‹ hun-luyŒn cc sinh-vin trܩng hng-hi ca Cloma -- do thuyŠn-trܪng Filemon Cloma, em trai Tomas Cloma, iŠu-khi‹n ln ܩng ra cc hn o ny chi‰m ng(38) (38) NhiŠu ti-liŒu hiŒn-hu khng ‹ š ‰n chi-ti‰t ny m li ni l chnh Tomas Cloma em thy-th ti chi‰m ng.). 40 thy-th trn tu, tt c Šu c quc-tch Phi-lut-tn, dng quc-k Phi-lut-tn trn mt hn o v chnh-thc tuyn-b chi‰m-hu o ny theo tc-lŒ quc-t‰. Ti m‡i hn o h† ti chi‰m ng, h† Šu nim-y‰t co-th chi‰m-hu. H† ǥt tn nhng hn o y, tt c c 53 o v c-lao vi diŒn-tch tng-cng 64.976 dm vung, l "Freedomland" hay t T-do(39) (39) y cng l mt chi-ti‰t m cc ti-liŒu hiŒn-hu sai-lm khi cho rng ch c hn o ln m Tomas Cloma ǥt chn ti ln u mi mang tn l Freedom Island.).

Ngy 15.5.1956 Cloma chnh-thc thng-bo cho Ph Tng-thng kim Ngoi-trܪng Phi-lut-tn Carlos P. Garcia hay l mt s cng-dn Phi-lut-tn quan-st, trc-lܮng v chi‰m-hu "mt lnh-th Nam-hi, bn ngoi hi-phn Phi-lut-tn v khng thuc thm-quyŠn qun-ht ca nܧc no."(40) (40) Trch ng trong bi "Freedomland: Gov't States Position on Imbroglio over Isles," trong bn-nguyŒt-san NEW PHILIPPINES, Manila, s thng 2/1974, tr. 7.) Cloma cng ni thm l lnh-th ny ܮc Cloma v cc ng-s tuyn-b chi‰m-hu.

Mt khc, Cloma gi "co-th" vŠ viŒc chi‰m-hu ny ti bo-ch trong v ngoi nܧc, yu-cu ng-ti theo th-tc lut quc-t‰. Co-th nhn mnh l s tuyn-b ny cn-c vo quyŠn khm-ph v/hay chi‰m-hu cng-khai.

Su ngy sau, ngy 21.5.1956, Cloma gi mt bc th th nh cho B Ngoi-giao Phi-lut-tn ‹ thng-bo cho Chnh-ph Phi-lut-tn hay l lnh-th m ng tuyn-b chi‰m-hu ܮc ǥt tn l "Freedomland." Km theo th l danh-sch cc o v c-lao.

Trong th Cloma cn ni thm l:

"Knh xin lu-š l s tuyn-b ny do 'cc cng-dn Phi-lut-tn' lm ch khng phi l 'nhn-danh Chnh-ph Phi-lut-tn' bi v chng ti khng ܮc php lm nh vy. Tuy nhin viŒc ny s c hu-qu l lnh-th tr thnh mt phn ca Phi-lut-tn. V lš-do chng ti hy-v†ng v thnh-cu Chnh-ph Phi-lut-tn ng-h cng l bo-vŒ s tuyn-b ca chng ti v xin cng ng a mt tuyn-b no khc ra Lin-hiŒp-quc ‹ trnh khi khuy‰n-khch, xi-gic s phn-i ca cc nܧc khc."(41) (41) nt.

Sau Cloma chnh-thc tuyn-b thnh-lp mt chnh-quyŠn ring-biŒt cho qun-o Freedomland v gi mt bn tuyn-co vŠ viŒc thnh-lp chnh-quyŠn ny cho Ngoi-trܪng Phi-lut-tn ngy 6.7.1956. Bn tuyn-b cn yu-cu Phi-lut-tn cho qun-o hܪng qui-ch‰ bo-h.

Vn-Š rc-ri thm khi Ngoi-trܪng Phi-lut-tn trong th tr li Cloma vi‰t:

"VŠ phn B Ngoi-giao, thi‹m B coi cc o, c-lao, m-sa san-h, thi‹n-than v cc bi ct bao gm trong vng m ng mŒnh-danh l "Freedomland", ngoi tr nhm 7 hn o m quc-t‰ thܩng g†i l qun-o Spratly, l t v-ch, c ci mi ni ln, c ci ܮc ghi-ch trn bn quc-t‰ cha thm-st v s hiŒn-hu ng nghi-ng, v tt c Šu cha c ai ti chi‰m-hu, cha c ai c-ng; ni mt cch khc, iŠu c ngha l m†i cng-dn Phi-lut-tn c quyŠn t-do khai-thc kinh-t‰ v lp-nghiŒp nh cng-dn bt c quc-gia no khc, ngy no m ch-quyŠn chuyn-hu ca bt c quc-gia no trn nhng o ny khng ܮc thi‰t-lp theo cc nguyn-tc vn ܮc lut quc-t‰ chp-nhn hay ܮc cng-ng cc quc-gia tha-nhn.

"Cn vŠ nhm 7 hn o m quc-t‰ thܩng g†i l qun-o Spratly, Chnh-ph Phi-lut-tn coi nhng o ny nh l trong ch‰-Ƕ gim-h trn thc-t‰ ca cc quc-gia ng-minh thng trn Th‰-chi‰n th 2 do k‰t-qu ca Ha-ܧc Nht-bn kš ti Cu-kim-sn ngy 8.9.1951 do Nht-bn khܧc-t m†i quyŠn, danh-ngha v i hi trn qun-o Spratly v qun-o Paracel v cho ti nay cc quc-gia ng-minh cha c mt v dn-x‰p t-ai no vŠ hai qun-o ny. V th‰ ngy no m nhm cc o cn trong tnh-trng ny, m†i cng-dn hay nhn-vin cc quc-gia ng-minh c quyŠn khai-thc kinh-t‰ v lp-nghiŒp trn cn-bn bnh-ǣng c-hi v i-i vŠ cc vn-Š x-hi, kinh-t‰ v thng-mi lin-quan ti hai qun-o ny.

"Phi-lut-tn l mt trong nhng quc-gia ng-minh nh bi Nht-bn trong trn Th‰-chi‰n th 2 v cng l quc-gia kš Ha-ܧc Nht-bn ni bn trn.

"VŠ phng-diŒn v-tr a-d ca nhng hn o v c-lao bao gm trong "Freedomland", v chng k‰-cn bin-gii lnh-th Phi-lut-tn vŠ pha ty, v nhng quan-hŒ lch-s v a-cht ca chng i vi qun-o Phi-lut-tn, v gi-tr chi‰n-lܮc ln-lao ca chng i vi nŠn quc-phng v an-ninh ca chng ta, ngoi tiŠm-nng kinh-t‰ ng k‹ vŠ ng-nghiŒp, sn-phm san-h, hi-sn v pht-pht, chc chn l Chnh-ph Phi-lut-tn khng coi thܩng s khai-thc kinh-t‰ v lp-nghiŒp ca cc cng-dn Phi-lut-tn ti nhng nhm o v c-lao ny ngy no h† cn theo ui nhng mc-ch hp-php."(42) (42) nt. Nhn mnh thm.)

Ngoi ra, trong mt bui h†p bo ti Manila ngy 19.5.1956, ng Carlos P. Garcia cng tuyn-b l mt nhm o Nam-hi, k‹ c o Thi-bnh v o Trܩng-sa, ng lš ra phi thuc vŠ Phi-lut-tn v chng k‰-cn nܧc ny.

Cc s-kiŒn v li tuyn-b ny a ‰n nhng phn-ng mnh-liŒt trn th‰-gii. V Š-ti ca bi ny, y chng ti ch Š-cp ti phn-ng ca Trung-quc thi ch khng Š-cp ti phn-ng ca ViŒt-nam v ca cc quc-gia khc.

Ngy 29.5.1956 B Ngoi-giao Trung-Cng ra mt tuyn-b vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o, ni-dung nh sau:

"Theo tin gn y ca mt vi hng thng-tn ngoi-quc B-trܪng Ngoi-giao Phi-lut-tn Carlos Garcia tuyn-b trong mt cuc h†p bo l nhm cc o Nam Trung-quc-hi k‹ c o Thi-bnh v o Nam-uy 'ng lš ra phi thuc vŠ Phi-lut-tn v chng k‰-cn.' Cc bo-co ca cc hng thng-tn ngoi-quc cn ti‰t-l l Chnh-ph Phi-lut-tn hiŒn ang ti‰p-xc vi b l Tܪng Gii-thch i-loan mu toan 'dn x‰p' ci g†i l vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn qun-o Nam-sa. VŠ vn-Š ny, Chnh-ph nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa thy cn phi tuyn-b nh sau:

"o Thi-bnh v o Nam-uy Nam-hi ni trn, cng vi nhng o nh ln-cn Šu ܮc g†i chung l qun-o Nam-sa. Qun-o ny lc no cng l mt phn lnh-th ca Trung-quc. Nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa c ch-quyŠn bt-kh tranh-ngh v hp-php i vi qun-o ny. Ngay t ngy 15.8.1951, B-trܪng Ngoi-giao nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa Chu n-lai trong bn Tuyn-b vŠ D-tho Ha-ܧc kš vi Nht-bn ca Anh-M v Hi-ngh Cu-kim-sn long-tr†ng vch r rng: 'Cng nh ton-th‹ qun-o Nam-sa, qun-o Trung-sa v qun-o ng-sa, qun-o Ty-sa (qun-o Paracel) v o Nam-uy (o Spratly) lc no cng l lnh-th ca Trung-quc. Mc d c thi-k nhng o ny b Nht-bn chi‰m ng trong trn chi‰n-tranh xm-lng do ‰-quc Nht-bn gy ra, sau khi Nht-bn u hng, Chnh-ph Trung-hoa lc by gi thu-hi li.' C do Chnh-ph Phi-lut-tn nu ra ‹ che-y š- xm-chi‰m lnh-th ca Trung-quc, qun-o Nam-sa, hon-ton khng th‹ biŒn-minh ܮc.

"Chnh-ph nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa long-tr†ng tuyn-b: s xm-phm ch-quyŠn hp-php ca Trung-quc i vi qun-o Nam-sa ca bt c quc-gia no, v bt c lš-do no, v bng bt c phng-tiŒn no, cng tuyŒt-i khng th‹ dung-th ܮc."(43) (43) Tn Hoa-x, n-bn Anh-ng, ngy 29.5.1956, nhan-Š "Foreign Ministry Statement on Nansha Islands", ng trong SURVEY OF CHINA MAINLAND PRESS (vi‰t tt: SURVEY) ca To Tng Lnh-s Hoa-k ti Hng-cng, s 1301, ng, 4.6.1956, tr. 20. Nhn mnh thm.)

Mt ln na chng ta thy bn tuyn-b va k‹ trn cng khng nu ra mt chi-ti‰t c-th‹ no ‹ chng-minh ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc i vi qun-o Trܩng-sa, v c Hong-sa na. Vn ch l s ti khng-nh ch-quyŠn mt cch vu-v thi.

VŠ pha i-loan, Chnh-ph Trung-hoa Dn-quc, qua i-s Manila, phn-khng mnh-m cng Chnh-ph Phi-lut-tn v viŒn vo c l qun-o ny thuc vŠ Trung-quc t th‰-k› th 15. Chng ti rt ti‰c khng ܮc r ni-dung s phn-khng ny nn khng bi‰t lun-c ca i-loan ra sao v cn-c vo u i-loan cho l ch-quyŠn c t th‰-k› th 15.

Song-song vi viŒc phn-khng ti Manila, pht-ngn-vin i-loan cn loan tin i-loan phi mt lc-lܮng ǥc-nhiŒm ti qun-o Trܩng-sa "c th‹ v chc chn s xy ra" v qu thc mt hm-Ƕi i-loan ܮc phi ti ni trong mt thi-gian ngn ‹ ngn-chn m†i viŒc khng hay xy ra.

Nhn ܮc tin ny, Ngoi-trܪng Phi-lut-tn vi-vng ch-th cho i-s Phi-lut-tn ti i-bc l Narciso Ramos bo cho Chnh-ph i-loan "khng nn qu e-ngi vŠ din-bi‰n ca tnh-hnh." Ngoi ra ng cng loan-bo l Chnh-ph Phi-lut-tn cha c mt thi-Ƕ chnh-thc no vŠ nhng li tuyn-b ca Cloma v tuy Phi-lut-tn cha thm-d š-ki‰n vi Chnh-ph Hoa-k vŠ vn-Š ny, ng ngh rng n‰u sau ny cn c mt trung-gian ha-gii th Hoa-k s l "mt tr†ng-ti cng-minh chnh-trc" v Hoa-k c quan-hŒ thn-hu vi c hai nܧc.

Trong khi , ngy 8.6.1956 Cloma li phi mt on th 2 mang thc-phm ra ti‰p-t‰ cho 29 thy-th li qun-o trong chuy‰n i th nht.

Ÿ o Thi-bnh, cc thy-th ca Cloma thy hi-qun i-loan bc r nhng mc bia nh du m h† dng ln trn o trong chuy‰n i th nht v dng mt du hiŒu ca Trung-hoa Dn-quc trn mc bia c ca Nht-bn v cng v du hiŒu Trung-hoa trn tܩng mt cn nh ǰ nt trܧc kia thuc tri lnh Nht-bn.

Cuc chm trn u tin gia Ƕi ca Cloma v hi-qun i-loan xy ra ngy 1.10.1956. Lc thuyŠn-trܪng Filemon Cloma ang trn tu PMI IV b neo ngoi khi o Ciriaco th c hai chi‰c tu ca i-loan t pha nam ti‰n li gn. ThuyŠn-trܪng Cloma ܮc mi ln tu ca i-loan ‹ thung-ngh vi thuyŠn-trܪng h† H. Cuc tho-lun ko di 4 ti‰ng ng h. Sau mt on thy-qun i-loan ln tu ca Cloma ki‹m-sot trong hai ti‰ng ng h. H† tch-thu tt c sng ng, v-kh, bn v cc ti-liŒu trn tu. Mc d c phn-khng, thuyŠn-trܪng Cloma vn b gi trn tu mi ‰n 9 gi m hm . Hm sau, thuyŠn-trܪng Cloma li dܮc mi ln tu i-loan. Tuy t-chi khng chu nhn Freedomland l lnh-th ca Trung-hoa v khng chu kš vo t tuyn-b l ng v cc thy-th s ri Freedomland khng bao gi tr li, nhng ng khng b bt-buc phi np v-kh cho cc vin-chc i-loan. Ngy 3.10.1956 tu ca i-loan ri khu-vc ny.

Ni tm li, c Bc-kinh ln i-bc Šu nhn hai qun-o Trܩng-sa v Hong-sa l lnh-th ca Trung-quc. Tuy nhin, c hai chnh-ph Quc-Cng Trung-hoa li vn khng a ra dܮc mt dn-chng c-th‹ no ‹ bnh-vc quan-i‹m ca mnh m ch bi‰t dng v-lc ‹ p ngܩi khc phi nhn-nhn quan-i‹m ca h†. Chnh-sch s-dng v-lc ny 18 nm sau (1974) ܮc Trung-quc dng ti mt ln na, ln ny ‰n phin Trung-Cng.

IV. Dp ViŒt-nam Cng-ha bt gi ng-dn Trung-Cng (1959)

Ngt ba nm sau, nm 1959, li c mt bi‰n-c khc xy ra khi‰n cho Trung-quc c dp ln ti‰ng vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa.

m ngy 20 rng ngy 21.2.1959, mt n-v hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha ng ti qun-o Hong-sa pht-gic thy Trung-Cng ln a ng-dn ǰ-b ln cc o Cam-tuyŠn (Robert), Duy-mng (Drummond) v Quang-ha (Duncan) trong nhm NguyŒt-thiŠm (Crescent) thuc qun-o Hong-sa vi mc-ch chi‰m ly qun-o. y khng phi l ln u h† lm nh vy. Nm 1956 cc ng-dn Trung-Cng ln-lt ǰ-b ln Lm-o (Wooded Island) v o Linh-cn (Lincoln Island), cng thuc nhm NguyŒt-thiŠm, v sau ܮc thay-th‰ bng qun chnh-qui ca Trung-Cng. Tuy nhin ln ǰ b ny h† khng thnh-cng. Hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha ngn-chn cc ng-thuyŠn ca h† v ra lŒnh cho h† rt lui. Khi h† t-chi v khng-c, cc lc-lܮng hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha bt gi 82 ng-dn v 5 ng-thuyŠn. Vi ba sau h† ܮc th.

Ngt mt tun sau, Bc-kinh mi phn-ng. Trong mt bn tuyn-b ngy 27.2.1959, B Ngoi-giao Trung-Cng vu-co l hi-qun VNCH xm-nhp bt-hp-php qun-o Hong-sa, bt cc 82 ng-dn v chi‰m gi 5 ng-thuyŠn cng cc ti-sn khc ca ng-dn Trung-Cng. Bn tuyn-b cn ni thm l:

"Qun-o Ty-sa l mt phn ca lnh-th Trung-quc. Chnh-ph nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa long-tr†ng tuyn-b vŠ s-kiŒn ny ngy 15.8.1951 v ngy 29.5.1956. By gi hi-qun Nam-ViŒt vi-phm s ton-vn lnh-th ca Trung-quc v bt cc cc ng-dn, ng-thuyŠn Trung-hoa. iŠu ny lm cho nhn-dn Trung-hoa h‰t sc tc-gin.

"B Ngoi-giao nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa long-tr†ng cnh-co nh cm quyŠn Nam-ViŒt phi phng-thch ngay nhng ng-dn Trung-hoa b bt cc, trao tr tt c cc ng-thuyŠn v ti-sn khc b chi‰m mang i, bi-thܩng thiŒt-hi cho nhng ngܩi ny v bo-m khng ‹ cho nhng viŒc bt-hp-php tng-t ti-din trong tng-lai. N‰u khng, nh cm quyŠn Nam-ViŒt s phi chu trch-nhiŒm vŠ tt c cc hu-qu."(44) (44) Tn Hoa-x, n-bn Anh-ng, ngy 27.2.1959, nhan-Š "Statement on Kidnapping of Chinese Fishermen by South Vietnam Navy," ng ti trong SURVEY s 1966, ngy 5.3.1959, tr. 47. Hai bn tuyn-b ngy 15.8.1951 v 29.5.1956 ܮc trch-dn v ph-bnh trong hai phn s II v III bn trn.)

Bn tuyn-ngn ny, cng nh bi‰t bao bn tuyn-ngn trܧc , khng hŠ a ra mt chi-ti‰t no ‹ chng-minh Hong-sa, v c Trܩng-sa na, l mt phn lnh-th ca Trung-quc. Tuy nhin, bn tuyn-b cng mang mt vi i‹m ng cho chng ta ch-š.

Th nht, khc vi nhng ln trܧc Trung-Cng ch ni ‰n ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa v s khng dung-th nhng hnh-vi no m Trung-Cng cho l vi-phm ‰n ch-quyŠn thi, ln ny bn tuyn-b e-d†a rng nh cm quyŠn Nam-ViŒt, mt danh-t Trung-Cng thܩng dng ‹ g†i ViŒt-nam Cng-ha, "s phi chu trch-nhiŒm vŠ tt c nhng hu-qu." Li e-d†a sau ny ܮc Trung-Cng thc-hiŒn bng viŒc nh chi‰m qun-o Hong-sa nm 1974.

Th hai, Trung-Cng coi viŒc hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha ng ti qun-o Hong-sa l xm-nhp bt-hp-php qun-o Hong-sa v vi-phm s ton-vn lnh-th ca Trung-quc. Tuy nhin, iŠu ng ni l khng phi ch ‰n ngy 20 v 21.2.1959, ngha l ngy xy ra bi‰n-c bt gi ng-dn Trung-Cng, hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha mi ti n-tr ti y; tri li h† n-tr t lu ri. Mt viŒc quan-tr†ng nh vy, ‰n Ƕ Trung-Cng phi ghp vo loi "vi-phm s ton-vn lnh-th ca Trung-quc" chc chn l c Trung-Cng ln i-loan Šu phi bi‰t. Tri li, theo s kho-cu ca chng ti, c Trung-Cng ln i-loan khng hŠ ln ti‰ng phn-i viŒc n-tr ny. Phi Ǯi ‰n khi ng-dn Trung-Cng b bt gi th Trung-quc mi c phn-ng. Hn na, ch c nh cm quyŠn Bc-kinh mi ln ti‰ng k‰t ti ViŒt-nam Cng-ha. Tri li i-loan hon-ton im-lng, khng ra mt li tuyn-b no, d l chnh-thc hay bn chnh-thc, vŠ viŒc hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha n-tr ti qun-o Hong-sa cng nh vŠ viŒc bt gi ng-dn, ng-thuyŠn Trung-Cng.

Th ba, Trung-Cng vu-co hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha "bt cc ng-dn, ng-thuyŠn Trung-hoa." S-d chng ti phi dng t "vu-co" y l v Trung-Cng dng t "bt cc" gn-ghp cho hnh-Ƕng ca hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha.

Theo nh-ngha "bt cc" l ti bt gi ngܩi mt cch bt-hp-php v di-chuy‹n ngܩi i ni khc. Theo lut quc-ni cng nh lut quc-t‰, y l mt hnh-ti. Mun b k‰t ti bt cc, ngܧi bt gi phi phm nhng y‰u-t sau y: c-š phm ti, bt gi nn-nhn bt-hp-php, v di-chuy‹n nn-nhn i ch‡ khc.

C-š phm ti c ngha l ngܩi bt cc phi c š-nh bt cc nn-nhn trܧc khi thc-hiŒn š-nh . Trong viŒc bt gi cc ng-nhn Trung-Cng, hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha khng hŠ c š-nh bt gi h† t trܧc m ch gi h† li khi h† khng chu ri khi cc o Cam-tuyŠn, Duy-mng v Qung-ha theo nh yu-cu ca hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha thi.

Bt cc l mt hnh-vi bt-hp-php. Tuy nhin, n‰u ngܩi bt gi ngܩi khc do trch-nhiŒm, bn-phn ca mnh trong phm-vi php-lut cho php, d l php-lut quc-ni hay php-lut quc-t‰, ngܩi bt gi khng lm hnh-vi bt-hp-php. Trong v bt gi ng-dn Trung-Cng, hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha ch thi-hnh nhiŒm-v ca mnh l bo-vŒ lnh-th quc-gia. l mt nhiŒm-v m bt c qun-nhn nuc no trn th‰-gii, k‹ c Trung-Cng, cng phi thi-hnh. Hn na, n‰u ngܩi bt gi khng chu th nn-nhn khi nn-nhn c quyŠn ܮc th ra th mi c th‹ b coi l phm ti bt cc. Ÿ y, h-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha th cc ng-dn Trung-Cng ngay sau khi lm cc hnh-vi thuc bn-phn ca mnh nn cng khng th‹ coi l bt cc h†. Ni cch khc, h† ch bt gi theo lut-nh ch khng bt cc.

Ngoi ra, viŒc bt cc ng-š ch ngܩi lm ra hnh-Ƕng gii-hn s di-chuy‹n ca nn-nhn, khng cho nn-nhn i u h‰t. Tri li, n‰u ch ngn-chn khng cho nn-nhn ti mt ch‡ no v mt lš-do hp-php no th viŒc khng phi l bt cc. Mt khc, n‰u nn-nhn c cch thot khi s giam gi m khng nguy-hi ‰n tnh-mŒnh ca mnh, viŒc bt gi nn-nhn cng khng th‹ coi l bt cc ܮc. Trong v ny cc ng-dn Trung-Cng ܮc hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha n-tr ti ba hn o ni xy ra bi‰n-c, m ViŒt-nam Cng-ha cho l phn lnh-th ca mnh v y-thc cho hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha bo-vŒ v canh gi, ‹ cho t-do i bt c ni no khc ngoi tr ǰ b ln ba hn o ny n‰u khng c php ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha. Nh vy khi hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha bt gi cc ng-dn Trung-Cng khng chu rt lui khi ba o h† khng bt cc cc ng-dn .

Sau h‰t, cng nn ni thm l Trung-Cng dng sai t "bt cc". Bt cc i hi viŒc di-chuy‹n nn-nhn i mt ni khc vi ni b bt gi v ni khng ܮc ti‰t-l. Ÿ y cc ng-dn Trung-Cng khng hŠ b hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha di-chuy‹n i du c, m ch b ngn khng ܮc lu li ba hn o thi. Hnh-vi ca hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha khng th‹ b ghp ti bt cc ܮc.

Th t, chnh-quyŠn Bc-kinh i ViŒt-nam Cng-ha chng nhng l phi "phng-thch ngay nhng ng-dn Trung-hoa b bt cc" m cn phi "trao tr tt c cc ng-thuyŠn v ti-sn khc b chi‰m mang i". Ch‡ ny Trung-Cng vu-co qu l. Hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha ch gi cc ng-dn Trung-Cng v ng-thuyŠn thi v khng hŠ ly mt cht ti-sn no khc ch ng ni l "chi‰m mang i." Dng-š ca Trung-Cng y khi vu-co nh vy l c š mun t cho th‰-gii bi‰t rng hi-qun ViŒt-nam Cng-ha c hnh-dng bt-hp-php ca nhng tn hi-tc chuyn-mn nh cܧp trn mt b‹, ch khng phi l hnh-dng hp-php ca cc qun-nhn bo-vŒ lnh-th quc-gia. Tuy nhin, s vu-co ny ca Trung-Cng cng khng ng cho m†i ngܩi ngc-nhin v Trung-Cng c thi quen vu-co v lng-nhc nhng nܧc hay nhng ngܩi i-nghch vi Trung-Cng v thi quen ni ti‰ng trn th‰-gii.

V. Phn-ng i vi li tuyn-b ca Tng-thng Phi-lut-tn vŠ ch-quyŠn trn qun-o Trܩng-sa (1971)

Mܩi hai nm li tri qua i khng c dp no d‹ cc nh cm quyŠn Bc-kinh v i-bc ln ti‰ng vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa, cho ti nm 1971.

Trong mt bui h†p bo ti iŒn Malacanang(45) (45) Tc ph tng-thng Phi-lut-tn.) ngy 10.7.1971, trܧc bui khai-mc hi-ngh k th 6 ca HiŒp-hi cc Quc-gia -chu v Thi-bnh-dng trn cp bc Tng-trܪng ti Manila, Tng-thng Phi-lut-tn Ferdinand Marcos t-co qun-Ƕi i-loan, lc ang chi‰m ng o Thi-bnh (Itu Aba, hay Ligaw theo tn Phi-lut-tn), ǥt nhng tr†ng-pho ‹ tng-cܩng s phng-th o ny v trong mt vi trܩng-hp bn cnh-co vo nhng phi-c v tu ca Phi-lut-tn i trinh-st trong vng. ng cng ni thm l Hi-ng An-ninh Quc-gia

Phi-lut-tn trong phin h†p ngy hm ng-thanh cho rng v nhng din-bi‰n nhanh-chng xy ra trong vng v v o ny k‰-cn lnh-th Phi-lut-tn nn viŒc mt nܧc ngoi chi‰m ng y l mt mi e-d†a trm-tr†ng cho nŠn an-ninh ca Phi-lut-tn(46) (46) Tܩng-thut li trong bi Freedomland, bd). Ngoi ra, ng cn nhc li quan-i‹m ca Phi-lut-tn ( ni on III bn trn) l qun-o Trܩng-sa ang trong ch‰-Ƕ gim-h trn thc-t‰ ca cc quc-gia ng-minh theo Ha-ܧc vi Nht-bn kš ti Cu-kim-sn ngy 8.9.1951. Trong ha-ܧc ny Nht-bn khܧc-t m†i quyŠn, danh-ngha v i hi i vi qun-o ny. Vn theo li Marcos, v qun-o Trܩng-sa dܧi ch‰-Ƕ gim-h, khng nܧc no c quyŠn mang qun-Ƕi vo bt c hn-o no trong nhm qun-o ny nŠu khng c php v s tha-thun ca cc quc-gia ng-minh. Sau h‰t, ng loan-bo thm l v i-loan thi‰t-lp mt n binh ti o Thi-bnh khng c php v s tha-thun ca cc quc-gia ng-minh nn Phi-lut-tn yu-cu Chnh-ph i-bc rt qun-Ƕi khi ni ny.

Li tuyn-b ca Marcos gy ra phn-ng ti nhiŠu quc-gia. Vi ngy sau khi c li tuyn-b ny, cc Chnh-ph Anh v Ho-lan loan-bo hai nܧc khܧc-t quyŠn gim-h trn qun-o Trܩng-sa(47) (47) nt.). Chnh-ph ViŒt-nam Cng-ha, qua li tuyn-b ca Ngoi-trܪng Trn-vn-Lm ngy 13.7.1971, ti khng-nh ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-nam trn qun-o Trܩng-sa m cc d-kiŒn lch-s v php-lš chng t l thuc vŠ ViŒt-nam, t nht l t th‰-k› th 18. ng cng nhc li li tuyn-b ca cu Th-tܧng kim Ngoi-trܪng Trn-vn-Hu ti Ho-hi Cu-kim-sn ngy 7.9.1951 ( ni phn II bn trn).

VŠ phn i-loan, Ngoi-trܪng Chu Th-giai tuyn-b rng qun-o Nam-sa t thi xa xa vn thuc vŠ Trung-hoa v qun-Ƕi i-loan chi‰m ng qun-o ny hn 20 nm qua. Sau ng hi-m vi Ngoi-trܪng Phi-lut-tn Carlos Romulo, nhng ni-dung khng ܮc ti‰t-l.

ng ti‰c l Chu ngoi-trܪng khng a ra mt chi-ti‰t hay mt th-d no ‹ chng-minh ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc i vi qun-o ny "t thi xa-xa" v cng khng cho bi‰t l "thi xa xa" y l t bao gi. Chng ti xin m du ngoc y ‹ ni thm l i-loan cho leo thang thi-gian ch-quyŠn. Trong ln phn-ng nm 1956 (ni phn II bn trn), i-loan ni l Trung-quc c ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o ny t th‰-k› th 15, nay li ǰi thnh t thi xa-xa. Hn na, ng li c-tnh che du tnh-cch bt-hp-php ca viŒc Quc-qun i-loan chi‰m ng y nh chng ti trnh-by trong on II bn trn.

Mt khc, trong v ny nh cm quyŠn Bc-kinh khng chnh-thc ln ti‰ng m ch cho php hng thng-tn nh nܧc l Tn Hoa-x ph-bi‰n ngy 16.7.1971 mt bi nhan-Š l "Philippine Authorities Openly Violate China's Territorial Sovereignty by Occupying Islands of China's Nansha Islands" (Nh Cm QuyŠn Phi-lut-tn Cng-khai Vi-phm Ch-quyŠn Lnh-th ca Trung-quc Bng Cch Chi‰m ng Cc o thuc Qun-o Nam-sa ca Trung-quc), ‹ ln n viŒc Phi-lut-tn phi qun ti chi‰m ng vi hn o trong qun-o Nam-sa, cho " l mt bi‰n-c trm-tr†ng ca mt s vi-phm trng-trn ch-quyŠn lnh-th ca Trung-quc ca nh cm quyŠn Phi-lut-tn trong lc theo ui chnh-sch xm-lܮc v mu- chi‰n-tranh -chu ca ‰-quc M." Bi ny ni l:

"Qun-o Nam-sa gm o Thi-bnh, o Nam-uy, o Trung-nghiŒp, o M-hoan v nhiŠu c-lao khc Nam-hi. Nhng o ny lc no cng l phn lnh-th ca Trung-quc. Nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa c quyŠn bt kh tranh-ngh v hp-php trn nhng o ny. Mc d qun-o Nam-sa c ln ri vo tay ‰-quc Nht-bn sau khi nܧc ny tung ra trn chi‰n-tranh xm-lng, khi Nht-bn u hng Chnh-ph Trung-hoa lc by gi thu-hi li qun-o ny.(48) (48) ng-ti trong SURVEY, s 4944, ng. 27.7.1971, tr. 140. Nhn mnh thm.)

Sau khi nhc li cc li tuyn-b ngy 15.8.151 ca Chu n-lai v ngy 29.5.1956 ca pht-ngn vin B Ngoi-giao Trung-Cng l "tuyŒt-i khng nܧc no ܮc php vi-phm ch-quyŠn hp-php ca Trung-quc trn qun-o Nam-sa v bt c lš-do no v dܧi bt c hnh-thc no", bi ca Tn Hoa-x cn cnh-co:

"Chnh-ph v nhn-dn Trung-hoa tuyŒt-i khng th‹ no dung-th viŒc chnh-ph Phi-lut-tn cng-khai vi-phm ch-quyŠn lnh-th ca Trung-quc. Chnh-ph Phi-lut-tn phi ngng ngay viŒc vi-phm ch-quyŠn lnh-th ca Trung-quc v rt nhn-vin ra khi qun-o Nam-sa."(49) (49) nt.)

i‹m ng ch-š l bi ny lm ng khng -Ƕng g ‰n viŒc i-loan chi‰m ng o Thi-bnh v tuyn-b ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc trn qun-o Trܩng-sa.

Mt ln na, Trung-Cng, ging i-loan, khng a ra ܮc bng-chng no m ch ni vu-v l qun-o Trܩng-sa thuc vŠ Trung-quc thi.

VI. Lun-c nu ra trong v ng-Ƕ hi-qun vi ViŒt-nam Cng-ha (1974)

Vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa bܧc sang mt giai-on mi vo thng ging nm 1974, ln ny a ‰n viŒc gii-quy‰t bng v-lc qua mt cuc ng-Ƕ hi-qun cng-khai v trc-ti‰p gia ViŒt-nam Cng-ha v Trung-Cng ti qun-o Hong-sa. V l mt nܧc rt nh b, vŠ a-d cng nh vŠ nhn-s, so vi Trung-Cng, v khng ܮc s gip ǫ tn-tnh ca cc quc-gia t nhn l ng-minh, v b th‰-gii lm ng v v kiŒt sc trܧc cuc chi‰n-tranh trong nܧc ko di ngt 30 nm, ViŒt-nam Cng-ha ch chng li Trung-Cng ܮc c hai ngy ‹ ri cui cng nhn thy qun-o Hong-sa ri vo tay Trung-Cng m hu-qu cn ko di ti ngy nay.

Bi‰n-c ny xy ra sau khi Chnh-ph ViŒt-nam Cng-ha quy‰t-nh sp-nhp qun-o Trܩng-sa vo x Phܧc-hi, qun t , tnh Phܧc-tuy, ngy 6.9.1973(50) (50) Do Ngh-nh s 420-BNV/HCDP/26.X ngy 6.9.2973 ca Tng-trܪng Ni-v L-cng-Cht.).

y khng phi l ln u tin c s sp-nhp hai qun-o Hong-sa v qun-o Trung-sa vo cc n-v hnh-chnh ni-a ViŒt-nam. Thc vy, trong thi Php-thuc, ngy 21.12.1933 qun-o Trܩng-sa ܮc sp-nhp vo a-phn tnh B-ra(51) (51) Do Ngh-nh s 4762.CP ngy 21.12.1933 ca Thng-c Nam-k M.J. Krautheimer.) v ngy 30.3.1938 qun-o Hong-sa ܮc sp-nhp vo tnh Tha-thin(52) (52) Do D s 10 ngy 30.3.1938 ca Hong-‰ Bo-i.). T khi ViŒt-nam ginh ܮc Ƕc-lp khi tay thc-dn Php, qun-o Hong-sa dܮc t-chc thnh x nh-hi, do mt phi-vin hnh-chnh cai-tr v trc-thuc qun Ho-vang, tnh Qung-nam ngy 13.7.1961(53) (53) Do Sc-lŒnh s 174-NV ngy 13.7.1961 ca Tng-thng Ng-nh-DiŒm.), ri ‰n ngy 21.10.1969 x nh-hi (tc qun-o Hong-sa) sp-nhp vo x Ha-long cng qun Ha-vang, tnh Qung-nam(54) (54) Do Ngh-nh s 709-BNV/HCDP/26 ca Tng-trܪng Ni-v Trn-thiŒn-Khim.); cn qun-o Trܩng-sa ܮc ǥt thuc tnh Phܧc-tuy (tn mi ca tnh B-ra) ngy 22.10.1956(55) (55) Do Sc-lŒnh s 143-NV ngy 22.10.1956 ca Tng-thng Ng-nh-DiŒm). Ngh-nh ngy 6.9.1973 ch ǰi qun trc-ti‰p qun-tr qun-o Trܩng-sa.

Tuy nhin, chng ta nhn thy l trong cc viŒc sp-nhp hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa trܧc y cc chnh-ph Trung-hoa khng hŠ ln ti‰ng phn-i g c. Ch ‰n ln cui cng, nm 1973, th c Bc-kinh ln i-loan mi c phn-ng.

A. Phn-ng ca Trung-Cng

1. Tuyn-b ngy 1.1.1974

iŠu chng ta khng hi‹u r l v lš-do g m mi hn 4 thng sau khi c viŒc sp-nhp qun-o Trܩng-sa vo qun t Bc-kinh mi c phn-ng.

Ngy 11.1.1974 B Ngoi-giao Trung-Cng ra mt bn tuyn-b(56) (56) Ton vn ng trong PEKING REVIEW, Bc-kinh, tp 17, s 3, ngy 17.1.1974, tr.3, dܧi nhan-Š "Statement by Spokesman of Chinese Ministrty of Foreign Affairs."), m u nh sau:

"Cch y khng lu, nh cm quyŠn Si-gn Nam-ViŒt trng-trn loan bo ǥt hn mܩi o thuc qun-o Nam-sa ca Trung-quc, k‹ c Nam-uy v Thi-bnh, dܧi quyŠn qun-tr ca tnh Phܧc-tuy Nam-ViŒt. y l mt s xm-phm in-cung ‰n s ton-vn lnh-th v ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc."

Sau khi nhc li li tuyn-b tng ܮc ni ti nhiŠu ln l "cng ging nh cc qun-o Ty-sa, Trung-sa v ng-sa, qun-o Nam-sa lun lun l lnh-th ca Trung-quc," bn tuyn-b t-co y khng phi l ln u ViŒt-nam Cng-ha c hnh-Ƕng nh vy:

"Trong nhng nm gn y nh cm quyŠn Si-gn gia-tng xm-chi‰m vi hn o trong qun-o Nam-sa v Ty-sa, trong nhiŠu trܩng-hp n-o i ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o ny, ngay c dng cc "bia ch-quyŠn" trn . Gi y nh cm quyŠn Si-gn li i thm bܧc na, cng-khai sp-nhp hn mܩi o, k‹ c o Nam-uy v Thi-bnh, vo ranh-gii ca mnh. Hnh-Ƕng ny to nn mt bܧc mi nhm nm vnh-vin qun-o Nam-sa ca Trung-quc."

on bn tuyn-b nhc li lp-trܩng c ca Trung-Cng:

"Chnh-ph nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa nhc li y rng cc qun-o Nam-sa, Ty-sa, Trung-sa v ng-sa tt c Šu l phn ca lnh-th Trung-quc. Nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa c ch-quyŠn bt-kh tranh-ngh trn nhng qun-o ny."

Sau h‰t bn tuyn-b k‰t-lun bng cch ph-nhn gi-tr hnh-Ƕng ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha.

"Quy‰t-nh ca nh cm quyŠn Si-gn em sp-nhp o Nam-uy, Thi-bnh v cc o khc qun-o Nam-sa vo Nam-ViŒt l bt-hp-php v v-hiŒu-lc. Chnh-ph Trung-hoa s khng bao gi dung-th viŒc xm-phm ‰n s vn-ton lnh-th v ch-quyŠn no do nh cm quyŠn Si-gn gy ra."

Bn tuyn-b ngy 11.1.1974 ny vn khng a ra bng-chng no ‹ chng-minh hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa thuc vŠ Trung-quc. Tuy nhin, bn tuyn-b c my i‹m ng cho chng ta ch-š.

Th nht, khng ging cc ln tuyn-b trܧc, ln tuyn-b ny c gi†ng iŒu gay-gt hn ("trng-trn loan bo," "xm-phm in-cung," "n-o i ch-quyŠn") nh bo-hiŒu trܧc nhng biŒn-php mnh ca Trung-Cng s dng ti.

Th hai, trong nhng bn tuyn-b trܧc Trung-Cng ch ni ‰n viŒc cc nܧc vi-phm ch-quyŠn lnh-th ca Trung-quc thi, ln ny Trung-Cng li vu-co ViŒt-nam Cng-ha gia-tng xm-chi‰m hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa trong mu- nm vnh-vin hai qun-o ny. S vu-co dܩng nh nhm nh lc hܧng d-lun quc-t‰, qui ti xm-lng cho ViŒt-nam Cng-ha trܧc, ‹ cho viŒc nh chi‰m hai qun-o ny ca Trung-Cng tr nn hp-php, ngha l mun chng-minh Trung-Cng ch dng v-lc ‹ bo-vŒ lnh-th, ch-quyŠn ca mnh thi. Nhn-xt ny ܮc chng-minh r-rng sau ngy 19 v 20.1.1974. Khi Trung-Cng cܫng-chi‰m qun-o Hong-sa, th‰-gii hon-ton im-lng, khng mt nܧc no ln ti‰ng. Ngay c Lin-hiŒp-quc, mt t-chc quc-t‰ c bn-phn duy-tr an-ninh th‰-gii, cng gi thi-Ƕ im-lng kh hi‹u. Ngoi ra, sau bi‰n-c ny ViŒt-nam Cng-ha tnh a ni-v ra trܧc Lin-hiŒp-quc v chun-b h-s kiŒn ti To n Quc-t‰, nhng mt s nܧc vn nhn l ng-minh ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha tm cch ngn-cn ‹ cho ViŒt-nam Cng-ha khng th‹ lm ܮc viŒc ny. y l cha k‹ vo thi-gian xy ra v Trung-Cng cܫng-chi‰m qun-o Hong-sa. Œ Tht Hm-Ƕi ca Hoa-k ang tun-tiu v hot-Ƕng quanh vng bi‹n ng, g†i l ‹ bo-vŒ ViŒt-nam Cng-ha, cng khng c mt phn-ng no trܧc hnh-Ƕng ca Trung-Cng.

Th ba, t nm 1956 tr i, m‡i khi ni ‰n ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa, Trung-Cng bao gi cng dng t "ch-quyŠn bt-kh tranh-ngh v hp-php" hay "ch-quyŠn hp-php". Tuy nhin trong ln tuyn-b ngy 11.1.1974 ny -- v c nhng ln sau , nh chng ta s thy -- Trung-Cng ch ni ti "ch-quyŠn bt-kh tranh-ngh" hay "ch-quyŠn bt-kh xm-phm" thi v hon-ton khng dng t "hp-php" na. C l Trung-Cng yn-ch l th‰-gii mc phi b ca mnh ri nn thy khng cn dng t ny na!

Th t, ln u tin Trung-Cng cng-khai bc-l r nguyn-nhn thm-kn thc-y viŒc tranh-chp ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa: l ngun ti-nguyn thin-nhin vng ny. Thc vy, bn tuyn-b ngy 11.1.1974 c cu:

"Cc ti-nguyn thin-nhin trong cc vng bi‹n quanh cc qun-o ny cng thuc vŠ Trung-quc."

i‹m ng ch-š y l s s-dng ch ca Trung-Cng. Bn tuyn-b khng ni l nhng ti-nguyn thin-nhin trn cc qun-o ny m li ni ti "nhng ti-nguyn thin-nhin trong cc vng bi‹n quanh cc qun-o ny" cng thuc vŠ Trung-quc. Nh vy, Trung-Cng c i cho k ܮc ch-quyŠn i vi Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa khng phi ch v ch‡ phn chim, pht-pht hay cc ti-nguyn khc tm thy trn hai qun-o m chnh l nhm vo nhng ti du c quanh hai qun-o ng-tranh. y mi l Ƕng-lc chnh thc-y Trung-cng ra tay hnh-Ƕng mnh.

Tܪng cng cn nhc li l Trung-Cng ch ln ti‰ng vi cc li l gay-gt hn v sau ny i ‰n hnh-thc tranh-chp cc-oan hn bng cch dng ‰n v-lc ‹ chi‰m qun-o Hong-sa, sau khi my cng-ty du ngoi-quc kš giao-ko khai-thc du ngoi khi ViŒt-nam vi chnh-ph ViŒt-nam Cng-ha. Gi th quanh hai qun-o ny khng c cc ti du quan-tr†ng th cha chc Trung-Cng lm g, c l vn gi nguyn thi-Ƕ c l ch tuyn-b, e-d†a sung nh m†i ln, ch khng nh chi‰m qun-o Hong-sa. V vy chng ta c th‹ Š-quy‰t khng s b sai-lm l chnh v cc ti du ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha m Trung-Cng ra tay.

2. Tuyn-b ngy 20.1.1974

Tuy nhin bn tuyn-b ngy 11.1.1974 mi ch l mn gio u. Tm ngy sau xy ra mt cuc hi-chi‰n hai ngy 19 v 20.1.1974 ti vng qun-o Hong-sa gia ViŒt-nam Cng-ha v Trung-Cng. iŠu chng ta thc-mc l khng hi‹u ti sao Trung-Cng khng ch†n qun-o Trܩng-sa ‹ ra tay m li ch†n qun-o Hong-sa. Phi chng v qun-o ny gn hi-phn ca ViŒt-nam Dn-ch Cng-ha (Bc-ViŒt) hn nn cc cuc hnh-qun ca Trung-Cng khng b tr-ngi v cn ܮc Bc-ViŒt chng lng cho hn l mt cuc hnh-qun qun-o Trܩng-sa nm mi su xung pha nam v gn hi-phn ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha?

Sau khi c trn hi-chi‰n vng Hong-sa ngy 20.1.1974 B Ngoi-giao Trung-Cng tung ra mt bn tuyn-b khc(57) (57) Ton vn ng trong PEKING REVIEW, tp 17, s 4, ng. 25.1.1974, tr. 3-4, dܧi nhan-Š "Statement of the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs."). Bn tuyn-b ny rt quan-tr†ng v Š-cp ti mt s d-kiŒn khng hŠ ni ti trong nhng bn tuyn-b khc. Chng ta s ln-lܮt cu-xt nhng d-kiŒn .

Trܧc h‰t, theo ܩng li vu-khng c-hu ca Trung-Cng, bn tuyn-b ngy 20.1.1974 che du s tht v vu-co l hi-qun v khng-qunViŒt-nam Cng-ha c hnh-Ƕng trܧc nh l tn-cng cc ng-thuyŠn ca Trung-Cng v chi‰m hai o trong qun-o Hong-sa ngy 15.1.1974, tn-cng cc o khc ngy 19.1.1974 v bn vo cc chi‰n-hm Trung-Cng ang i tun-tiu. Ri ‹ biŒn-minh hnh-Ƕng qun-s ca mnh, nh cm quyŠn Trung-Cng tuyn-b:

"V b y ti qu mc chu-ǿng nn cc n-v hi-qun, ng-dn v dn-binh ca chng ta [tc l ca Trung-Cng] mi anh-dng chng tr ‹ t-vŒ v ‹ trng-pht ch-ng qun ch xm-lng."

Sau khi vu-co "nh cm quyŠn Si-gn Nam-ViŒt t lu nh xm-chi‰m hai qun-o Ty-sa v Nam-sa ca Trung-quc" v nhc li viŒc ViŒt-nam Cng-ha sp-nhp hn mܩi o thuc qun-o Trܩng-sa nh ni ti trong bn tuyn-b ngy 11.1.1974, B Ngoi-giao Bc-kinh ln n l ViŒt-nam Cng-ha "gi y cn trng-trn khiu-khch Trung-quc vŠ qun-s v chi‰m lnh-th ca Trung-quc bng v-lc. l iŠu to gan ‰n cng-cc."

Ni cch khc, bn tuyn-b ny c v mt ViŒt-nam Cng-ha hi‰u-chi‰n, c nhng hnh-Ƕng gy-hn trܧc v mt Trung-Cng hi‰u-ha, ch ra tay hnh-Ƕng khi khng th‹ chu ǿng s khiu-khch v xm-lng ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha ܮc na. Mc-ch ca li vu-co ny hi‹n-nhin l nhm vo d-lun th‰-gii ni chung v Hoa-k ni ring hu chn trܧc khng cho mt nܧc no phn-i Trung-Cng vi-phm Hi‰n-chng Lin-hiŒp-quc, m Trung-Cng l mt hi-vin trܧc ba nm, bng viŒc cܫng-chi‰m qun-o Hong-sa. VŠ i‹m ny Trung-Cng thnh-cng. Khng mt nܧc no trong Lin-hiŒp-quc d ln ti‰ng c.

Bn tuyn-b cn ph-bnh cc hnh-Ƕng ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha l:

"ng-thi vi viŒc xm-nhp v-trang vo lnh-th Trung-quc, nh cm quyŠn Si-gn li cn dng ‰n chi‰n-thut 'k c ti m n kiŒn trܧc,' ba-ǥt l Trung-quc 'Ƕt-nhin thch-thc' ch-quyŠn ca chng trn qun-o Ty-sa nhm c-gng lm ri-lon d-lun qun-chng v li cn khng-nh l Si-gn hon-ton c ch-quyŠn trn qun-o Ty-sa v khng mt quc-gia no tham-d Hi-ngh Cu-kim-sn nm 1951 li phn-i viŒc chng i ch-quyŠn."

Ti y B Ngoi-giao Bc-kinh nhc li li tuyn-b c-hu l: "Nh m†i ngܩi Šu bi‰t, qun-o Ty-sa cng nh cc qun-o Nam-sa, Trung-sa v ng-sa lun lun l lnh-th ca Trung-quc." i‹m ng ni y l sau khi tuyn-b ch-quyŠn ny l "mt s thc bt-kh tranh-ngh" bn tuyn-b ca Bc-kinh gi thm mt cu l "m†i ngܩi Trung-hoa Šu ch-trng nh vy."

Cu ny nhm chn h†ng trܧc i-loan ‹ Š-phng trܩng-hp i-loan, v nhu-cu mun duy-tr s giao-ho vi ViŒt-nam Cng-ha vo lc cc quc-gia khc dn-dn b ri i-loan sau khi Trung-Cng ܮc gia-nhp Lin-hiŒp-quc nm 1971 v ang ܮc Hoa-k o-b‰, v v vn c cu-th vi Trung-Cng, coi viŒc g Trung-Cng lm cng l tri vi quyŠn-li ca Trung-quc, quay ra chng-i hnh-Ƕng cܫng-chi‰m Hong-sa ca Trung-Cng, khi‰n cho i-loan khng th‹ lm g khc ܮc. Hn na, cu ny cn c š thch-thc i-loan c dm i ngܮc li vi quyŠn-li ca Trung-quc khng.

VŠ i‹m ny Trung-Cng cng thnh-cng. i-loan khng nhng ph-h†a vi Trung-Cng trong viŒc i ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa m li cn phi thm qun ‰n chi‰m ng vi hn o thuc qun-o Trܩng-sa ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha ‹ sn-sng chng li khi cn.

Mt khc, tri vi cc tuyn-b trܧc y ch Š-cp ti viŒc qun-o Hong-sa (v c Trܩng-sa) b Nht-bn chi‰m ng trong thi Th‰-chi‰n th II v sau Chnh-ph Trung-hoa Dn-quc thu-hi li, ln ny bn tuyn-b ngy 20.1.1974 a ra mt chi-ti‰t tuy khng mi l i vi ViŒt-nam nhng li mi i vi cc ngܩi ngoi-cuc: l viŒc Php chi‰m ng qun-o Hong-sa.

"Mc d vi hn o thuc qun-o Tœ-sa c mt thi-k trܧc Th‰-chi‰n th II b Php chi‰m ng v sau ‰n lܮt Nht-bn, nhng sau Th‰-chi‰n, qun-o Ty-sa cng nh cc o khc trong Nam-hi ܮc Chnh-ph Trung-hoa lc by gi chnh-thc thu-hi."

Chng ta t hi ti sao Trung-Cng ln ny li Š-cp ti viŒc Php chi‰m ng qun-o Hong-sa? Cu hi ny tht kh tr li.

N‰u bo rng ch l ‹ p li li tuyn-b ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha ngy 12.1.1974 v 16.1.1974 trong nu viŒc trong thi-gian ViŒt-nam b Php -h (1862-1945) "nhn-danh vng-quc ViŒt-nam, Chnh-ph Php thc-hiŒn viŒc chi‰m-c chnh-thc o Hong-sa"(58) (58) Tuyn-b ngy 12.1.1974 ca pht-ngn-vin B Ngoi-giao ViŒt-nam Cng-ha, nhan-Š "ViŒt-nam Cng-ha Bc-b Li T-co Phi-lš ca Trung-Cng vŠ Qun-o Hong-sa." Bn quay rono, tr. 1) v ǥt "qun-o Hong-sa thnh n-v hnh-chnh sp-nhp vo tnh Tha-thin" cng "thi‰t-lp hai n-v hnh-chnh ti qun-o Hong-sa l n-v Croissant v n-v Amphytrite"(59) (59) "Tuyn-b ca B Ngoi-giao ViŒt-nam Cng-ha VŠ ViŒc Trung-cng Vi-phm Ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha Trn Cc Qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa" ngy 16.1.1974. Bn quay rono, tr. 1-2) ‹ chng-minh ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-nam trn qun-o th lp-lun ny khng ng. Ti sao? y khng phi l ln u tin ViŒt-nam Cng-ha a ra bng-chng ny. Thc vy, sut t khi c Ha-hi Cu-kim-sn nm 1951, v nht l t nm 1956, tr i, ViŒt-nam Cng-ha nhiŠu ln nhc ti viŒc Php nhn-danh ViŒt-nam chi‰m-hu hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa ‹ chng-minh ch-quyŠn ca mnh. Li na, trong v Phi-lut-tn i ch-quyŠn trn qun-o Trܩng-sa nm 1976 ( ni on III bn trn),

X-lš Thܩng-v To i-s Php ti Manila ngy 9.6.1956 thng-bo cho B Ngoi-giao Phi-lut-tn vŠ viŒc Php chi‰m-hu hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa(60) (60) Tܩng-thut trong bi Freedomland, bd). Nh vy khng phi l Trung-Cng khng bi‰t ‰n viŒc Php chi‰m-hu hai qun o.)

Cu hi l ti sao trong m†i ln trܧc Trung-Cng khng -Ƕng g ‰n s-kiŒn ny m nay li nhc ti? Phi chng l v Trung-Cng mun leo thang viŒc chng-minh ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc trn qun-o ng-tranh c t trܧc Th‰-chi‰n th II nhng b Php chi‰m mt? Khng chc nh vy. Mt lun-c ki‹u ny khng th‹ no nh ǰ ܮc lun-c ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha vŠ tnh-cch hp-php ca ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha trn qun-o ny cng nh trn qun-o Trܩng-sa, v cng khng th‹ no chng-minh ܮc ch-quyŠn ca Trung-Cng. V li, n‰u ng v mc-ch ny th ti sao trong cc ln tuyn-b trܧc Trung-Cng khng hŠ nu y‰u-t Php ra, m ch ni ti y‰u-t Nht-bn chi‰m ng Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa thi?

Hay l v nhng ln trܧc Trung-Cng khng bi‰t ‰n y‰u-t Php ny? Cng khng ng na v cc tuyn-b ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa t 1951 ‰n nay lun lun Š-cp ti y‰u-t Php. Chc-chn Trung-Cng nghin-cu k-lܫng cc tuyn-b ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha. V th‰ khng c lš-do g ‹ tin ܮc l Trung-Cng khng bi‰t ‰n y‰u-t ny.

Cng khng th‹ cho rng Trung-Cng coi thܩng y‰u-t ny. Khng mt nh hoch-nh chnh-sch ca mt quc-gia no c th‹ v c quyŠn coi thܩng bt c mt chi-ti‰t no, d l cn-con, ‹ c nh-hܪng tai-hi cho quc-gia. iŠu ny li cng ng hn na i vi Cng-sn ni chung v Trung-Cng ni ring, vn c thi quen "ci tc ch t" trong viŒc nghin-cu bt c vn-Š no.

Mt khc, trong bn tuyn-b ngy 20.1.1974 ny Trung-Cng ch-tr†ng ‰n bn-cht v gi-tr ci m h† g†i l s thu-hi hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa ca Chnh-ph Trung-hoa sau khi Th‰-chi‰n th II chm dt. Cc bn tuyn-b trܧc ch ni l "Chnh-ph Trung-hoa lc by gi thu-hi" hai qun-o thi. Ln ny bn tuyn-b i xa hn bng cch thm trng-t "chnh-thc" ‹ lm ni bt gi-tr hnh-vi ca Trung-Cng v ng-thi ‹ biŒn-minh s i hi ch-quyŠn ca mnh.

Hn na, sau khi lp li li tuyn-b ngy 15.8.1951 ca Chu n-lai nh m†i ln trܧc, bn tuyn-b ngy 20.1.1974, ‹ biŒn-h cho viŒc cܫng-chi‰m qun-o Hong-sa ca mnh, viŒn-dn ‰n chiu-bi l:

"Trung-quc l mt quc-gia x-hi ch-ngha. Chng ti khng bao gi chi‰m ng lnh-th ca nܧc khc, nhng chng ti cng s khng ‹ cho cc nܧc khc chi‰m ng lnh-th ca chng ti."

Ngoi ra, lm nh c s ng-nht quan-niŒm v chnh-sch ca nh cm quyŠn Cm-thnh v nhn-dn Trung-quc trong m†i viŒc, bn tuyn-b ny cn gi thm mt cu l:

"‹ bo-vŒ s ton-vn lnh-th v ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc, Chnh-ph v nhn-dn Trung-hoa c quyŠn lm m†i hnh-vi cn-thi‰t ‹ t-vŒ."

Trܧc y cc lnh-t Trung-Cng ch ni ‰n chnh-ph khng thi. T bn tuyn-b ny tr i nhn-dn Trung-quc ܮc chnh-quyŠn Bc-kinh oi-hoi ti trong v tranh-chp ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa.

Sau h‰t, bn tuyn-b ngy 20.1.1974 li mt ln na c t v mt ViŒt-nam Cng-ha hi‰u-chi‰n dm chng-i mt ln-bang khng-l bng cch i "Nh cm quyŠn Si-gn phi ngng ngay lp-tc m†i khiu-khch qun-s chng Trung-quc" vi mc-ch chng-minh cho th‰-gii bi‰t rng ch c Trung-Cng mi hi‰u-ha thi. Bn tuyn-b k‰t-thc bng mt s e-d†a quen-thuc: "N‰u khng, h† s phi chu m†i hu-qu do cc hot-Ƕng ny gy nn."

3. Bi tܩng-thut ni-v trn hi-chi‰n ti Hong-sa

Cng lc vi bn tuyn-b ngy 20.1.1974 trn, gung my tuyn-truyŠn ca Trung-Cng cho ph-bi‰n mt bi tܩng-thut ni-v cuc hi-chi‰n nhan-Š "Saigon Authorities Invade China's Hsisha Islands and Provoke Armed Conflicts"(61) (61) ng trong PEKING REVIEW, tp 17, s 4, ngy 25.1.1974, tr. 4.)

Bi tܩng-thut ny b-tc bn tuyn-b ni trn. N xuyn-tc m†i chi-ti‰t, bp mo hay thi phng cc d-kiŒn hay s-kiŒn trong mt mc-ch chung l t v hai hnh-nh. Mt hnh-nh ViŒt-nam Cng-ha hi‰u-chi‰n "trng-trn xm-phm s ton-vn lnh-th v ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc cng l in-cung khiu-khch nhn-dn Trung-hoa," vi nhng hnh-Ƕng no l "mt dn my dy phi chi‰n-thuyŠn v phi-c xm-nhp lnh-hi v lnh-khng ca Trung-quc chung quanh v pha trn qun-o Ty-sa, cܫng-chi‰m qun-o ca Trung-quc v n sng bn vo cc ng-dn Trung-hoa ang lm cng-tc sn-xut v vo hi-hm Trung-hoa ang i tun-tiu theo thܩng-lŒ," no l "khuy-ri v ph-hoi ng-thuyŠn Trung-hoa...ang lm cng-tc sn-xut gn o Cam-tuyŠn, bn ln o c treo quc-k ca nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa v v-lš p ng-thuyŠn Trung-hoa phi ri hi-vc ca mnh," no l "chi‰m o Cam-tuyŠn v om-sm h quc-k ca Trung-hoa ," no l "m vo cc ng-thuyŠn Trung-hoa mt cch tn-bo v v-lš," no l "ti‰p-tc gia-tng khiu-khch v khng thm ‹ š ‰n nhng li cnh-co lin-ti‰p ca Trung-quc," no l "bn ch‰t v gy tr†ng-thng cho mt s [ng-dn Trung-hoa]," no l "di bom san bng o," v.v... Hnh-nh khc l mt Trung-Cng hi‰u-ha, vi nhng hnh-Ƕng nh l "u-tranh chnh-ng bng cch lš-lun vi h† [tc l qun-s ViŒt-nam Cng-ha] v yu-cu h† ri khi lnh-th ca Trung-quc, "ri ch chng tr li khi "b dn-p ‰n qu mc chu-ǿng" v "‹ t-vŒ."

Bi tܩng-thut cn nhc li li vu-co l "Nh cm quyŠn Si-gn Nam-ViŒt t lu nui š- thn-tnh cc hn-o ca Trung-quc Nam-hi v chi‰m-ng mt cch bt-hp-php mt vi hn o thuc qun-o Nam-sa v Ty-sa ca Trung-quc" v bn tuyn-b ngy 11.1.1974 ca pht-ngn-vin b Ngoi-giao Trung-Cng "nghim-khc ln n s xm-ln v-lun ca nh cm quyŠn Si-gn vo s ton-vn lnh-th v ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc v ti khng-nh l Trung-quc c ch-quyŠn bt-kh tranh-ngh trn cc qun-o Nam-sa, Ty-sa, Trung-sa v ng-sa." Tuy nhin, vn theo bi tܩng-thut, "d chnh-ph Trung-hoa lin-ti‰p cnh-co, chng [tc l ViŒt-nam Cng-ha] vn phi qun-lc ti ln-chi‰m lnh-th ca Trung-quc v gy-chi‰n ... khi‰n cho nhn-dn Trung-hoa h‰t sc phn-n." Bi tܩng-thut k‰t-thc bng cu e-d†a l "N‰u nh cm quyŠn Si-gn nht-quy‰t c-š hnh-Ƕng nh vy, khng chu ngng ngay viŒc ln-chi‰m lnh-th ca Trung-quc th nht-nh chng s phi n tri ǡng ca chnh chng."

4. Tuyn-b ngy 4.2.1974

‹ Š-phng m†i bt-trc c th‹ xy ra, ngy 1.2.1974 Chnh-ph ViŒt-nam Cng-ha phi mt Ƕi ǥc-nhiŒm hi-qun ti tng-viŒn phng-th nm o thuc qun-o Trܩng-sa v dng bia ch-quyŠn ti y. V th‰, ngy 4.2.1974, B Ngoi-giao Trung-Cng li ra mt bn tuyn-b(62) (62) Ton vn ng trong PEKING REVIEW, tp 17, s 6, ngy 8.2.1974, tr. 3, dܧi nhan-Š "Statement by Spokesman of Foreign Ministry.") t-co hnh-Ƕng ny, coi l "mt s xm-ln in-cung ‰n s ton-vn lnh-th v ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc v mt khiu-khch qun-s mi chng li nhn-dn Trung-hoa" do "Chnh-ph v nhn-dn Trung-quc cc-lc ln n v phn-i [hnh-Ƕng ny]."

Hn na, bn tuyn-b cn ni rng:

"Chnh-ph Trung-hoa nhiŠu ln tuyn-b l cc qun-o Nam-sa, Ty-sa, Trung-sa v ng-sa tt c Šu l phn lnh-th ca Trung-quc v nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa c ch-quyŠn bt-kh tranh-ngh i vi cc qun-o ny v cc hi-khu chung quanh cc qun-o ."(nhn mnh thm)

on bn tuyn-b k‰t-thc bng li tuyn-b c-hu l:

"Chnh-ph nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa nht-quy‰t khng ‹ cho nh cm quyŠn Si-gn xm-ln vo s ton-vn lnh-th v ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc v bt c lš-do g. Lp-trܩng ny ca Chnh-ph Trung-hoa cng-quy‰t khng th‹ lay-chuy‹n ܮc."

Tuy bn tuyn-b vn mang nhng vu-co quen-thuc v nhng lun-iŒu c-rch nhng n cng c mt i‹m mi ng ni. l n ni rng phm-vi tranh-chp ch-quyŠn.

Trong nhng ln tuyn-b trܧc, Trung-Cng ch ni rng cc qun-o Ty-sa, Nam-sa, Trung-sa v ng-sa l phn lnh-th ca Trung-quc m Trung-quc c ch-quyŠn bt-kh tranh-ngh (c khi li ni l ch-quyŠn bt-kh xm-phm) khng thi. Ln ny, bn tuyn-b ngy 4.2.1974 cn ni rng thm ra v cho rng c cc hi-khu chung quanh cc qun-o cng thuc ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc.

Nh ni mt on bn trn, lš-do s tranh-chp ch-quyŠn trn cc qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa (v c Trung-sa ln ng-sa na) l cc ti du y. Lš-do ny mt ln na ܮc Trung-Cng ‹ l cho thy, d ch l gin-ti‰p, trong bn tuyn-b ngy 4.2.1974 ny, khi Bc-kinh cn i thm c ch-quyŠn cc vng bi‹n chung quanh cc qun-o, ni gn dy ngܩi ta tm thy c nhng ti du quan-tr†ng.

B. Phn-ng ca i-loan

VŠ phn i-loan, chnh-ph ca Tܪng Gii-thch nhiŠu ln ln ti‰ng vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa trong thi-gian c trn hi-chi‰n ngy 19-20.1.1974. Trong s nhng tuyn-b ny, c hai tuyn-b ng cho chng ta xt y.

1. Tuyn-b ca B Ngoi-giao i-loan ngy 7.2.1974

Tuyn-b th nht l ca B Ngoi-giao i-loan vo ngy 7.2.1974, ni-dung nh sau:

"Gn y Chnh-ph ViŒt-nam Cng-ha tuyn-b ch-quyŠn trn qun-o Nam-sa (Spratly). i vi li tuyn-b ny, Chnh-ph Trung-hoa Dn-quc cc-lc phn-khng vi Chnh-ph ViŒt-nam v ti khng-nh lp-trܩng l qun-o ny l phn lnh-th c-hu ca Trung-hoa Dn-quc v khng ai c th‹ nghi-ng ch-quyŠn ca Trung-hoa Dn-quc i vi qun-o ny.

"Qun-o ny b Nht-bn chi‰m ng trong trn Th‰-Chi‰n th II v ܮc qui-hon Trung-hoa Dn-quc khi, sau chi‰n-tranh, vo thng 12 nm 1946, Chnh-ph Trung-hoa phi mt hi-Ƕi ti thu-hi khi tay Nht-bn. T tr-qun thܩng-trc Trung-hoa ti ng . Hn na, ngy 1.12.1947, Chnh-ph Trung-hoa Dn-quc loan-bo cng th‰-gii tn tiu-chun ca cc o, c-lao, m-tiu, thi‹n-than trong qun-o.

"Nhng o ny, to thnh phn hon-chnh lnh-th Trung-hoa, l mt s thc bt-kh tranh-ngh. Chnh-ph Trung-hoa Dn-quc v vy cng-quy‰t ti khng-nh ch-quyŠn ca Trung-hoa trn qun-o Nam-sa. Lp-trܩng ny khng th‹ b bt c nܧc no thay-ǰi bng bt c biŒn-php no."(63) (63) Ton vn ng trong FREE CHINA WEEKLY, i-bc, ngy 10.2.1974, tr. 1, dܧi nhan-Š 'ROC Reaffirms Spratly Title.")

VŠ tuyn-b ca i-loan chng ta c my nhn-xt sau qun-o ny.:

Th nht, bn tuyn-b Š-cp ti viŒc hi-qun Trung-hoa ti thu-hi qun-o Trܩng-sa khi tay ngܩi Nht vo thng 12 nm 1946 v t c qun tr-ng ti y.

Trong phn II bn trn chng ti trnh-by tnh-cch bt-hp-php ca s ti‰p-thu qun-o Trܩng-sa do hi-qun Trung-hoa Dn-quc thc-hiŒn nn khng cn nhc li y. V hnh-vi ti‰p-thu Trܩng-sa bt-hp-php nn lun-c ny ca i-loan khng c gi-tr na.

Th hai, ngy 1.12.1947 Chnh-ph i-loan thng-tri cho th‰-gii hay viŒc ǥt tn tiu-chun cho cc o, c-lao, m-tiu, thi‹n-than trong qun-o Trܩng-sa. Vn-Š ǥt ra l viŒc t tn c phi l y‰u-t cn-thi‰t khng c khng ܮc ‹ chng-minh qun-o Trܩng-sa thuc Trung-quc hay khng.

ng vŠ phng-diŒn thc-t‰, viŒc t tn cho mt vt g chng qua ch l ‹ cho ngܩi khc hi‹u ܮc ngܩi ni mun m-ch, Š-cp ti vt thi. N khng c tnh-cch bt-buc. ng vŠ mt php-lš cng vy, viŒc mt ngܩi hay mt quc-gia ǥt tn cho mt vt g khng c ngha l vt ng-nhin thuc quyŠn s-hu hay thuc ch-quyŠn ca ngܩi hay quc-gia ǥt tn cho n. N‰u khng th bt c mt ngܩi hay quc-gia no cng c th‹ ǥt tn cho mt vt ri chi‰m ngay ly vt lm vt s-thuc ca mnh. Gi th n‰u ViŒt-nam t mt tn tiu-chun cho o i-loan ri tuyn-b cng th‰-gii hay rng i-loan thuc ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-nam th i-loan s ngh sao? N‰u Hoa-k, Nga, Anh, Php, v.v..., m‡i nܧc cng ǥt cho i-loan mt tn ri bo n thuc ch-quyŠn ca mnh, nh vy c ܮc khng?

V lš-do ny, lun-c th 2 ca i-loan khng ng vng v khng c gi-tr.

Th ba, cn-c vo hai s-kiŒn nu trn (ti‰p-thu v ǥt tn), i-loan tuyn-b rng qun-o Trܩng-sa l mt phn lnh-th ca Trung-hoa Dn-quc v s thc ny bt-kh tranh-ngh.

Chng ta thy iŠu tuyn-b ny khng c g mi l. N ch l nhc li nhng li tuyn-b ca Trung-Cng t trܧc ti nay. Cng ging trܩng-hp cc tuyn-b ca Trung-Cng, n thi‰u-st cc chng-liŒu ‹ chng t rng ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc i vi hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa l bt-kh tranh-ngh. S thi‰u-st ny lm cho lun-c ca i-loan, cng nh ca Trung-Cng, khng c gi-tr vŠ thc-t‰ cng nh vŠ php-lš.

2. Tuyn-b ca Tܪng Kinh-quc ngy 24.2.1974

Mܩi by ngy sau khi B Ngoi-giao i-bc ra bn tuyn-b ni trn, Tܪng Kinh-quc, con trai ca Tܪng Gii-thch v lc ang gi chc Hnh-chnh-viŒn ViŒn-trܪng tc Th-tܧng Chnh-ph i-loan, trong mt cuc phng-vn dnh cho kš-gi Roy Rowan ca tp-ch Time ngy 24.2.1974 ti i-bc cng Š-cp ti vn-Š Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa nh sau(64) (64) TIME, New York, 11.3.1974):

Hi: Xin Th-tܧng cho r quan-i‹m ca ngi vŠ v tranh-chp i vi hai nhm qun-o Paracel v Spratly. LiŒu qu-quc c phng-vŒ Ƕi tr-qun ng qun-o Spratly ca qu-quc khi b tn-cng khng?

p: Chng ta cn phi duyŒt li lch-s cc qun-o ny. Cch y nhiŠu nm, Chnh-ph chng ti duy-tr lc-lܮng ti qun-o Paracel. Lc-lܮng ny ch l mt phn ca hŒ-thng phng-th o Hi-nam. ViŒc chng ti rt cc lc-lܮng i khng c ngha l chng ti t-b ch-quyŠn ca chng ti trn qun-o Paracel. ViŒc ny chng qua cng ging nh viŒc chng ti t-b ch-quyŠn ca chng ti trn o Hi-nam. Qun-o Spratly ܮc qui-hon cho Trung-hoa Dn-quc ng-thi vi viŒc quang-phc i-loan khi tay Nht-bn. T nhiŠu nm ri binh-s ca chng ti tr-ng trn hn o chnh ca nhm Spratly. Chng ti cung-quy‰t lm nhng g c th‹ ܮc ‹ phng-vŒ qun-o ny. Ti thy cn phi ni r l qun-Ƕi ca chng ti c bn-phn phng-vŒ lnh-th y-thc cho h†.

Hi: LiŒu c th‹ c viŒc Trung-Cng tn-cng nhm Spratly khng?

p: V Cng-sn c th‹ tnh-ton lm nn chng ti khng th‹ gt b viŒc ܮc.

C bn i‹m ng ni trong cc cu tr li ca Tܪng Kinh-quc:

Th nht, Tܪng Kinh-quc lm nh hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa ng-nhin thuc vŠ Trung-quc ri nn khng a ra mt bng-chng no ‹ chng-minh ch-quyŠn thuc vŠ Trung-quc. Cng v th‰ tuy ng ta ni l "Chng ta cn phi duyŒt li lch-s cc qun-o ny," nhng ni xong b y, ng khng Š-cp ti lch-s m ch ni vŠ s t-b ch-quyŠn trn Hong-sa v viŒc thu-hi cng bo-vŒ Trܩng-sa. Do , nhng ai mun tm hi‹u xem v lš-do no i-loan nhn c ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o ny khng cn cch no bi‰t ܮc.

Th hai, viŒc Trung-hoa Dn-quc duy-tr lc-lܮng ti qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa m Tܪng Kinh-quc ni y chnh l viŒc m Bnh Phm-quang tܩng-thut trong mt bi bo chng ta xem qua trong phn II. Ch c mt chi-ti‰t mi l theo h† Tܪng, lc-l†ng tr ng Hong-sa l mt phn ca hŒ-thng phng-th o Hi-nam ca Trung-quc.

Th ba, cng v lš-do ny, theo ng, viŒc i-loan t-b ch-quyŠn i vi qun-o Hong-sa cho Trung-Cng cng ging viŒc t-b ch-quyŠn i vi o Hi-nam. N khng c ngha l i-loan t-b ch-quyŠn trn qun-o ny. Ni cch khc, Tܪng Kinh-quc ng-š l d cho qun-o Hong-sa c ri vo tay Trung-Cng th n vn cn thuc ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc, ch khng phi l ca nܧc khc, khng i ‰n u m thiŒt.

Th t, ng cng Š-cp ti viŒc qun-o Trܩng-sa qui-hon Trung-hoa Dn-quc v phng-th Trng-sa, khng c thm chi-ti‰t g mi l. C l ng khng bi‰t, hay bi‰t m l khng ni, ‰n tnh-cch bt-hp-php ca ci ng g†i l "qui-hon" ny.

VII. Cc tuyn-b ca Trung-quc t sau trn hi-chi‰n thng 1/1974

Sau khi qun-o Hong-sa ri vo tay Trung-Cng thng 1/1974, cc chnh-ph Trung-hoa, c cng-sn ln quc-gia, m‡i khi c dp vn ti‰p-tc ln ti‰ng vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa(65) (65) Xem T-quc-Tun, "Din-ti‰n Cuc Tranh-chp VŠ Ch-quyŠn Trn Hai Qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa T Sau Trn Hi-chi‰n 19-20 Thng 1/1974" ng trong ViŒt-nam Tp-ch, Campbell, California, s 3 & 4, th. 8/1991, tr. 49-82. (V s s-š k-thut bi ny tuy ܮc ng tr†n-vn nhng li ghi lm l "Cn Na"). Tuy nhin, vi thi-gian cc tuyn-b ca chnh-ph ngy mt tha dn, nhܩng ch‡ cho cc t-nhn ln ti‰ng thay-th‰. Tt c nhng tuyn-b ny Šu nhc li gn nh nguyn-vn cc tuyn-b chng ta xt trn y, khng c g khc-biŒt hay mi l. Trong phn ny chng ti ch nu ra phi th-d i‹n-hnh thi.

A. Tuyn-b ngy 30.3.1974

Cui thng 3 nm 1974, trong kha h†p th 30 ca Hi-ngh -chu Vin-ng Kinh-t‰ y-hi (hay -Vin Kinh-y-hi) thuc Lin-hiŒp-quc nhm ti Colombo, th- x Tch-lan (Sri Lanka), khi phi-on ViŒt-nam Cng-ha ln n v Trung-Cng cܫng-chi‰m qun-o Hong-sa ca ViŒt-nam, i-bi‹u ca Trung-Cng l Chi Lung ln ti‰ng ngy 30.3.1974(66) (66) Tܩng-thut trong PEKING REVIEW, tp 17, s 14, ngy 5.4.1974, tr. 1, nhan-Š "China's Sovereignty Over Hsisha, Nansha Islands Reaffirmed.")

Chi Lung bc-b lp-lun ca phi-on ViŒt-nam Cng-ha m ng g†i l "ch-trng v-lim-s" v ti xc-nh lp-trܩng ca Trung-Cng vŠ ch-quyŠn bt-kh tranh-ngh ca Trung-quc i vi hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa cng l cc hi-khu quanh . ng ni thm l iŠu 4 chng-trnh ngh-s ca kha h†p hiŒn-ti ghi hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa l cc khu o cn-hi ca nh cm quyŠn Si-gn Nam-ViŒt v cn ghi thm l " c kh‰-ܧc thm-st v pht-tri‹n khong 30 khu [nh vy] Nam-hi." on Chi Lung tuyn-b:

"Qun-o Ty-sa v qun-o Nam-sa Nam-hi vn-d l mt phn bt-kh-phn ca lnh-th Trung-quc. Nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa c ch-quyŠn bt-kh tranh-ngh trn nhng qun-o ny cng nh l cc hi-khu quanh . Mt khc, vo ngy 15.8.1951, trong mt Tuyn-b vŠ D-tho Ha-ܧc vi Nht-bn ca Anh-M v Hi-ngh Cu-kim-sn, Ngoi-trܪng Chu n-lai long-tr†ng tuyn-b l 'cng nh cc qun-o Nam-sa, Trung-sa v ng-sa, qun-o Ty-sa v o Nam-uy lc no cng l lnh-th ca Trung-quc. Mc d nhng o ny c lc b Nht chi‰m ng mt thi-gian trong trn chi‰n-tranh xm-lng ca ‰-quc ch-ngha Nht-bn, sau khi Nht-bn u hng Chnh-ph Trung-hoa thu-hi nhng qun-o ny.' T tr i Chnh-ph Trung-hoa nhiŠu ln nhc li lp-trܩng ny.

"ViŒc vn-phng hi-ngh ghi trong ti-liŒu ni trn rng qun-o Ty-sa v Nam-sa ca Trung-quc l cc o cn-hi ca chnh-quyŠn Si-gn Nam-ViŒt l mt viŒc sai-lm. Phi-on Trung-quc yu-cu vn-phng p-dng m†i biŒn-php ‹ sa li l‡i-lm ny ‹ sau ny khng ti-din viŒc tng-t na."

Trܧc li phn-i kch-liŒt ca i-bi‹u ViŒt-nam Cng-ha, m Trung-Cng g†i l "go" i "ch-quyŠn" trn qun-o Hong-sa v "kh- tn-cng Trung-quc", Chi Lung li ln ti‰ng cho rng hnh-Ƕng ca ViŒt-nam Cng-ha ch ct ‹ "che-y s xm-lng ca mnh mt cch lo-luyŒn". ng ni thm rng "Nh cm quyŠn Si-gn t lu mun chi‰m qun-o Ty-sa v qun-o Nam-sa ca Trung-quc" bng cch "chng nhng l sp-nhp vo lnh-th ca chng hn mܩi o ca Trung-quc, k‹ c o Nam-uy v o Thi-bnh thuc nhm qun-o Nam-sa, m li cn cng-khai khiu-khch v-trang chng Trung-quc v chi‰m lnh-th Trung-quc bng v-lc," mt viŒc Chi Lung coi l "h‰t sc mt dn my dy." on ng ta "ti khng-nh ch-quyŠn bt-kh tranh-ngh ca Trung-quc i vi nhng qun-o ny v nhng hi-khu chung quanh " v k‰t-lun l "Chnh-ph Trung-hoa s khng bao gi ‹ cho nh cm quyŠn Si-gn xm-ln ch-quyŠn lnh-th ca Trung-quc bng bt c lš-do g" v "Lp-trܩng ny ca Chnh-ph Trung-hoa cng-quy‰t v bt-di bt-dch."

Ngoi nhng li-l th-b v km l-Ƕ khng xng-ng vi t-cch i-diŒn quc-gia ti hi-ngh quc-t‰ (ch-trng v-lim-x, go i ch-quyŠn, kh- tn-cng, h‰t sc mt dn my dy), li tuyn-b ca Chi Lung chng qua ch l nhc i nhc li nhng lun-c c-rch ca Trung-Cng v khng mang thm mt chi-ti‰t mi l no c. TiŒn y chng ta cng cn ni thm l k‹ t khi c trn hi-chi‰n thng 1/1974 v sau v cܫng-chi‰m qun-o Hong-sa, trong cc tuyn-b chnh-phTrung-Cng, vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa cng nh vŠ bt c vn-Š g khc c lin-quan ti ViŒt-nam Cng-ha, cng ngy cng dng nhiŠu li-l th-b i vi ViŒt-nam Cng-ha. S-d nh cm quyŠn Cm-Thnh phi dng ‰n thi-Ƕ ny c l l v h† bi‰t rng h† b ui lš khng th‹ tranh-lun mt cch ng-ǡn vi ViŒt-nam Cng-ha vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa nn nh phi dng ‰n hnh-thc ny, mt hnh-thc Trung-Cng t ra rt iu-luyŒn.

B. Tham-lun ngy 2.7.1974

Ngoi ra, ti Hi-ngh Lin-hiŒp-quc vŠ Lut Bi‹n k 2 nhm ti Caracas, th- nܧc Venezuela, t 20.6 ‰n 29.8.1974, trong mt bi tham-lun †c trܧc hi-ngh ngy 2.7.1974, Trܪng phi-on Trung-Cng tham-d hi-ngh l Th-trܪng Ngoi-thng Si Th-phin bc-b nhng li t-co ca phi-on ViŒt-nam Cng-ha vŠ viŒc Trung-Cng cܫng-chi‰m qun-o Hong-sa v khng-nh l "Qun-o Ty-sa v Nam-sa bi‹n Nam xa nay vn l mt phn lnh-th khng th‹ chia ct ca Trung-quc, quy‰t khng cho php nh cm quyŠn Si-gn v bt c c no xm-phm ch-quyŠn lnh-th ca Trung-quc."(67) (67) i Bc-kinh, chng-trnh ViŒt-ng, ngy 3.7.1974, hi 21 gi 30. Chng ti trch nguyn-vn theo bn tin, khng sa ǰi d cch hnh-vn lai-cng)

Ging nh cc tuyn-b khc ca Trung-Cng, tham-lun ca h† Si khng nu ra mt bng-chng no ‹ cho hi-ngh thy r ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa qu thc thuc vŠ Trung-quc. Li khng-nh ca h† Si khng c g ng chng ta ch-š, ngoi tr t "xa nay" ܮc gi thm m trong cc tuyn-b trܧc y khng c. T ny ܮc thm c l v t v hi-chi‰n thng 1/1974 ViŒt-nam Cng-ha a ra nhiŠu bng-chng lch-s v php-lš ‹ chng-minh ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trung-sa thc-s thuc vŠ ViŒt-nam t my th‰-k› ri nn Trung-Cng phi thm t "xa nay" hu ‹ chng-minh ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc cng c t lu. Tuy nhin, bi tham-lun ca h† Si, cng nh tt c nhng bn tuyn-b khc ca Trung-Cng, vn ch ni mp-m nh vy thi, ch khng hŠ nu ra ܮc mt th-d i‹n-hnh no c.

C. Cc tuyn -b trong nm 1979

Mt khc, t sau khi ng Cng-sn ViŒt-nam chi‰m ܮc Nam-ViŒt (30.4.1975) bang-giao ViŒt-Hoa, vn khng my tt p t thp-nin 1960 tr i nn d vn ܮc cc nh lnh-o Bc-kinh v nh quan-hŒ gia mi v rng, mi h th rng lnh, tr nn suy-sp nhanh qu mc, bi‰n thnh bang-giao gia hai quc-gia th-nghch. Ngoi nhng v ViŒt-nam ui cc Hoa-kiŠu c-tr hay sinh-trܪng ViŒt-nam ra khi nܧc ViŒt, a ‰n viŒc Trung-Cng xua qun vܮt bin-gii nh chi‰m my tnh miŠn Bc, viŒc tranh-chp vŠ ch-quyŠn i vi hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa cng leo thang. Trong nm 1979 c t nht l 8 ln vn-dŠ ny ܮc nu ra.

Quan-tr†ng nht c ba ln.

1. Tuyn-b ca Ngoi-trܪng Trung-Cng ngy 16.3.1979

Trong mt bui h†p bo Bc-kinh ngy 16.3.1979(68) (68) Tܩng-thut trong British Broadcasting Corporation, Summary of World Broadcasts, Part III: The Far East (vi‰t tt: FE), s 6070), ngoi-trܪng Trung-Cng Hong-Hoa c my li tuyn-b h‰t sc phi-lš, khng th‹ chp-nhn ܮc.

Thc vy, khi ni vŠ vn-Š tranh-chp bin-gii ViŒt-Hoa, Hong-Hoa nhn-nhn vi cc kš-gi ngoi-quc l c th‹ c nhiŠu iŠu ng nghi-ng vŠ vn-Š s-hu "vi chc cy s vung" d†c bin-gii Hoa-ViŒt ܮc qui-nh trong hiŒp-ܧc gia triŠu-nh Mn-Thanh v nh cm quyŠn -h Php kš vo cui th‰-k› th 19(69) (69) l Trung-Php Ha-ܧc kš ti Thin-tn ngy 11.5.1884, sau ܮc ng-chun bng mt ha-ܧc khc kš ngy 9.6.1885). Cu ni ca h† Hong phi hi‹u l v ngu-dt khng bi‰t g vŠ lch-s, a-lš v chnh-tr ViŒt-nam (iŠu ny c th‹ c ܮc, nhng kh tin) hoc v ‹ ly lng nh cm quyŠn Mn-Thanh hu thu-hoch ܮc li ln hn (c l y l nguyn-nhn chnh), Php trao vi chc cy s vung lnh-th ca ViŒt-nam cho Trung-quc cui th‰-k› th 19. Ci phi-lš v tr-trn ca Hong-Hoa l ng ta tiu-bi‹u cho thi-Ƕ Trung-quc khinh-th cc nܧc nh b.

nh rng con s vi chc cy s vung lnh-th ca mt quc-gia qu c nh b thc, nht l so vi mt nuc c lnh-th bao-la nh Trung-quc, nhng n vn l mt vn-Š tr†ng-i i vi ViŒt-nam. ng lš ra Hong-Hoa, vi chc-v ngoi-trܪng ca mnh, ngha l i-diŒn cho Trung-quc vŠ phng-diŒn ngoi-giao cng nh bang-giao quc-t‰, phi thng-thn tuyn-b nhn-nhn ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-nam i vi vi chc cy s vung , phi t ra l Trung-quc hi-ti‰c vŠ s lm-ln ny lm tn-hi rt lu cho mt quc-gia vn c my ngn nm bang-giao vi Trung-quc v quan-hŒ ViŒt-Hoa , nh trn ni, vn ܮc Trung-quc coi rt mt-thi‰t ging nh quan-hŒ gia rng v mi, v phi a ra nhng Š-ngh ‹ gii-quy‰t vn-Š, d ch l Š-ngh s-khi v trn lš-thuy‰t. ng ny h† Hong ch ni khi-khi rng khng phi l mt i‹m tranh-chp quan-tr†ng. Ni cch khc, tuy nhn-nhn s sai-lm, Trung-Cng vn c chi‰m gi phn t mt cch bt-hp-php nh thܩng v bt-chp d-lun quc-t‰.

Mt khc, vŠ vn-Š Hong-sa v Trng-sa, Hong-Hoa cn ni thm rng vo thi-k c hiŒp-ܧc ni trn Trung-quc khng th‹ cng Php n-nh ranh-gii miŠn lnh-hi v v th‰ khng th‹ no c s nghi-ng vŠ quyŠn s-hu ca Trung-quc trn hai qun-o Ty-sa v Nam-sa v c rt nhiŠu chng-c lch-s chng-minh.

iŠu ng ti‰c l Hong-Hoa khng cho bi‰t v nhng lš-do no vo cui th‰-k› th 19 Trung-quc khng th‹ n-nh ranh-gii miŠn lnh-hi vi Php ܮc. Mc d chng ta c th‹ suy-lun ra ܮc cc nguyn-nhn, nhng y chng ta khng cn ni ‰n v khng phi l mc-ch ca bi ny. i‹m chng ta cn nhn mnh l s biŒn-h rt phi-lš ca Hong-Hoa.

Chng ta khng th‹ no viŒn-c v khng th‹ n-nh ranh-gii lnh-hi ca mt quc-gia ‹ bo quc-gia c quyŠn s-hu mt phn lnh-th no . N‰u biŒn-lun theo ki‹u h† Hong th chng ta cng c th‹ ni ܮc rng v khng th‹ n-nh ranh-gii ܮc nn khng th‹ c s nghi-ng no vŠ quyŠn s-hu ca ViŒt-nam ngay chnh i-lc Trung-hoa, trn mt gii dt chy di t h ng-nh (tnh H-nam) pha bc v t tnh T-xuyn pha ty xung ti phn lnh-th ViŒt-nam hiŒn-ti v c nhiŠu chng-c lch-s chng-minh. Cc nh lnh-o Cm-Thnh ni chung v Hong-Hoa ni ring ngh sao vŠ biŒn-lun ny? Trung-quc c chu nhn nhn ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-nam khng? Hn na, ni theo ki‹u Hong-Hoa th Trung-quc phi nhn nhn ch-quyŠn ca ViŒt-nam trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa mi ng v c rt nhiŠu chng-c lch-s chng-minh ch-quyŠn ny. Cc chng-c ViŒt-nam Cng-ha viŒn-dn minh-bch rt nhiŠu ln v ai mun cng c th‹ ki‹m-chng ܮc, ch khng ch ni m-m nh Hong-Hoa v cc nh lnh-o khc ca Trung-Cng lm.

Sau h‰t, cng cn ni thm l trong bui h†p bo ny Hong-Hoa cn cho bi‰t thm l chnh ViŒt-nam Dn-ch Cng-ha nm 1958 nhn-nhn ch-quyŠn ca Trung-Cng nhng vo ma h nm 1977 Th-tܧng ViŒt-nam Phm-vn-ng ph-nhn s nhn-nhn y.

2. Gic-th ca Ph Th-tܧng Trung-Cng ngy 23.3.1979

Mt tun sau bui h†p bo ca Hong-Hoa, t Nhn-dn Nht-bo, c-quan ngn-lun ca ng Cng-sn Trung-quc Bc-kinh, ng-ti nguyn-vn bc gic-th ca Ph Th-tܧng Trung-Cng Lš Tin-niŒm gi Th-tܧng ViŒt-nam Phm-vn-ng ngy 10.6.1977 trong c ghi r bi-cnh cc v tranh-chp bin-gii gia Trung-quc v ViŒt-nam theo quan-i‹m ca Trung-Cng (70) (70) FE s 6075). Mt trong nhng i‹m nu ra trong bc gic-th ny c lin-quan ‰n vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa.

Theo bc gic-th, ngy 15.6.1956 mt th-trܪng ngoi-giao ViŒt-nam chnh-thc ni vi Trung-Cng rng "ng vŠ quan-i‹m lch-s" th hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa "l lnh-th ca Trung-quc." Hn na, trong cc vn-th ngoi-giao v tuyn-co ngy 14.9.1958 v 9.5.1965 chnh-ph Cng-sn ViŒt-nam cng chp-nhn ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc trn hai qun-o ny.

Qua hai chi-ti‰t ny chng ta bi‰t thm ܮc rng mt lun-c khc ca Trung-Cng i vi vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa l chnh ViŒt-nam Dn-ch Cng-ha cng nhn-nhn ch-quyŠn thuc Trung-quc. C iŠu ng ti‰c l bc gic-th ny khng ni r tn ca vin th-trܩng ngoi-giao ViŒt-nam nhn-nhn ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc v ng ta tuyn-b nh vy trong trܩng-hp no, u, ngy no, vi ai, v nguyn-vn li tuyn-b ra sao. Hn na v bc vn-th ngoi-giao v tuyn-co ngy 14.9.1958 v 9.5.1965 ca ViŒt-nam Dn-ch Cng-ha khng hŠ ܮc cng-b nn chng ta khng th‹ ki‹m-chng nhng iŠu bc gic-th nu ra xem c ng s thc khng hay b bp mo, sa ǰi cho hp vi lp-lun hay mc-ch ca Trung-Cng.

Tuy nhin, d bc gic-th c trch-dn ng-ǡn cc li tuyn-b ca H-ni, chng ta thy viŒc nhn-nhn ca H-ni khng phn-nh quan-i‹m thc v lu di ca nh cm quyŠn H-ni, m ch l nhn-nhn c tnh-cch giai-on thi. Thc vy, vn theo bc gic-th, Phm-vn-ng c ln gii-thch l nhng li tuyn-co ng-h ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc i vi Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa ny ܮc a ra chng qua l v trong thi-gian khng-chi‰n(71) (71) Phm-vn-ng ni ti cuc chi‰n-tranh 1960-1975) "l d-nhin l chng ti phi ǥt viŒc chng ‰-quc ch-ngha Hoa-k ln trn m†i viŒc khc." VŠ gii-thch ny, Lš Tin-niŒm p li l cc vn-Š ch-quyŠn lnh-th phi ܮc cu-xt mt cch nghim-tc.

Ngoi ra, Lš Tin-niŒm cn cho bi‰t l s thay-ǰi lp-trܩng ca H-ni xy ra vo nm 1974 v 1975 khi ViŒt-nam "li-dng c-hi gii-phng miŠn nam ViŒt-nam ‹ xm-chi‰m su o trong nhm qun-o Nam-sa ca Trung-quc." Cng cn ni thm dy l bc gic-th cn ni l thi-Ƕ ca Lin-s vŠ vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Nam-sa v Ty-sa cng thay-ǰi vo nm 1975.

3. Phn-Š-ngh ca Trung-Cng ngy 26.4.1979

‹ tr li mt Š-ngh ca H-ni nhm gii-quy‰t cuc tranh-chp, ngy 26.4.1979, Th-trܪng Ngoi-giao Trung-Cng Hn NiŒm-long a ra mt phn-dŠ-ngh ca Bc-kinh(72) (72) FE, s 6102). Trung-Cng Š-ngh l trong khi ch Ǯi mt cuc dn-x‰p vŠ vn-Š bin-gii trn cn-bn Ha-ܧc Trung-Php(73) (73) Hn NiŒm-long khng ni r ha-ܧc no. C l l ha-ܧc 1884 (Xem ch-thch 69 bn trn), hai nܧc ViŒt v Hoa nn tn-tr†ng ranh-gii ܮc i bn ng-lng tha-thun nm 1957 l lnh-hi nn ܮc hoch-nh mt cch cng-bng v hp-lš theo cc nguyn-tc hiŒn-ti ca lut quc-t‰ v ViŒt-nam phi "quay tr li lp-trܩng trܧc."

Ÿ y chng ta khng cn ni ti Š-ngh dn-x‰p vn-Š bin-gii ViŒt-Hoa trn cn-bn Ho-ܧc Php-Hoa m ch bn ti vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa. VŠ i‹m ny, chng ta nhn thy c s mu-thun v phi-lš trong lun-c ca Trung-Cng. Trung-Cng mt mt ch-trng gii-quy‰t vn-Š ranh-gii lnh-hi, hay ni cch khc l ch-quyŠn lnh-hi, mt cch cng-bng v hp-lš theo cc nguyn-tc hiŒn-ti ca lut quc-t‰, nhng mt khc li i ViŒt-nam phi quay tr li lp-trܩng trܧc, tc l phi cng-nhn ch-quyŠn ca Trung-Cng trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa.

Mt trong nhng nguyn-tc cn-bn v s-ǣng ca viŒc gii-quy‰t mt tranh-chp, mt mu-thun hay mt xung-Ƕt no, d l trn lnh-vc quc-gia hay trong lnh-vc quc-t‰, l hai bn ng-tranh phi gi nguyn hiŒn-trng vo lc a viŒc tranh-chp, mu-thun hay xung-Ƕt ra gii-quy‰t. i-tܮng ca s gii-quy‰t y l s bt-ng, n l nguyn-nhn hay nguyn-Ƕng-lc ca s tranh-chp, mu-thun hay xung-Ƕt. N‰u mt bn ng-tranh b bt-buc phi cng-nhn trܧc quan-i‹m hay i hi ca bn kia trܧc khi cuc tranh-chp, mu-thun hay xung-Ƕt ܮc mang ra gii-quy‰t th s gii-quy‰t khng cn i-tܮng na. N‰u c gii-quy‰t th chng qua ch l lm mt viŒc tha. Hn na, gii-quy‰t theo ki‹u ny th u c cng-bng v hp-lš na?

S-d Trung-Cng i-hi mt cch phi-lš v mu-thun nh vy c l l v Trung-Cng bi‰t rng n‰u p-dng mt cch ng-ǡn, cng-bng v hp-lš cc nguyn-tc ca lut quc-t‰ i vi vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa th Trung-Cng s b thua do l Trung-Cng, v c i-loan na, khng th‹ no chng-minh mt cch ng-ǡn, thnh-thc v phi-chnh-tr ܮc l ch-quyŠn thuc vŠ Trung-quc. y l cha k‹ mt nguyn-nhn khc l Trung-Cng bi‰t rng khi ViŒt-nam, vn b c-lp trn trܩng quc-t‰, vn cn ‰n s gip-ǫ v chng lng ca Trung-Cng nn d i-hi ca Trung-Cng c phi-lš v mu-thun th‰ no i chng na, ViŒt-nam cng s bt-buc phi chu theo.

4. Tuyn-b thng 9/1983

Vo Œ tam tam-c-nguyŒt 1983, trong mt bui h†p bo hng tun ti Bc-kinh(74) (74 Tܩng-thut trong bo BEIJING REVIEW (tn vi‰t theo phng-php phan-m tc pinyin ca Trung-Cng), tp 26, s 39, ngy 26.9.1983, tr. 8), pht-ngn-vin b Ngoi-giao Trung-Cng l Qi Huaiyuan cho hay l gn y c qun-lnh ngoi-quc chi‰m-ng bt-hp-php m-tiu Danwan (75) (75 Tn ViŒt-nam l Hoa-lau v tn Anh-ng Swallow Reef) v nt vi quc-gia lin-ti‰p i ch-quyŠn lnh-th trn mt vi hn o v m-tiu thuc nhm qun-o Nam-sa. V vy, ng nhc li lp-trܩng c-hu ca Trung-Cng l ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc trn qun-o Nam-sa Nam-hi khng th‹ ‹ cho bt c nܧc no vi-phm, v bt c lš-do g hay bng bt c cch no. on ng ni thm l:

"B Ngoi-giao nܧc Cng-ha Nhn-dn Trung-hoa nhc li l Trung-quc c ch-quyŠn bt-kh tranh-ngh trn qun-o Nam-sa cng cc hi-khu ln-cn, v cc ti-nguyn thin-nhin nhng vng ny thuc vŠ Trung-quc."

Tuy li tuyn-b trn khng c g mi l nhng chng ta thy Trung-Cng cng ngy cng ‹ l r lš-do Trung-quc c i ch-quyŠn trn qun-o Trܩng-sa, cng nh qun-o Hong-sa: l kho ti-nguyn thin-nhin, hay ni cho ng hn l nhng ti du, vng ny. V vy, trong ln tuyn-b ny, Trung-Cng nhn mnh bng cch thm cu "cc ti-nguyn thin-nhin nhng vng ny thuc vŠ Trung-quc" sau khi ni vŠ ch-quyŠn bt-kh tranh-ngh ca Trung-quc trn qun-o v nhng hi-khu ln-cn.

Hn na, trong khi nhng tuyn-b trܧc ch ni ‰n tnh-cch bt-hp-php ca viŒc bt c quc-gia no khc chi‰m ng hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa thi, ln ny Qi Huaiyuan cn ni ‰n tnh-cch bt-hp-php v khng th‹ chp-nhn ca s khai-thc cc ti-nguyn thin-nhin y cng nhng hot-Ƕng khc na.

"ViŒc bt c mt quc-gia no khc chi‰m ng bt c mt hn o no trong qun-o Nam-sa v khai-thc cng nh cc hot-Ƕng khc nhng vng ny l viŒc lm bt-hp-php v khng th‹ chp-nhn ܮc."

K‰t-lun

Qua viŒc nghin-cu cc li tuyn-b ca hai chnh-ph Bc-kinh v i-bc lin-quan ‰n vn-Š ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa t nm 1951 ‰n nay, chng ta nhn thy rng c hai chnh-ph ny c lun-c vu-v, m-h v v-on. H† ch ni i ni li nhiŠu ln l Trung-quc c ch-quyŠn bt-kh tranh-ngh hay ch-quyŠn hp-php v ch-quyŠn c t xa-xa lm ri, nhng li khng a ra ܮc mt bng-chng c-th‹ no, cn-c vo cc tiu-chun lch-s, a-lš hay lut quc-t‰, ‹ chng-minh l ch-quyŠn thuc vŠ Trung-quc. V vy nhng lun-c hon-ton khng c tnh-cch thuy‰t-phc, d l i vi nhng ngܩi tnh nht. Ci lm ln nht ca c Bc-kinh ln i-bc l c lm nh ch-quyŠn l vn-Š ng-nhin, khng cn biŒn-minh. S-d chng ti bo l sai-lm l bi v khi c s tranh-chp vŠ mt quyŠn no i vi vt no, cc phe ng-tranh t nht cng phi a ra cc bng-c cn-thi‰t ‹ chng-minh quyŠn s-hu ca mnh i vi vt tranh-chp ng hu c th‹ thuy‰t-phc nhng ngܩi ngoi-cuc. ViŒc khng chng-minh quyŠn s-hu ny c th‹ khi‰n cho ngܩi ngoi-cuc ngh rng s thc th phe khng a ra bng-chng khng hŠ c quyŠn s-hu, m hnh-Ƕng i ch-quyŠn ch l v do lng tham mun chi‰m-ot vt ca ngܩi khc.

Ngoi ra, c Bc-kinh ln i-bc c hnh-vi bt-hp-php l c tnh coi viŒc gii-gii qun-Ƕi Nht-bn ng hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa nm 1946 l Trung-quc thu-hi hai qun-o ny ‹ ri vin vo h† tuyn-b ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc trn hai qun-o, mc d cc quc-gia ng-minh trong trn Th‰-chi‰n th II ch quy‰t-nh gii-gii qun-Ƕi Nht-bn ng y thi ch khng hŠ quy‰t-nh qui-hon hai qun-o ny cho Trung-quc. Ngay c trong Ho-ܧc Cu-kim-sn nm 1951 Nht-bn cng khng hŠ tuyn-b hay nhn-nhn qui-hon Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa cho Trung-quc. Lš-do ny rt d hi‹u: cc nܧc ng-minh trong Th‰-chi‰n th II cng nh Nht-bn Šu bi‰t rng hai qun-o ny khng phi l phn lnh-th ca Trung-quc. Hnh-vi bt-hp-php ny c hu-qu rt tai-hi l nhiŠu ngܩi ngoi-quc khng nghin-cu k v ch da vo cc tuyn-b ca Bc-kinh hay i-loan mc-nhin nhn-nhn ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa. Cc ti-liŒu do ngܩi ngoi-quc vi‰t vŠ vn-Š ny cho thy r hu-qu tai-hi . Rt hi‰m, n‰u khng th‹ ni qu-quy‰t ܮc l khng c, ti-liŒu do ngܩi ngoi-quc bin-son hay vi‰t tham-chi‰u cc ti-liŒu ca ViŒt-nam chng-minh ch-quyŠn i vi Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa thc s thuc vŠ ViŒt-nam, m ch tham-chi‰u ti-liŒu ca Trung-quc, c quc-gia ln cng-sn, thi.

Ngay c viŒc gii-gii do Quc-qun Trung-hoa thc-hiŒn nm 1946 cng l hnh-vi khng hp-php nt. Mt mt, qua hiŒp-ܧc kš vi Php ngy 28.2.1946 Trung-hoa Dn-quc chuy‹n-nhܮng viŒc gii-gii qun-Ƕi Nht-bn bc v-tuy‰n th 16 cho Php nhng mt khc cui nm 1946 li cho qun ‰n gii-gii qun-Ƕi Nht-bn chng nhng Hong-sa m cn c Trܩng-sa na, ‹ sau ny vn vo hnh-Ƕng c hai chnh-ph Bc-kinh v i-bc coi l Trung-quc ti‰p-thu v c ch-quyŠn trn hai qun-o ny. Nh vy, n‰u p-dng ring lut quc-t‰ theo yu-sch ca Trung-Cng khng thi chng ta thy l Trung-quc cng khng c t-cch php-nh lm ch hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa.

Ni tm li, lun-c chnh-thc ca hai chnh-ph Trung-Cng v i-loan khng c sc thuy‰t-phc ܮc ai vŠ ch-quyŠn ca Trung-quc trn hai qun-o Hong-sa v Trܩng-sa v khng a ra ܮc mt bng-chng no v li da vo hnh-vi bt-hp-php.

T-quc-Tun