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V Hu San   

1 - Nhng gi-thuy‰t vŠ ngun-gc dn-tc ViŒt-Nam

Theo nhn-xt ca Gio-s Nguyn-khc-Ng vo thp-nin 1980, vn-Š ngun-gc dn-tc ViŒt-Nam tuy ܮc kh nhiŠu h†c-gi ViŒt-Nam cng nh ngoi-quc bn ‰n nhng ‰n nay vn cha c gi-thuy‰t no ܮc coi l vng-chc. ng chia cc gi-thuy‰t ny thnh 4 loi tiu-bi‹u:

- Gi-thuy‰t Con Rng Chu Tin

- Gi-thuy‰t Bch-ViŒt

- Cc gi-thuy‰t ca cc tc-gi MiŠn Nam

- Cc gi-thuy‰t ca cc tc-gi MiŠn Bc.

Sau , ng Ng a ra mt gi-thuy‰t ca chnh ng. Trong cun sch "Ngun Gc Dn-tc ViŒt-Nam" (vi‰t tt NGDTVN) xut-bn Montral nm 1985, ng cho rng ngun-gc chnh-y‰u ca nhn-chng ViŒt l t hi-o phng Nam:

-Sc-dn u-tin sng trn gii t ca chng ta l ging Melanesian theo gi ma i vo.

-Sc-dn th hai ‰n x ta l ging Indonesian t Nam-Dng di-c ln trong thi-k bng-gi cui cng (cch y t 10.000 ‰n 50.000 nm.)

Nhng ti-liŒu do ng a ra chng-minh rng ngܩi ViŒt v ngܩi Melanesian c cng c-cu t-chc gia-nh cng nh phong-tc tp-qun ging nhau, cng vi ǥc-i‹m nhn-hnh gn gi. D sau hng ngn nm -h ca ngܩi Tu, ngܩi ViŒt vn gi ܮc bn-sc Melanesian ca mnh.

H†c-gi Trn-Tr†ng-Kim vi‰t vŠ gc-tch ngܩi ViŒt-Nam nh sau:

"Theo nhng nh k-cu ca nܧc Php th ngܩi ViŒt-Nam v ngܩi Thi Šu miŠn ni Ty-Tng xung. C ngܩi Tu v ViŒt-Nam li ni rng nguyn khi xa t Tu c ging Tam-Miu , sau b ging Hn-tc nh ui i ‹ chi‰m gi ly vng sng Hong-H lp ra nܧc Tu. Ngܩi Tam-Miu phi n np vo rng hay l xung miŠn ViŒt-Nam ta by gi. Nhng š-ki‰n y cha c g lm chng cho ch-xc. Ngܩi ViŒt-Nam ta trܧc c hai ngn chn ci giao nhau, nn g†i l Giao-Ch, m xem cc loi khc, khng c loi no nh vy, th tt ta l mt loi ring, ch khng phi loi Tam-Miu." (ViŒt-Nam S-Lܮc, quy‹n 1, Si-Gn, 1971 trang 5.)

Mt gi-thuy‰t na l ca ng Bnh-Nguyn-Lc trnh-by trong cun sch kho-cu kh ln ca ng, mang ta-Š l "Ngun gc M-Lai ca Dn-tc ViŒt-Nam", Bch Bc Si-gn, xut-bn 1971. Ti-liŒu ny ܮc bn ci nhiŠu trong my thp-nin va qua, c ngܩi chng, c ngܩi bnh.

Bi s-kho ny trnh-by li mt s š-ki‰n ca cc h†c-gi ViŒt-Nam, ǥc-biŒt l gi-thuy‰t Bnh-Nguyn-Lc v thm mt s gi-thuy‰t na vŠ nhn-chng ViŒt-Nam lin-hŒ ‰n hng-hi cha bi‰t ng sai ra sao, nhng tng-i mi l.

2- Cc cuc xa ly trn ܩng i tm ngun gc dn-tc ViŒt-Nam

Theo ng Bnh-Nguyn-Lc, trn ܩng i tm ngun gc dn-tc ViŒt-Nam, thin-h tri qua hai cuc sa ly rܫi t 1918 ‰n 1964, nm m chng ti (li ng Bnh) khi tho son sch NGDTVN:

1/ Sa ly th nht ca hai ng L. Aurousseau v H. Maspro l ch da vo s Tu.

2/ Sa ly th nh ca tt c m†i ngܩi v ng rng ngun gc dn ta ti giai-on ng-Sn.

3/ Phn na mt cuc sa ly th ba l khng bi‰t thut-ng Indonesien c ngha l g.

Cho ‰n nm 1964 th ng lš ra ta thot khi ܮc cuc sa ly th ba , nhng ta vn khng thot..."

V ... cho ‰n khi chng ti hon-tt sch ny, c nhiŠu h†c-gi cho rng thuy‰t ca ng Bnh-Nguyn-Lc cng ... sa ly.

3 - Mt nh-sng mi: cng-trnh ca Bc-s Trn-i-S

Bc-s Trn-i-S l Gim-c nghin-cu kim Gio-S C-quan Nghin-Cu Tng-Hp Y-h†c u-, Gio-s din-ging khoa Lch-s v Tri‰t-h†c -chu ti viŒn Php-. ng trܧc-tc 20 tc-phm tng-hp y-h†c bng Php-vn v rt nhiŠu sch bng Hoa-vn, ViŒt-Vn, Trong nhng tc-phm ca ng, Ƕc-o nht l cc b trܩng-thin lch-s ti‹u-thuy‰t: Anh-hng Lnh-Nam, ng-nh h Ngoi-s, Cm-Kh Di-hn, Anh-hng Tiu-sn, Thun-thin Di-s, Anh-hng Bc-cng. Anh-linh Thn-v, Nam-quc Sn-h...

Trong thp-nin 1990, Bc-s Trn-i-S cho bi‰t trong khi kho-cu ngun gc tc ViŒt, ng dng phng-php y-khoa nhiŠu nht, v khoa-h†c mi y.

Vi lš-lun y-khoa, vi anatomie, vi lš-thuy‰t y-h†c mi vŠ t‰-bo, vi nhng khai-qut ca ngܩi Php ti ng-Dng, ca ViŒt-Nam, ca Trung-Quc cng hŒ-thng my mc ti-tn gip ti (li ng S) phn-loi xng s†, xng ng quy‰n, cng biŒn biŒt y-phc ca tc Hoa, tc ViŒt, ri i ‰n k‰t-lun vŠ lnh-th nܧc Vn-Lang ti h ng-nh.

V Bc-s ny nhc li li tuyn-b ca cc gio-s ng-nghiŒp khi hay bi‰t cng-trnh ca ng nh sau: "T nay khng cn nhng gi-thuy‰t vŠ ngun-gc tc ViŒt na, m ch cn li cng cuc tm ki‰m ca ng." Theo li ch-thch ca bi "Bin-Cng nܧc C ViŒt"do ng vi‰t th "chnh cng-trnh nghin-cu ca tc-gi k‰t-thc cuc tranh-lun 90 nm qua vŠ Ngun-gc Dn-tc ViŒt-Nam.

Tm tt k‰t-qu cng cuc tim ki‰m ca Bc-s Trn-i-S nh sau:

- Ngun gc tc ViŒt , lnh-th tc ViŒt tng t nh cc nh c-h†c.

- Cc nh c-h†c coi lnh-th ViŒt bao gm phn pha Nam sng Trܩng-Giang, ly mc l h ng-nh.

Tc ViŒt sng ri rc t pha Nam sng Trܩng-Giang xung mi vnh Thi-Lan

-Sau ny tc ViŒt, tc M giao-ti‰p vi nhau vng Kampuchea, Nam ViŒt-Nam. Tc ViŒt h‡n-hp vi tc ƒn pha Ty Thi-Lan

-Ging Thi, mt trong Bch-ViŒt chnh l tc Thi t Tܮng-qun, Bc-ViŒt di-chuy‰n xung lp ra nܧc Lo, nܧc Thi.

-Ngܩi ViŒt t sng Trܩng-Giang, t Phc-Ki‰n i xung Bc-ViŒt, khng c ngha Bc-ViŒt khng c ging ViŒt, phi Ǯi h† di-c xung mi c. M c ngha l ngܩi ViŒt di-chuy‹n trong t ViŒt. (ViŒt-Nam Œ Ng Thin k›, USA, 1994, trang 215-241.)

4 - S khc-biŒt vŠ cc ngun gc ca Vn-ho, Quc-gia v Dn-tc

i khi chng ta ngh rng cc cng viŒc i tm (1) ngun gc ca Vn-ho, (2) s hnh-thnh Quc-gia v (3) gc r ca Dn-tc ch l mt vn-Š. S thc khng phi nh th‹.

Trong mt nܧc, ta thy dn-chng c v nh thuc cng mt dn-tc v chung nhau mt nŠn vn-ho. Tuy vy; ba th Vn-ho, Quc-gia v Dn-tc ‰n t ba khi-i‹m khc nhau c thi-gian ln thi-gian. Loi ngܩi vn l mt Ƕng-vt a di-chuy‹n, lun lun i tm ki‰m mi-trܩng ‹ d dng sinh-hot. Th‹ nn, dn-chng mt nܧc c th‹ t xa di-c ‰n, trong khi vn-ho, ngn-ng thܩng chu nh-hܪng a-phng v thay ǰi theo sinh-hot ti ch‡.

Trܩng-hp chng Bch-ViŒt (hi xa sinh sng d†c duyn-hi nܧc Trung-Hoa ngy nay) ng k‹ l mt th-d i‹n-hnh vŠ s phc-tp gia cc y‰u-t quc-gia, chng-tc, vn-ho. Nhng h†c-gi Trung-Hoa-h†c tm-ti‰ng nht Šu ng-š l mt chng ln c-ng trn mt a-bn rng nh vy khng th‹ b hon-ton tiu-diŒt hay hn na, t-Ƕng bi‰n mt. Con chu nhng nhm ViŒt ny vn , nhng khi ci "gc" hay "cn-cܧc" mt, s hiŒn-diŒn ca h† trong x-hi khng cn ng ni na. Harold J. Wiens vi‰t rng :

"Khi dn Bch-ViŒt b Hn-ho, sinh-hot nh dn Tu, ngܩi Trung-Hoa khng cn bn tm ‰n s hiŒn-diŒn ca nhng ging dn d-chng ny na mt khi m ngܩi ny mt i ci t-chc "quc-gia". (China's March Towards the Tropics, Yale University, 1954, pp. 114-115.)

Ngy nay nhiŠu ngܩi sng ti vng ng- thܩng t nhn h† l ngܩi Tu Trung-Nguyn hay con chu Hong-‰. S tht h† thuc cc chng-tc khc hn vi ngܩi Tu gc r vng Hong-H, sng V. Nhng "ngܩi Tu tܪng-tܮng" ny qun rng lnh-th c ca h† b xm lng, tiŠn-nhn ca h† b k th truy-diŒt. Nܧc Trung-Hoa thng-nht ngy nay to ln bao trm ln nhiŠu quc-gia mt gc cng nhng ngܩi dn vong-quc b ng-ho khng cn nh ܮc t-tin.

Cng vi cc h†c-gi -ng-H†c khc i trܧc ng nh Needham, Fitzgerald...; Stan Steiner nghin-cu tinh-thn t-ch, š-ch quy‰t-tm bo-vŒ ni ging v lnh-th, tnh qut-cܧng chng xm-lng ܮc tm thy ni nhng ngܩi dn hng-hi sng trn tu thuyŠn . Nhng ngܩi nh c hay nng dn lm rung nܧc Šu c tinh-thn Ƕc-lp rt cao ( sch Fusan).

i vi ViŒt-Nam, ngun gc dn-tc cng lu ǩi khng km ngun gc vn-ho v i trܧc c thi lp-quc kh lu. ViŒc nghin-cu ca-dao, tc-ng c th‹ dn dt ta mt phn con ܩng tm ngun-gc, nhng khng i ܮc xa vo qu-kh. ng Bnh-Nguyn-Lc qu-quy‰t rng: "Mun ngn n‡-lc ‹ phanh phui cc y‰u-t vn-ho nh ca-dao, ngn-ng, c-tch cng khng bao gi cho ta bi‹t ngun gc ca dn-tc ViŒt-nam tht ng (NGDTVN, trang 893.)

5 - Cha kho c th‹ ngay trong ti

NhiŠu cuc khai-qut c-vt mi y ti ViŒt-Nam cho php cc nh nghin-cu c mt ci nhn mi v ng ǡn hn vŠ tnh-trng t ViŒt c-thi vi nhng nŠn vn-ho bn-cht dn-tc, pht-sinh ti ch‡, lin-tc ti‰n-tri‹n v khng b nh-hܪng ngoi-lai. Gio-s S-h†c Trn-Quc-Vܮng cho rng: "Thnh tu quš gi nht ca gii kho c h†c ViŒt Nam trong my chc nm qua l lm sng t s pht sinh v pht tri‹n ti ch‡ ca nŠn vn minh chu th sng Hng, vi bŠ dy thi gian din ti‰n ca n (vi thin nin k› trܧc cng nguyn ti mt vi th‰-k› sau cng-nguyn)". (Trong Ci, trang 54-55.)

T sau nm 1985, tc thi-gian ng Nguyn-Khc-Ng pht-hnh sch NGDTVN ‰n nay, nhng gi-thuy‰t khc vŠ ngun gc dn-tc vn ti‰p-tc ܮc Š ra. Tuy vy, hu h‰t cc gi-thuy‰t ny Šu b m-nh qu ng v š-niŒm vŠ nhng cuc di-dn t Nam-o ti‰n vo nܧc ta. Cng nh trܧc y c mt s ngܩi tng yn-tm ngh rng ngܩi ViŒt-Nam l con chu cc ging ngܩi di-c ‰n t Trung-Hoa, t Ty-Tng, t ng-u, t nܧc ViŒt thi chi‰n-quc...

Mt quan-i‹m m chng ti trnh-by qua cun sch ny l s lin-tc trong ti‰n-trnh hng-hi ca dn ta. c-i‹m ny khng th‹ v ngu-nhin li ph-hp vi s lin-tc vŠ ti‰n-trnh sinh-hot vn-ho ca ngܩi ViŒt-Nam. Cc chng-c ny hi‹n-nhin t n mnh m ni ‰n mt y‰u-t quan-tr†ng vŠ nhn-chng m t lu hu nh v-tnh b qun lng. l y‰u-t bn-a ca ngun gc dn-tc.

Lš-do ti sao cc nh nghin-cu nhn-chng li c ha nhau i tm ngun gc nhng "gi-thuy‰t xa si u " tht l kh hi‹u. Xa nay c t ngܩi chu lu-tm tm hi‹u ‰n ngun-gc chng ta ngay trn vng t qu-hng hiŒn-thi. Chng ti ku g†i s n‡-lc ng gp ca m†i ngܩi theo chiŠu-hܧng ny, trܧc khi i tm ki‰m nhng ni xa xi khc. Trܩng-hp quan-niŒm "bn-a" ny c sai lm, n cng gip chng ta d tm ra ܮc nhng con ܩng khc ng hܧng hn ‹ ti‰p-tc i ti.

ChuyŒn "tm cha kho xe" hn ai cng gp. C nhng nh nghin-cu hng-hi, nhng li ch ngh ‰n nhng ni xa. Tht chng khc chi viŒc chng ta qušnh qung s i lm tr, thc-dc c nh chy ton lon i ki‰m cha kho ngoi ܩng ngoi ng, trong khi chng ta khng ng cha kho y vn nm trong ti o t ngy hm qua!

6 - Dn ViŒt trong mi trܩng ng-NAm-

Trn bn- ngy nay, ViŒt-Nam c v nh chi‰m v-tr pha Bc vng ng-Nam-. Tuy vy, vo thi tiŠn-s, nܧc ta nm ng trong khu trung-ng ca ton-th‹ vng ny. Trܧc khi Trung-Hoa nam-xm, khu-vc t chu-th sng Hoi xung pha Nam sng Dng-T qua ‰n bin-gii ViŒt-Nam thc-s thuc vo ng-Nam- trn cc phng-diŒn vŠ a-lš v sinh-hot vn-ho.

H†c-gi Anthony Reid nhn thy rng "ngun-gc chung ca t-tin nhng ngܩi ng-Nam-" l mt mt s kiŒn c th‹ gii-thch ܮc mt phn no do s tng-ng ngn-ng ca cc sc dn trong vng. (Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce 1540-1680, Volume One: The Lands Below the Winds, Yale University Press, 1988, trang 3.)

Vo thi tiŠn-s, nhiŠu b-tc ViŒt sinh sng ti duyn-hi Trung-Hoa. a-bn ca h† nm trn cc vng chu-th nhng con Sng Hoi, Dng-T, Ty-Giang, sng Hng, sng M. Mt s nh ng-h†c tm ra nhiŠu chng-c hi‹n-nhin rng nhng b-tc g†i chung l Bch-ViŒt ny lc xa cng ni mt loi ngn-ng Nam- ging nh th ngn-ng ngܩi ViŒt-Nam ang s-dng ngy nay. Hai ti-liŒu nh sau:

(1) J. Norman and T. L. Mei, 'The Austroasiatics in ancient South China, some lexical evidence" Monumenta Serica, 32 [1976].

(2) E. G. Pulleyblank, Chinese and their Neighbors in Prehistoric and Early Historic Times, in "The Origins of the Chinese Civilization" edited by David N. Keightley, University of California Press, 1983, trang 437-438.)

Nܧc ViŒt-Nam v Bi‹n ng ca chng ta nm ng vo khu trung-ng ca N. Chnh ni y vo cui thi Bng , khi nܧc bi‹n dng ln, lm ngp vng t thp Sundaland, mt cuc di-dn t bi‹n vo b xy ra. Nhng ngܩi dn "nܧc" u tin theo cc dng sng nh sng Hng, sng M, sng M-Kng... chy vo t liŠn.

Hai nŠn vn-ho sng bi‹n v ni non ln u k‰t-hp trn qu-hng ta, sau ny to nn ci nŠn mng sinh-hot vn-ho chung ca ton vng ng-Nam-.

Hai chc ngn nm trܧc, nŠn vn-ho Ho-Bnh pht khi. Ti‰n-trnh lin-tc t thi qua thi ng, ri rc sng vi nŠn vn-ho ng-Sn vo thin-k› th nht trܧc ty-lch (TTL.)

Nhng ngܩi "dn nܧc" t vng Bi‹n ng ti‰n vo t liŠn ViŒt-Nam mang theo c nhng ǥc-tnh ca ngn-ng v tri‰t-lš cuc ǩi:

- ViŒt-ng l loi ngn-ng nhum mu hng-hi. Tuy ܮc Š-ngh sp x‰p vo h† Nam- trong lc-a, nhng ViŒt-ng li c nhiŠu i‹m tng-ng vi ngn-ng Nam-o ngoi Thi-Bnh-Dng. (Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce 1540-1680, Volume One: The Lands Below the Winds, Anthony Reid, Yale University Press, 1988, trang 3.)

- VŠ tri‰t-lš, Bernard Philippe Groslier nhn-xt rng quan-niŒm v niŠm tin ca dn ViŒt vŠ bi‹n c tht su m. ng vi‰t nh sau: Bi‹n c tri di, vܮt c ra ngoi chn tri v tm hi‹u bi‰t ca con ngܩi, gi ra ci n-tܮng vŠ ngun gc ca mun loi, c ‰n mt th‰-gii trܧc khi khai-thin lp-a v cng l ni qu-hng cho ngܩi ch‰t tr vŠ. (The Art of Indochina, Bernard Philippe Groslier, bn dch ca George Lawrence, Crown Publishers, inc., New York, 1962, trang 21.)

Hu h‰t cc pht-minh thuyŠn b, bum, cho, li ... ca nhn-loi ngy nay Šu c gc r t bn-o ng-Dng. Chng 60,000 nm trܧc, khi nhng nhm c-dn ng-Nam- u tin dng b vܮt bi‹n ti c-Chu, tiŠn-nhn ViŒt-tc chc chn cng dng phng-cch di-chuy‹n nh vy. NhiŠu ti‰n-b vŠ ki‰n-trc thuyŠn b t ܮc v thnh-qu ng k‹ nht c l l cch s-dng phi-hp ti-tnh hai hŒ-thng bum v xi‰m. Nh vy, mt s loi ghe thuyŠn ViŒt-Nam c th‹ t n li ly v gi hܧng i trong nhiŠu ngy di, khng cn phi sa ǰi tay li. (Connaissance du ViŒt-Nam, Pierre Huard v Maurice Durand, Hanoi 1954, trang 232.)

Ho-Bnh v ng-Sn l nhng nŠn vn-ho u-tin ca nhn-loi ta rng ra khp ni bng ܩng hng-hi. Oswald Menghin nhn-xt rng: "d mt nŠn vn-minh no c pht-khi u chng na, c rc r ‰n th‰ no i na, s truyŠn-b cng cn mt nŠn vn-minh hng-hi lm phng-tiŒn chuyn-ch ngang qua bi‹n c ra hi-o xa xm, vܮt i-dng ti t mi nh M-Chu." (Relaciones transpacificas de America precolumbina, Bo Runa 10(1-2), 1967: 83-97.)

Cha c mt nŠn vn-ho no trn a-cu ny m a-bn li rng ri, vܮt c cc i-dng bao la ‰n nh vy. Nܧc Vn-Lang l quc-gia ܮc thnh-lp sm nht ng-Nam-. Hnh nh chi‰n-s v chi‰n-thuyŠn ghi khc trn trng ng gn 3,000 nm trܧc y cho thy r s hiŒn-hu ca mt lc-lܮng thy-qun c t-chc cht ch v lu ǩi nht th‰-gii trn t nܧc ViŒt-Nam.

7 - N, vng t thun-ho cho s sinh-tn ca con ngܩi

i theo thuy‰t Darwin, nhiŠu khoa-h†c-gia hiŒn nay ng-š vi nhau vŠ ti‰n-trnh loi linh-trܪng (primate) ti‰n-ho thnh loi ngܩi din ra ti Phi-Chu. T ch‡ , loi ngܩi mi di-chuy‹n qua cc ni khc trn a-cu. (Origins. Richard E. Leakey and Roger Lewin, MacDonald and Jane's, London, 1977, trang 88, 117.)

Tuy vy vn cn nghi-vn vŠ "ng-Nam- c th‹ l ni pht-tch mt nhnh chng-tc ring ca loi ngܩi" v my khm-ph mi y nh sau:

- Ti Mandalay, Mi‰n-iŒn nm 1979, ngܩi ta tm ra nhiŠu xng ho-thch ca loi Primate lu ti 40 triŒu nm. V chng-tch ny c hn bt c ni u trn tri t nn c k‰t-lun rng: loi Primate thot tin sinh sng trong vng ng-Nam- trܧc, sau mi di-chuy‹n ngang qua khu-vc Ty -Chu ri sang Phi-Chu (Naga: Cultural Origins in Siam and the West Pacific, vi‰t tt Naga, Sumet Jumsai, xut-bn ti Singapore, Oxford University Press, 1988, trang 2.)

- Trong giai-on ti‰n ho ca loi ngܩi, ging Homo-Erectus (ngܩi ng thng) c l tn-ti lu nht ti vng t liŠn ng-Nam-, lu hn ti tt c cc ni khc trn a-cu, k‹ c Phi-Chu v u-Chu (People of the Earth, An introduction World Prehistory, Brian M. Fagan, Harper Collin Publishers, New York, 1992, trang 155-156.)

- H†c-gi Thi-Lan Sumet Jumsai tm ra rng ch c 3 vng trn tri t thuc vng ai nhiŒt-ǧi l thun-ho cho s sinh-tn ca loi ngܩi trong thi Bng . l vng bnh-nguyn sng Amazone Nam-M, vng Trung Phi-Chu v vng ng-Nam-. ng so snh tnh-trng nh sau: M-Chu thi cha c ngܩi, Phi-Chu c nhiŠu ging th d v khu duyn h, duyn-hi khng c du tch sinh-hot loi ngܩi. Ch cn vng ng-Nam- mi thc-s l ni hi-t nhng iŠu-kiŒn tiŒn-li ‹ cho loi ngܩi sng st. (Naga, trang 3.)

- Constance Mary Turnbill vi‰t trong sch Lch-s M-Lai-, Tn-Gia-Ba v Brunei nh sau : "Nhng khu rng gi (nhiŠu ma) ng-Nam-, vi nhng ngun thc-phm di do; nhiŠu loi cy tri, sc-vt v tm c; c l l mt trong nhng mi-trܩng sinh-hot sm sa v thun-tiŒn nht ‹ nhn-loi ti‰n-ho. (A History of Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei; in ti Hong Kong, 1989, trang 7).

Ronald Provencher cn phng-on loi ngܩi xut-hiŒn sinh sng ti ng-Nam- t 2 triŒu nm trܧc y. (Mainland Southeast Asia: A Anthropological Perspective, vi‰t tt: Mainland Southeast Asia, Nh xut-bn Goodyear Publishing Company, California 4/ 1975, trang 17.)

8 - Ngܩi Vܮn, Ngܩi C v Ngܩi Khn-ngoan trn t nܧc ta

Mܩi my ngn nm trܧc, mi-trܩng ng-Nam-, ǥc-biŒt ViŒt-Nam, ܮc chng-minh l ni thun-tiŒn cho viŒc gy ging v trng cy nhng c†ng rau, cy tri u tin.

Vi nhng thnh-tu ca ngܩi dn thuc cc nŠn vn-ho Ho-Bnh - Bc-Sn, lch-s dn-tc ta cng nh c vng ng-Nam- bܧc vo mt bܧc ngoc ln: mt trung-tm nng-nghiŒp vo loi sm nht ca nhn-loi ra ǩi vo khong vn nm trܧc. Con ngܩi tng bܧc gi-t hi lܮm, sn bn bܧc vo cuc sng sn-xut. (Lch Vn-ho ViŒt-Nam - Vi‰t tt LVHVN - Si-Gn, 1988: trang 36.)

S kiŒn quan-tr†ng khng km trong ngnh TiŠn-s-h†c l nhng khm-ph mi y vŠ nhn-chng. K‹ t nm 1960 ‰n nay, khoa kho-c pht-hiŒn nhiŠu di-tch quan-tr†ng chng-minh s c mt ca Ngܩi Vܮn, Ngܩi C v Ngܩi Khn-ngoan trn t nܧc ta. Mt s ti-liŒu ܮc LVHVN g†i l "v cng quan-tr†ng" ‹ tm-hi‹u qu-trnh chuy‹n-bi‰n t Homo-Erectus sang Homo-Sapien (ngܩi khn ngoan.) y l vn Š v ang ܮc cc nh nhn-chng-h†c trn th‰-gii h‰t sc quan-tm.

Sau khi duyŒt qua nhng khm-ph trong thp-nin 1960 vŠ ngܩi vܮn Thm Khuyn, ngܩi vܮn Thm m, ngܩi c Hang Hm, ngܩi khn ngoan Ko Lng; cc gio-s Phan-Huy-L, H-Vn-Tn v Hong-Xun-Chinh mnh dn k‰t-lun rng: Trn t nܧc ta hng my chc ngn nm trܧc tng din ra qu-trnh ti‰n-ho t ngܩi vܮn thnh ngܩi hiŒn-i. (LVHVN, trang 35.)

Ngy nay, ViŒt-Nam l ni li-cun nhiŠu nh khoa-h†c ‰n nghn-cu vŠ ti‰n-trnh nhn-chng. Nh Nhn-chng-h†c Russell Ciochon (tc-gi bi "The Ape That Was", Natural History, November 1991) v nh Kho-c-h†c John Olsen khm-ph ra nhiŠu chng-tch ViŒt-Nam cho thy ging ngܩi vܮn khng-l Gigantopithecus cao 10 b Anh tng sinh sng ng-thi vi ging ngܩi Homo-Erectus trong khong thi-gian di ti 500,000 nm. (Southeast Asia: A Past Regained, Time-Life Books, Virginia, 1995, trang 16-17.)

Brian M. Fagan cho bi‰t ti nhng hang ca Lng Trang, ViŒt-Nam, ngܩi ta tm thy di-ct ca ngܩi Homo-Erectus c ti 500,000 nm. Chng-tch ny thuc loi c nht ng-Nam- (People of the Earth, An introduction to World Prehistory; 1992, trang 129.)

Hnh 1 Mt s a-danh mi v c ca vng ng-Nam-

9 - Ni khai-sinh nŠn Vn-Minh Nܧc v vn-minh Thc-Vt

t nܧc chng ta nm trong vng nhiŒt-ǧi gi ma. C nhiŠu š-ki‰n khc nhau vŠ nh-hܪng v-tr i vi trnh-Ƕ sinh-hot ca dn ta.

Mt s nh a-lš v nhn-chng-h†c cho rng nŠn Vn-minh ViŒt-Nam ǥt trn v-tr "bnh-nguyn nhiŒt-ǧi" (Nhng ǥc-i‹m ca nŠn vn-minh ViŒt-Nam, Thi-Vn-Ki‹m trong Tuy‹n Tp Ngn ng Vn t ViŒt-Nam, Dng ViŒt, San Jos, 1993, trang 141-151.) Tuy vy, vn-minh ca chng ta khng hon-ton mang tnh-cch ca mt bnh-nguyn nhiŒt-ǧi v cc lš-do nh sau:

-VŠ v-tr, lnh-th ViŒt-Nam khng nm su trong ni-a m li nm cnh Bi‹n ng. ViŒt-Nam c l l quc-gia Ƕc-nht trong t liŠn nhiŒt-ǧi m mt phn duyn-hi li mang tnh-cht ring-biŒt ca hi-o. Linda Norene Shaffer cho rng tri di sut my trm hi-lš, b bi‹n li lm Trung-ViŒt c ǥc-tnh r rŒt ca hi-o nhiŠu hn cc ǥc-tnh thuc vŠ lc-a. (Maritime Southeast Asia to 1500, USA, 1996, trang 3.)

-VŠ vn-ho, ngܩi ViŒt-Nam hܧng ‰n cc hot-Ƕng vŠ nng-nghiŒp v hng-hi. Dn ta khng nhn nh-hܪng t mt nŠn vn-minh thch no nh cc dn-tc khc trn nhng bnh-nguyn nhiŒt-ǧi nh Ai-cp, M-Ty-C v.v... Mc d ti‰n-b sm nht ng-Nam-, ngܩi ViŒt-Nam khng bao gi theo ui chiŠu hܧng xy ct khi nng nŠ nh cc dn-tc lng giŠng nh Nam-Dng, Khmer, Lo...

H†c-gi Sumet Jumsai dng š-ki‰n ca h†c-gi Buckminster Fuller ‹ vi‰t phn k‰t-lun cho quy‹n sch kh ni ti‰ng ca ng, cun "Naga: Cultural Origins in Siam and the West Pacific", (Singapore, Oxford University Press, xut-bn 1988, p. 174.) Buckminster Fuller b thuy‰t-phc v mong rng v s sng cn ca nhn-loi trong tng-lai, con ngܩi nn noi theo chn-lš "nܧc" m ti‰t-kiŒm vt-liŒu, nng-lܮng v.v... (Nguyn-vn: He (Fuller) was convinced that future worlds will survive only if humans create more by using less-less material, less weight, less enegy, etc.)

V nhng lš-do hi‹n-nhin nh vy, cc nh kho-c nh Carl Sauer, Solheim tin-tܪng ng-Nam- l ni thun-tiŒn nht ‹ con ngܩi c th‹ d-dng chuy‹n-bi‰n cy rng c di thnh rau tri trng tr†t ܮc trong vܩn. Ch nh nhng s thun-ho , nhn-loi mi sn-xut thm nhiŠu thc-phm. V khng cn phi nay y mai , tn km qu nhiŠu thi-gi ‹ gom nht thc-phm mt cch kh khn, tiŠn-nhn bt u nh-c li. Cng vi nŠn vn-minh hng-hi, mt nŠn vn-minh thc-vt xut-hiŒn rt sm sa.

Lawrence J. Ma thuc University of Akron ngh rng ging ngܩi Homo-Sapien xut-hiŒn rt sm ti ng-Nam-, sau ny l tiŠn-nhn ca chng-loi Austroloid. Ma ܧc-lܮng th-dn vng ny khi s gia-sc-ho loi vt v trng tr†t t 15,000 trܧc y, tc l sm sa hn vng Ty-Nam ƒ-Chu (hay Bn-nguyŒt Ph-nhiu) ti 5,000 nm. (Cultural Diversity, Laurence J. Ma; sch "Southeast Asia, Ream of Contrasts"; edited by Ashok K. Dutt, Westview Press, Colorado, 1985, p. 54.)

Nܧc ViŒt-Nam nm trn mt bn-o c nhiŠu vng chu-th rt thp vŠ pha cc ng Nam ca lc-a -Chu. Quanh nm kh tri m p, nhiŒt-Ƕ tuy cao nhng Šu Šu t thay ǰi. nh nng mt tri chan-ho, v-Ƕ thܩng-nin rt cao v bu tri t khi u-m. Hai ma gi ng-Bc, Ty-Nam i-nghch em theo hai ma ma nng r rŒt. Trn c rng ngn chn li i, dܧi c bi‹n m rng ܩng qua nhiŠu x s. a-th‰ v mi-trܩng nh vy ܮc k‹ l Ƕc nht, khng c vng t no trn th‰-gii tng-t nh vy.

10 - Dn-c t liŠn v Hi-o

t liŠn lun lun chi‰m u-th‰ hn hi-o vŠ mi-trܩng sinh sng cho con ngܩi. c-biŒt trong thi tiŠn-s, khi ki‰n-thc v phng-tiŒn cn y‰u km, nhng hn o nh b thܩng hoang vng khng c ngܩi .

iŠu chc chn l n‰u c kh-nng ‹ t-do ch†n la, "Ngܩi Khn-ngoan" ng-nhin ch†n la ܮc sinh sng trn bn-o ng-Dng cn hn l phi c-tr trn cc hi-o xa xi ngoi khi (nh cc o Nam-Dng v i-Dng-Chu), hay vng t gi lnh (t Hoa-Bc ngy nay.) Khi c hai ni ny rt t ngܩi c-ng.

Lch-s nhn-loi chng-minh rng cc nŠn vn-minh ln Šu pht-sinh t ven ba lc-a, ni nhng vng duyn-h duyn-hi. L thܩng cng thy rng loi ngܩi sinh si ny n ng-c hn trn lc-a, sau mi di-c qua cc hi-o. Khoa kho-c nh da vo cch nh tui Carbon 14 cho bi‰t s chi‰m-ng cc o ngoi bi‹n ch mi xy ra gn y m thi.

Hnh 2.-Loi ngܩi t t-liŠn C ViŒt ‰n c-tr trn cc o rt tr (Wangka, Edwin Doran, Jr.; Texas University Press, 1981, trang 54.)

T thi c cho ‰n ngy nay, tr ra trn nhng hn o to ln nh Anh-Quc, nh Nht-Bn; mc sng ca dn-c cc hi-o r rŒt l thua km dn trn t liŠn rt xa. Trong c-thi, hi-o d c v-i c c-Chu cng rt vng v, t c du chn ngܩi!

Trong trܩng-hp lin-hŒ ViŒt-Nam v Nam-Dng, ngܩi ta khng hi‹u gi-thuy‰t dn Nam-Dng di-c ln x ta vng-chc bao nhiu khng bi‰t, nhng cc h†c-gi ngy nay chng-minh r rng s hiŒn-diŒn ca nhng con ܩng bi‹n i theo chiŠu ngܮc li sut nhiŠu ngn nm. Trܧc th vn-minh Ho-Bnh t ViŒt-Nam i Nam-Dng i c. Sau ny vn-minh ng-Sn cng t ViŒt-Nam trn qua cc hi-o khp x Nam-Dng, cng nhng o khc miŠn ng-Nam . Khi †c ti-liŒu kho-c Nam-Dng, ta thy ngay nhng trang sch ni vŠ nh-hܪng ca vn-ho Ho-Bnh / ng-Sn qua m†i sinh-hot x ny nh hng-hi, m-thut, c-tc v.v.

HiŒn nay, sinh-hot ca loi ngܩi trn cc hi-o Thi-Bnh-Dng ܮc nghin-cu tܩng-tn. Tuy vy, cha c ti-liŒu vng-chc no ni vŠ s di-dn hay nh-hܪng vn-ho t pha cc o i-Dng-Chu tr vo t liŠn ViŒt-Nam. Tri li, sch v bn vŠ s bnh-trܧng dn-c t vng t liŠn ng-Dng v ng-Nam Trung-Hoa trn ra ngoi bi‹n ‰n i-Dng-Chu hay cc o khc trn Thi-Bnh-Dng li rt phong-ph trong th-viŒn.

Dunn cho rng dn ng-Nam-, v s cn-thi‰t phi "lp u cu" ni-ti‰p nhng vng bi‹n cng ngy cng rng ra khi nܧc dng ln vo cui thi Hng-tch-k (Pleistocene) m pht-tri‹n nghŒ-thut hng-hi. Golson ngh rng khong 3,000 ti 1,000 nm TTL., Bi‹n ng ViŒt-Nam l trung-tm pht-sinh hng-hi. Ling a ra bng-chng ca b mng 3.000 nm TTL. l ch du cho rng khu-vc Hoa-Nam (gm c Bc ViŒt) khi-xut nhng chuy‰n a ngܩi di-dn ra ngoi khi Thi-Bnh-Dng.

Thi-gian ny ng vo giai-on pht-tri‹n (thnh-t) ca thuyŠn bum. David Lewis trnh-by sinh-hot hng-hi pht-nguyn t vng ven bi‹n -Chu trܧc, sau nh-hܪng ca n mi theo di-dn m lan trn ra cc hi-o ngoi Thi-Bnh-Dng. (The Pacific navigators' debt to the ancient seafarers of Asia, , trong The Changing Pacific, edited by Neil Gunson, Oxford University Press, 1979, trang 46.)

Ring quan-niŒm "sc-dn u-tin sng trn gii t ca chng ta l ging Melanesian theo gi ma i vo" c nhiŠu phn khng hp-lš theo quan-i‹m hng-hi. Kh-nng hi-hnh ca dn Melanesian cch nay 50,000 nm khng cho php h† lm nh vy. V li khng c lš-do g thc-y h† phi ri b cc o vng Melanesia. N‰u t , h† di-c vŠ pha Ty Ty Bc, h† gp cc o Phi-lut-Tn v ng Nam-Dng. Lš-do ti sao dn Melanesian khng ngng li m ti‰n vo x ta, cng l mt cu hi khng c cu tr li thch-ng.

Gio-s Nguyn-khc-Ng li ܧc-on rng "Dn Melanesian ‰n x ta trܧc ging Indonesian, m sc dn t Nam-Dng sau ny di-c ln trong thi-k bng-gi cui cng, tc cch y t 10.000 ‰n 50.000 nm." Thc ra, trong thi-gian 10,000 - 50,000 nm trܧc, loi ngܩi cha sinh sng ngoi cc hi-o nh b v xa vng nh Melanesia. Trܩng-hp c dn-c, s lܮng cn qu t ‹ phi di-c.

Thi-gian trܧc (tc trܧc y 50,000 nm), qun-o m ngy nay chng ta g†i l Melanesia chc chn cha c bng ngܩi c-ng.

11 - ViŒt-ng: gch ni nhiŠu Ngn-ng

Theo nhiŠu nh ngn-ng-h†c, ViŒt-ng thuc vŠ loi Mon-Khmer. Ngܩi ch-trng danh-ti‰ng nht ca thuy‰t ny l Wilhelm Schmidt. Trong cun sch "Grundzuge einer Lautlehre der Mon-Khmer Sprachen", Wien: Alfred Holder xut-bn, 1905, ni trang 3; v Tu-s kim nh Ng-h†c ny cho bi‰t mc du ng c tm ra vi y‰u-t du, gi†ng ca ViŒt-ng xa l i vi nhm Mon-Khmer, song ng vn cho rng ti‰ng ViŒt, "khng nghi ng g na, phi ܮc sp x‰p trong nhm Mon-Khmer."

Loi ngn-ng ny l ngn-ng c xa trong vng ng-Nam-. Ngܩi dn a-phng s-dng Mon-Khmer t thi tiŠn-s, a-bn ca n lan trn khp vng t rng ln nm gia ƒn--Dng v Bi‹n ng.

Ngy nay ti‰ng Mon Di‰n-iŒn, ti‰ng Khmer Cambodia, ti‰ng Jakun bn-o M-Lai, ti‰ng ViŒt, Mܩng v ti‰ng ni ca mt s dn thi‹u-s trn bn-o ng-Dng cng thuc gia-nh ngn-ng ny. Sau khi cun "Mon-Khmer Sprachen" k‹ trn ܮc xut-bn, Wilhelm Schmidt li a ra thm cun Die Mon-Khmer-Volker, ein Bindeglied zwischen Volkern Zentralasiens und Austronesiens, cho rng "Cc dn-tc Mon-Khmer l gch ni gia cc dn-tc Trung- v Nam-o," (Braunschweig,1906.) Nhng cng-trnh kho-cu ny ܮc hu h‰t cc nh ng-h†c cng-nhn sau th‰-chi‰n II.

H†c-gi Anthony Reid ng-š vi Schmidt pht-bi‹u rng gi†ng ni (tones) ca ngܩi ViŒt c v nh xut-x t ti‰ng Hoa, ti‰ng Tng, nhng s t gi†ng biŒt-lŒ ny ch mi xut-hiŒn trong thi-gian gn y m thi. Reid ni: "ViŒt-ng thuc h† Nam-, lin-hŒ vi nhm Mon-Khmer. Thi tiŠn-s, nhm ngn-ng ny c mt a-bn cn rng ri hn ngy nay na." (Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce 1540-1680, Volume One: The Lands Below the Winds, Yale University Press, 1988, trang 3.)

S lan-truyŠn ca Mon-Khmer ng tht bao-la. Terry G. Jordan, Mona Domosh, Lester Rowntree xc-nh rng trܧc y 5,000 nm, ngn-ng vng t liŠn nm gia Bc-ViŒt-Nam v Mi‰n iŒn ܮc nhng cnh bum v hng-hi chuyn ch qua tn New Zealand, Easter island, Hawaii. and Madagascar. (The Human Mosaic, A Thematic introduction to Cultural Geography, 7th Edition, Terry G. Jordan, Mona Domosh, Lester Rowntree; Longman, New York, 1997, p. 178-179.)

Nh ngn-ng-h†c Paul Rivet cho rng rng tnh cht hng-hi ca ngn-ng ng-Nam-, theo ܩng bi‹n lan-truyŠn qua Nht-Bn, Tasmania, a-trung-Hi, Phi-Chu, M-Chu. (Sumrien et Ocanien, trong Collection linguistique, publie par la Socit de linguistique de Paris 24, Paris, 1929.) Theo Bernard Philippe Groslier, Mon-Khmer lin-hŒ vi c hai h† ngn-ng Nam- Austroasiatic ln Nam-o Austronesian (The Art of Indochina, trang 27.)

Nhng tranh-lun vŠ gc gc ngn-ng ViŒt trong Mon-Khmer tuy c th‹ cn ti‰p-tc, nhng xem ra s chng-i ang suy-gim r rŒt. Cho d gi-thuy‰t ngn-ng c nhiŠu, nhng cha c gi-thuy‰t no cho rng gc gc ti‰ng ni dn ta ‰n t cc hi-o Melanesian nh b ngoi khi.

Trong khi , cc Bin-tp-vin ca t-hp Time-Life Books xc-nhn rng: "Cho ‰n nay, quan-niŒm c m†i ngܩi chp-nhn mt cch rng ri l s di-dn ܩng bi‹n do ngܩi ViŒt-Nam, M-Lai, Nam-Dng thc-hiŒn. Nhng thy-th "nܧc su" ny vܮt bi‹n tht xa, ti tn b bi‹n Phi-Chu mt th‰-k› TTL., thܩng-xuyn hi-thng vi ƒn-, Hng-Hi, v ra cc o Thi-Bnh-Dng, m h† ln lܮt chi‰m-c v nh-c li." (Southeast Asia: A Past Regained, Time-Life Books, Virginia, 1995, trang 66.)

Tm li s d ViŒt-ng cng nh Mn-Mn-ng ܮc k‹ l ci gch ni nhiŠu loi ngn-ng khc nh vy chnh nh vo ܩng chuy‹n-vn hng-hi c-thi ca dn ta.

12 - Ngun Gc Dn-tc qua chng-tch ngn-ng v S lin-tc ca ti‰n-trnh vn-ho

Theo s tin-tܪng ca nhiŠu h†c-gi ViŒt-Nam, danh-t "ViŒt" c nghi l ti‰n ln, vܮt tri ln... Tnh kin-quy‰t ca dn ta vܮt m†i kh khn tr ngi bi‹u-l ngay t trong nhng ngy u sinh-hot. Nh a-lš-h†c Carl Sauer Š-cao tinh-thn ti‰n-b ca dn-c ging ViŒt (Yeh) vo giai-on khi-nguyn nŠn vn-ho Ho-Bnh nh sau: Mt th‰-gii mi thnh hnh, s thay ǰi mi-trܩng vt-lš a-d tr thnh c-hi thun-tiŒn ti-a cho nhng dn thch phiu-lu v mong ti‰n-b... Ngܩi dn b s nhn r‡i v nh tr c t m ‹ tm th-nghiŒm, mt cng-ng nh vy ch cn mt th-gian ngn ‹ chuy‹n-ti‰p t ng-nghiŒp sang thng nng-nghiŒp". (Environnement and Culture During the Last Deglaciation, trong Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society Vol. 92, 1948: trang 65-77.)

Ti‰n-trnh vn-ho lin-tc ca ng-Nam- ܮc cc khoa-h†c-gia nghin-cu kh y vi nhng lp-lun vng chc. S lin-tc ny cng chng-minh rng nhng dn gc a-phng vn lin-tc c-ng v nm gi vai tr chnh- y‰u.

William Meacham m-t s lin-tc trong ti‰n-trnh sinh-hot vn-ho ca ngܩi ViŒt-Nam nh sau: "... nŠn vn-minh Ho-Bnh ti‰n-tri‹n trong khong thi-gian 9,000- 5,600 nm TTL., sang Bc-Sn 8,300-5,900 nm TTL., lin-tc qua nhiŠu nŠn vn-minh; sau ny ti thi ng ca Phng-Nguyn 3,000-1500 nm TTL., ri ng-Sn 500 nm TTL., r rng nhum mu sc hng-hi." (Origins and Development of the Yeh Coastal Neolithic: A Microcosm of Culture Change on the Mainland of East Asia, vi‰t tt Origins and Development of the Yeh, su-tp The Origins of Chinese Civilization, edited by David N. Keightley, London 1983: 147-175.)

Cng theo cc Bin-tp-vin ca t-chc Time-Life Books: "Cuc kho-st ti Non Nok Tha (nm 1965-1966) cho thy viŒc luyŒn-kim rt c xa v l k-thut bn-a ti ng-Nam-. Sau Non Nak Tha, nhiŠu cuc kho-c thc-hiŒn ti 30 a-i‹m khc na cho thy c nhng nŠn vn-ho i trܧc ng-Sn. Chng hn nh ti Bc ViŒt-Nam; nŠn vn-ho Phng-Nguyn vi nin-i 2,000 nm TTL. Vn-ho ng-Sn nh vy, hi‹n-nhin c gc r ti ch‡ n su vo t nܧc qu-hng (ViŒt-Nam) vi nhng lng xm c xa nht trong vng." (Southeast Asia: A Past Regained, Time-Life Books, Virginia, 1995, trang 50-51.)

Vn-ho ng-Sn ܮc cc gii khoa-h†c ViŒt-Nam x‰p vo sinh-hot ca thi-i Hng-Vng. Nhng nŠn vn-minh trܧc nh Phng-Nguyn, Ho-Bnh cng thuc dng vn-ho chung ca dn-tc. Dn-c Phng-Nguyn nm ngn nm trܧc v dn-c Ho-Bnh mܩi ngn nm trܧc, hn nhin xng-ng ܮc coi nh "trc-thuc vo r ci" ca dn-tc chng ta.

Nhn-chng v sinh-ng ca mt dn-tc l hai y‰u-t c th‹ ‰n t hai ngun-gc khc nhau. Tuy vy x ta, hai y‰u-t ny hiŒn-hu song-hnh t rt lu ǩi. N‰u cc k‰t-qu kho-cu vŠ hng-hi ܮc k‹ ra trong tp ti-liŒu ny l ng, dn ta khi nguyn, pht-tri‹n v sinh-hot lin-tc quanh khu-vc Bi‹n ng t thi Bng . Nh may mn khng c tai-nn diŒt-chng, nhng cn-bn ngn-ng ca tiŠn-nhn t nm mܩi ngn nm xa vn cn hiŒn-hu mt cch trc-ti‰p hay gin-ti‰p cho ‰n by gi.

Tht r rng, ngn-ng ViŒt khng c gc r t hi-o, cng khng khi-nguyn t Hoa-ng. Nh Dn-tc Ngn-ng-h†c Nguyn-bt-Tuœ tng ku g†i: Ng ta thuc hŒ-thng u (tc Mon-Khme) vi mt hŒ-thng ph-m u ǥc-biŒt m ngܩi Trung-Hoa (k‹ c ngܩi "ViŒt" Hoa-Nam) khng c, vy ta phi tn-tr†ng tinh-thn xui š ca ta m khng n ni nh ngܩi Hn.

Suy rng ra, ngun-gc dn-tc v ngn-ng ca ta c tnh-cht bn-a ng-Nam-. Nhng hot-Ƕng hng-hi mang nhng "mnh vn" sinh-hot vn-ho, trong c nh-hܪng ca ngn-ng t lc-a i ra nhng vng rt xa, rt rng ngang qua mt i-dng.

13 - Bi‹n ng khng chia ct m cn ni cc dn-tc quanh vng vi nhau

Cc chng tc sng trong vng ng-Nam- lc xa rt gn gi nhau. Bi‹n ng khng ngn-cch h† xa nhau nh ngܩi ta vn tܪng-tܮng xa nay. Bi‹n ng ni k‰t h† li vi nhau qua ܩng hng-hi. Lš-lun "bi‹n c - hnh-lang giao-ti‰p" tng-t nh vy ܮc Thor Hayerdahl trnh-by rt cn k trong cun sch "Early Man and the Ocean", (xut bn ti New York, 1979.)

Thi chi‰n-tranh Quc-Cng vo thp-nin 1960, mt s ngܩi Phi-Lut-Tn phc-v ngnh Tm-lš-chi‰n ViŒt-Nam bt ng khm-ph ra mt s k-th vŠ ngn-ng. H† c th‹ ni chuyŒn bng th-ng ca Phi vi mt s ng-bo Thܮng ca ta cao-nguyn Trung-phn khng cn thng-ngn.

Cng ngy nh sng vn-minh cng r†i vo nhng vng u-ti ca suy-lun. Rt nhiŠu nh nghin-cu hiŒn-i thy rng ngܩi ViŒt-Nam rt gn vi nhng ngܩi dn thi‹u-s trn cao-nguyn. Sinh-hot ca dn-tc ta cng khng xa xi g vi cc dn-tc lng giŠng ng-Nam-. Khi ni "ng-bo thi‹u-s" trn mt cn-bn gii-hn vŠ nhn-chng no , ta nhn rng h† ng l ng-bo vi ta.

Bn-cht nguyn-thy ca chng ta khng phi "ƒn- / Chi-Na" nh tn ngܩi Ty-phng ǥt cho bn-o chng ta c-ng. Chng ViŒt khng nhng qu xa-l vi Aryan ƒn-Ƕ v cng qu khc-biŒt vi Hoa-chng phng Bc. Nhng d-biŒt vŠ nhn-hnh gia ta v Tu cng nhng tng-ng gia ta vi cc dn hi-o thuc chng M-Lai Nam- ܮc chng-minh r rng qua nhng chi-ti‰t vŠ ch-s s†, mu, chiŠu cao, mu da, tc v.v... Sau khi †c qua nhng bn bo-co ǥc-tnh nhn-hnh km theo y cc bng thng-k, xem ‰n nhng tp-tc, huyŠn-thoi ... ca cc ging dn ng-Nam-, khng mt ngܩi Vit-Nam no cn dm nhn mnh l Tu na. Hai tp ti-liŒu sau y trnh-by y vŠ nhng y‰u t nhn-hnh v tp-tc khc-biŒt ny:

- Nguyn-khc-Ng, Ngun Gc Dn-tc ViŒt-Nam, xut-bn Montral nm 1985.

- Bnh-Nguyn-Lc, Ngun gc M-Lai ca Dn-tc ViŒt-Nam, Bch Bc Si-gn xut-bn, 1971.

14 - Gc, r v Mt gi-thuy‰t c gii-hn

Quan-st mt ci cy, ta thy gc ca n to ra nhiŠu r. Nha nui cy ht t r qua gc. Trong ci "cy" ViŒt-Nam, chng ti nhn rng c nhiŠu "r" ln nh quy chung quanh ci "gc" chng-tc. R "bn-a" mang nhiŠu cht dinh-dܫng, bm su nht xung lng t, rt xng ng ܮc coi nh r ci vy.

TruyŠn-thuy‰t dn-tc v "Ranh gii Hng-Lc vi 4,5 ngn nm vn-hi‰n" nn ܮc ‹ nguyn trong vng huyŠn-thoi thing-ling. Ÿ y, chng ti mi g†i m†i ngܩi i li xa thm vo d-vng ‹ kho-st thm nhng ci r ca dn ta theo vi nhng ki‰n-thc hiŒn-i .

Hy tܪng-tܮng trn c vng t duyn-hi nm pha ng v ng-Nam -Chu, cch xa chn ni Himalaya vo thi mt nhm dn-c nh hon-cnh ǥc-biŒt a-d, khi s gp nht s, h‰n, c, rong bi‹n cnh duyn-hi. Ri bng ti hai cc v nh cc ni cao tan dn. Nܧc Bi‹n ng dng ln mang ‰n khng bi‰t l bao nhiu thay ǰi nh-hܪng mnh m ‰n sinh-hot con ngܩi.

(Ti‰ng M-Lai m ng Bnh-Nguyn-Lc dng khng ch quc-gia M-Lai- ngy nay, m i t ch (Hi)Malaya ny - Sch NGDTVN.)

Cc t "Bn-a" hay "Ti Ch‡" trong gi-thuy‰t gc r dn ViŒt m chng ti a ra khi-s t giai-on ny, t nht cng trn mܩi ngn nm trܧc y.

Khi vi‰t sch "NghŒ-thut ng-Dng", Philippe Groslier cng nghin-cu c a-hnh v thy rng bn-o ny b thin-nhin chia ct ra khi lc-a -Chu. Tuy vy, nh m ܮc con ܩng ra ngoi bi‹n, dn-c ng-Dng ng vai tr quan-tr†ng trong vng ng-Nam-. Cho d Java c th‹ l ni con ngܩi xut-hiŒn trܧc h‰t, ng-Dng lun lun l ci kho cha nhn-lc m t gi i khai-ho khp vng ng-Nam-. (The Art of Indochina, Bernard Philippe Groslier, trang 39.)

V ǥc-i‹m a-hnh b ni non chia ct nh vy nn dn-c quanh khu-vc Bi‹n ng ch c ܩng bi‹n i ra m t c ܩng cho ngܩi ngoi i vo. S c-lp gip cho cc th-dn ng-Nam- gn gi ܮc bn-cht nguyn-thy ca h†. Cho d c di-dn, nhng ngܩi mi ‰n cng l nhng dn hng-hi nh h†. Dn mi, dn c nh s tng-ng, ho-nhp vi nhau trong m†i sinh-hot. Nhng dn i bi‹n theo bn-cht, thܩng d dng thng-cm, gip ǫ nhau.

Ronald Provencher chng minh rng mt s dn ng-Nam- ngy nay l mt ging ngܩi ti‰n-ho ti ch‡. ng cho rng nhng lin-hŒ (mt-thi‰t) vŠ chng-tc, ngn-ng v vn-ho ca cc dn-tc trong vng khng th‹ no gii-thch mt cch tha-ng ܮc vi nhng quan-niŒm dn-d (v sai lm) l di-dn t ngoi i vo. (Mainland Southeast Asia, trang 17.)

S chnh-xc ca gi-thuy‰t ch tng-i v ch km theo mt vi s ni lng vŠ khng-gian v thi-gian. Ch bn-a ܮc dng trong gi-thuy‰t ny khng ch gii-hn trong lnh-th Bc ViŒt v bc Trung-ViŒt ngy nay m ܮc ni rng ra vng Bi‹n ng v c a-bn rng ri ca ng-Nam- thi tiŠn-s. Cn thi-gian cng khng gii-hn trong mt giai-on ngn ngi. R ci dn-tc khi-s "m†c ra" vo cui thi Bng . R ci dn-tc vn ti‰p-tc m†c su, mang sc-thi ǥc-trng ca ViŒt-Nam vo thi vn-minh ng-Sn

Cn n‰u ni loi ngܩi pht-sinh t mt i‹m gc u (rt c th‹ l Phi-Chu) ri mi ta ra i khp mt a-cu th lm sao c ngܩi bn-a ViŒt-Nam theo ng ngha tuyŒt-i cho ܮc!

15 - Trܩng-hp sp ǰ ca gi-thuy‰t

Trܧc y hn na th‰-k›, ng Nhܮng-Tng, dch-gi sch "i-ViŒt S-kš Ton-th Ngoi-k›" ca Ng-S-Lin v cc S-thn ǩi L, nm 1944, nhn-nh rng ngܩi ViŒt-Nam l ging dn Bch-ViŒt vŠ miŠn Bi‹n: ... Dn Bch-ViŒt chia hai miŠn; miŠn ni v miŠn bi‹n. Trong m dn miŠn bi‹n c nܧc ViŒt tng diŒt nܧc Ng thi Xun-Thu. Quc-gia th hai ܮc t-chc do dn miŠn ni l nܧc Nam-Chi‰u. Mnh-Hoch, ngܩi nh nhau vi Khng-Minh, chnh l v anh-hng nܧc ny. Mt quc-gia th ba na thnh-lp, l nܧc ViŒt-Nam chng ta. Trong ba nܧc y th ch c nܧc ta cn ‰n ngy nay. Nܧc ViŒt, nܧc Nam-Chi‰u ln lܮt b ngܩi Tu chi‰m-lnh v ng-ho.

Ni tm li, ging ngܩi ViŒt-Nam chng ta ngy nay l ging thuc dng Bch-ViŒt vŠ miŠn Bi‹n v vn t ny. (i-ViŒt S-kš Ton-th Ngoi-k›, Ng-S-Lin v cc S-thn ǩi L, Bn dch ca Mc Bo Thn Nhܮng-Tng, 1944, i-Nam, California in li, thp-nin 1990.)

Cng ng vŠ phi "bn-a", chng ta cng thy S-gia Phm-Cao-Dng. ng vi‰t : "S khm-ph ra vn-minh mi trong cc thp-nin 50 v 60 chng t rng c mt s pht-tri‹n lin-tc gia vn-minh c bc trn v trung Ho Bnh - Bc-Sn v vn-minh ng ng-Sn vŠ sau ny. Ngoi ra c cng cho thy s pht-tri‹n ny l ti ch‡ ch khng do nhng ln sng di dn t ngoi mang li (Lch-s dn-tc ViŒt-Nam, quy‹n 1, 1987, trang 51.)

Tuy vy nh mt lš ng-nhin, tt cc gi-thuy‰t vŠ nhn-chng ViŒt-Nam dŠu s sp ǰ, k‰ c gi-thuy‰t "bn-a Bi‹n ng" ny.

Theo vi thi-gian, gi-thuy‰t mi hm nay ri cng ho ra c ngy mai. Nh phng-php khoa-h†c, nhng cng cuc khai-qut, ngnh kho-c-h†c s tm ra nhiŠu ki‰n-thc mi v thi-gian ti‰p-tc chn vi vo d-vng cc gi-thuy‰t c.

Thuy‰t "bn-a" s c th‹ b "sa ly", nhng chng ti hy-v†ng ki‰n-thc ny l vin lt ܩng qua bi ly nghin-cu chng ViŒt vŠ sau.

Thi-gian s mang li quy‰t-nh chung-thm. Cn nghin-cu l cn hy-v†ng tm ra chng gc ViŒt-Nam. Trung-t M. Abadie, tc-gi quy‹n "Nhng chng-tc Thܮng-du Bc-ViŒt" vi‰t rng: Trong cuc hp-chng no, sau hng ngn nm, cc chng gc cng xut-hiŒn tr li, ch khng mt bao gi. (NGDTVN trang 736.)

Cho d s c thm thuy‰t "ngܩi ViŒt di-c" t u ti, phng-tiŒn di-dn ܩng bi‹n cng nn ܮc lu-tm duyŒt xt...

16 - Sinh-hot khi nܧc Bi‹n ng bt u dng ln

William Meacham cho rng vo thi Bng-, tc hn mt chc ngn nm trܧc y c dn-c sinh sng d†c b ng-. Dn ny l tiŠn-nhn ging ViŒt sau ny.

Khi nܧc bi‹n dng cao, b bi‹n t hng trm dm Anh ngoi khi, rt gn vŠ v-tr nh hiŒn nay. S gia-tng mt-Ƕ dn-s to nn nhiŠu dp trao-ǰi t-tܪng, ci-ti‰n k-thut. v mt nŠn vn-minh hng-hi pht-tri‹n. ThuyŠn i ven bi‹n u tin c l l loi b tre, xut-hiŒn khong 10,000 nm TTL. Lin-tc qua nhiŠu nŠn vn-minh, ti Phng-Nguyn 3,000-1500 nm TTL., ri ng-Sn 500 nm TTL., r rng sinh-hot ca ngܩi ViŒt nhum mu sc hng-hi. (Bi "Origins and Development of the Yeh Coastal Neolithic: A Microcosm of Culture Change on the Mainland of East Asia," William Meacham trong The Origins of Chinese Civilization, edited by David N. Keightley, London 1983, trang 147-175.)

Theo Sumet Jumsai, ti -Chu vo khong 16,000 nm trܧc y, khi mc nܧc bi‹n dng ln nhanh th nhng c-dn sinh-sng ti vng duyn-hi ng- phi dn vŠ nhng vng t cao hn. H† di-chuy‹n ngܮc theo cc dng sng. Mt s ln di-chuy‹n nhiŠu vŠ khu-vc pha Bc vng rng ln Sundaland. (Naga, trang 4.) Khu-vc chu-th Sng Hng, Sng M c l hi-t nhiŠu y‰u-t thun-tiŒn nht cho s pht-tri‹n ng-Nam-, ngay t nhng ngy xa xa !

Trong sch "Les Paysans du delta tonkinois", xut-bn ti Paris 1936, Pierre Gourou bi‹u-l š-tܪng rng nhng ǥc-i‹m ca nŠn vn-minh vng chu-th Sng Hng, Bc ViŒt-Nam chng-minh cho mt nŠn vn-minh ܮc pht-sinh v ti‰n-tri‹n ti ch‡.

Cn theo ng Cao Th‰ Dung :Dng Lc-ViŒt Vn-Lang khng phi di c t phng Bc m l ging dn tuy cng dng Bch-ViŒt nhng c mt Bc-ViŒt hiŒn nay rt sm. (T ho l ngܩi ViŒt-Nam qua chng liŒu vn ho lch s, Florida, 1989, trang 5.)

Trong nhng chi-tc vng ng-Nam-, ngܩi ViŒt-Nam khng nhng lun lun l ging dn ng nht m li cn ng o nht. Qua sut my ngn nm qua, mt-Ƕ dn-s ti MiŠn Bc khai-nguyn ca dn ta cng cao hn tt c nhng ni khc trong vng.

Mt hnh-thi quc-gia no ca dn ViŒt-Nam lu-vc Hng-H n‰u thnh-hnh cch nay 5, 6 thin-k› cng l chuyŒn d-nhin, c l khng lm cc nh kho-c ngc-nhin cho lm!

Hnh 3- Khi nܧc bi‹n dng ln vo cui thi Bng , Di-dn theo dng sng chy vo t liŠn. Nhm s 1 sau ny ti‰n-tri‹n mnh nht (Naga, trang 4.)

17 - HuyŠn-thoi, ch du vŠ ging dn bn-a

Phi c dn, ri mi c nܧc. HuyŠn-thoi dn ta chng-minh s hiŒn-diŒn ca dn bn-a trܧc khi dng nܧc. Xin hy †c nhng dng ch u tin vŠ H† Hng-Bng trong sch ViŒt-Nam S-Lܮc ca Trn-Tr†ng-Kim:

"C theo tc-truyŠn th vua ‰-Minh l chu ba ǩi ca vua Thn-Nng, i tun-th phng Nam ‰n ni Ng-Lnh gp mt nng tin, ly nhau, ra ngܩi con tn l Lc Tc. Sau ‰-Minh truyŠn ngi li cho con trܪng l ‰-Nghi lm vua phng Bc v phong cho Lc-Tc lm vua phng Nam, xng l Kinh-Dng-Vng, quc-hiŒu l Xch-Qu›...

Kinh-Dng-Vng lm vua nܧc Xch-Qu› vo qung nm Nhm-Tut (2879 trܧc Ty-lch) v ly con gi ng-nh-Qun l Long-N ra Sng-Lm ni ngi lm vua, xng l Lc-Long-Qun.

Lc-Long-Qun ly con gi vua ‰-Lai tn l u-C, mt ln ܮc mt trm ngܩi con trai ..." (ViŒt-Nam S-Lܮc, trang 11-12.)

Theo ng ‡-tr†ng-HuŠ th nhng thn-thoi y tuy c tnh-cch hoang-ܩng... nhng y š-ngha tܮng-trng (Hng Tr, ‡-tr†ng-HuŠ, Nh Xut-bn Hoa-L, Si-Gn 1968, trang 119.) ng trn cc quan-i‹m khc nhau c nhiŠu cng-trnh nghin-cu su xa, i khi a ‰n tranh-lun gay gt vŠ š-ngha ca on tc-truyŠn ny. Ÿ y chng ti ch xin bn vŠ tnh-cch bn-a ca dn-c ViŒt trܧc thi lp-quc vi mt quan-niŒm mi c tnh-cch dng khoa-h†c r†i nh-sng vo huyŠn-thoi.

Phn ln š-ki‰n sau y phng theo ti-liŒu ca s-gia Trn-Quc-Vܮng (Trong Ci, trang 54-55), chng ti xin php ‹ ph thm vi chi-ti‰t cp-nht-ho nh sau:

- c dn-c sinh sng trn t nܧc ta vo trܧc thi vua Hng-Vng th nht. Ch v ng-bo ta lp-nghiŒp ng-o "phng Nam" nn vua cha ‰-Minh mi i tun-th (nh ki‹u "xem dn cho bi‰t s tnh".) Vua Hng u tin tc Kinh-Dng-Vng (hiŒu Lc-Dc-Vng) ln ngi vua nm 2879 TTL., cch nay gn 4900 nm.) Ngun gc dn ta r rng c tnh-cht bn-a. Theo chng-lun ngy nay vŠ kho-c, chng ta c th‹ ni l ngܩi ViŒt xut-hiŒn t nhiŠu thin-nin-k› trܧc thi-i vua Hng dng nܧc.

-Vua ‰-Minh l chu ba ǩi vua Thn-Nng. Chi-ti‰t ny hp cng vi tn Lc-Tc cho ta hai danh-t ring ch tn tui theo cch-thc ca ngܩi ViŒt phng Nam. Ni r hn, cc vua Hng Šu l dn bn-a vi tn g†i ǥc-biŒt "phi Hn".

Nhng i‹m sau y xin ܮc nu ln ‹ lm sng t vn Š:

1- Ngܩ Trung-Hoa khng g†i vua Thn-Nng m theo cn-bn ngn-ng ca h† th Nng-Thn, Nng-Thn-Vng hay Nng-thn Hong-‰ v.v...mi ng. Danh-t Thn Nng hay ng Thn NghŠ Nng ng l theo st vi tinh-thn "xui š" trong ngn-ng ViŒt-Nam. Nhn-xt "xui š" ny ca ring ngn-ng ta ܮc cc ng Nguyn-bt-Tuœ v Kim-nh cng mt s h†c-gi ViŒt-Nam khc nu ra trong hai ba thp-nin va qua.

2- Theo ng truyŠn-thuy‰t ca ngܩi Tu, Vua Thn-Nng khng c v g l ngܩi Trung-nguyn. ng h† Khng, khi ch‰t m chn g t Thng-Ng, Trܩng-Sa; t y trܧc ǩi Tn - Hn l t ai Bch ViŒt, khng phi t Hoa-H.

3- V-tr sao Thn-Nng trn bu tri phng Nam. Ca-dao nng-nghiŒp ViŒt-Nam cng thܩng ni ‰n sao ny. Cng vy tn m Kinh-Dng-Vng l V N hay V Tin N cng l tn mt chm sao ngay trn nh bu tri Bc ViŒt Nam. Eberhard, Wolfram chng minh t m trong sch "The Local Cultures of South and East China" l Thn-Nng vn khng c gc Trung-Hoa, l mt thn-linh nng-nghiŒp c ngun gc t vn-ho rung nܧc phng Nam.

4- Lc Tc l mt ci tn ViŒt c hi‰m hoi may mn cn st li trong tm-thc ViŒt-Nam v ܮc huyŠn-tch bao b†c bo tn.

Tuy tn Kinh-Dng-Vng l mt danh-hiŒu Hn-ViŒt nhng t Kinh-Dng cng nh h ng nh v Ng-Lnh vn khng phi t Trung-Hoa vo thi y. Thn Nng l Thn-linh nng-nghiŒp ca ViŒt-tc, b nhp nhng nhn l ca Tu. Cch nay 5,000 nm, trong khi t c ViŒt i vo vn-minh rung nܧc th sinh-hot ca ngܩi Trung-Hoa cn mang mu-sc du-mc nng vŠ sn bn,.

S hiŒn-hu ca vua ‰-Minh lun lun l mt cu hi. N‰u ng ng l ng vua Trung-Hoa v l cha ca vua Hng ViŒt-Nam th s no ghi iŠu ?

D th‰ no chng na, sau khi c con l ‰ Nghi, ng ‰-Minh ly thm v na l B Tin Ng-Lnh. C l cuc tnh-duyn ca ng B cng ngn ngi. Con ca h† l Kinh-Dng-Vng khng sng vi cha, m vi m ti qu m. V vua ny l ngܩi miŠn Nam v theo ch‰-Ƕ mu-hŒ thi , ng khng th‹ l S (vng bin-a) cng khng phi Tu (vng Hong-H, sng V) m l ngܩi a-phng. Hn na, tnh cch th-dn hay bn-a ca Kinh-Dng-Vng bi‹u-l chnh-xc nht qua ci tn hon-ton a-phng c ViŒt l Lc-Tc.

18 - Tp-tc a-phng ca dn N thi c

Trong cun "Ngun-gc dn-tc ViŒt-Nam", Gio-s Nguyn-khc-Ng cho bi‰t mt s ti-liŒu quš-gi vŠ tp-tc Lc-ViŒt hi xa. Sau y l mt vi on trch-dn:

a - Ch‰-Ƕ Mu-h.

Mu-hŒ l mt ch‰-Ƕ gia-nh bn-a ca ng-Nam-, cng nh cc sc dn Malayo-Polynesian. ng Ng bn ‰n truyŒn cc vua Hng u tin nh sau:

-Mu-c. ng vua Hng u tin l Kinh-Dng-Vng, khi nh sng vi m Ng-Lnh, sau ly con gi Long-Vng h ng-nh v nh v dܧi Thy-ph. Cng v ǥc-tnh mu-c ny, con ng l Lc-Long-Qun cng nh m dܧi Thy-ph.

My ngn nm sau ti‰p theo ǩi Lc-Long-Qun sang ‰n ǩi cc nh Thc, nh TriŒu; tc ny vn cn gi. Tr†ng-Thy sau khi ly Mœ-Chu, nh v v th‰ mi c c-hi cho Tr†ng-Thy n cp ly n thn.

-Mu thng. Lc-Long-Qun l con Kinh-Dng-Vng (em ‰-Nghi) cng l em ch bc vi ‰-Lai (con ‰-Nghi.) u-C l con gi ‰-Lai, phi g†i Lc-Long-Qun l ch. N‰u tnh theo ph-hŒ th Lc-Long-Qun khng th‹ ly u-C ܮc. NhiŠu ngܩi cho rng ch chu ly nhau l lon-lun bi h† qun hn "mu thng" l tp-tc a-phng hi . Lc-Long-Qun nhn mnh khng cn ng-tc vi u-C hay ‰-Lai na nn ly u-C lm v.

-Mu-tc. Lc-Long-Qun khng nhng chng nhn mnh thuc dng h† ‰, li chng nhn mnh ging cha.

Khi chia tay vi u-C, Lc-Long-Qun ni:"Ta l ni Rng". R rng ng Vua Hng th hai ny nhn mnh thuc dng ging Thy-tc, tc l h† nh m (Long-N).

B-Tc cܧp v.

Trong truyŠn-thuy‰t h† Hng-Bng trn, ta thy d u-C vui lng theo Lc-Long-Qun, ng Vua ny cng phi em du u-C trong Long-i-Nham v ho php thnh yu-tinh, qu›-s, rng rn, h voi ‹ chng li b†n i tm.

Cng nh dn cc hi-o MiŠn Nam ngy nay cn lu gi, ngܩi ViŒt thi Hng-Vng theo tc cܧp v. Tuy c t-chc m cܧi nhng hai gia-nh li lm cuc l dܧi hnh-thc cuc cܧp v. H† nh trai mang gio mc, cung tn ‰n nh gi, bt c du mang i. Sau nh gi cng mang kh-gii, reo h gi v ui theo .

TruyŒn cܧp v ca Lc-Long-Qun l tp-tc dn Lc-ViŒt hi , r rng khng nh-hܪng t Tu no c.

Chng ti ng-š vi ng Nguyn-Khc-Ng vŠ nhng dn-chng ca ng dng chng-minh rt xc-ng cho s tng-ng tp-tc gia ngܩ ViŒt v ngܩ Melanesian, tuy-nhin chng ti gi lp-trܩng khc ng l nhng tp-tc khi-nguyn t t liŠn ng-Nam- (trong c ViŒt-Nam) thi xa xa, trܧc khi nhng tp-tc nh-hܪng ra ngoi hi-o.

c - Cc ǥc-i‹m khc.

Ngoi ra, truyŠn-thuy‰t h† Hng-Bng cn cho chng ta bi‰t kh nhiŠu vŠ nhng ǥc-i‹m ca dn ta hi nh:

Ct tc ngn Xm mnh, v chm ˆn tru

ˆn cm go ng kh, mc vy ˆn hi-sn

Lm nh sn Lm ry Lm nghŠ chi lܧi

Ly v cy lm vi Thi cm bng ng tre Thch sinh-hot cnh sng h, bi‹n c...

Ton l nhng tc-lŒ a-phng thuc vng ng-Nam-, d-biŒt hon-ton vi tnh-trng sinh-hot ca Trung-nguyn vo thi .

Qua nhiŠu lš-do nh vy, chng ta thy cc vua u tin ca nܧc Vn-Lang ng l c ngun gc bn-a. Ch khi no ngܩi ta cm-nhn tnh qu, t nܧc, t-tin th ngܩi ta mi gi gn tp-tc. Vua Hng l dn bn-a, khng phi ngܩi ngoi-lai. Nh vua cng ging nh nhng di-dn -ng ngy nay, d c b bt buc phi sng lu-lc x ngܩi nhng c gi tp-tc qu-hng.

Dn ta b ngoi-bang -h mt ngn nm, nh-hܪng ng-ho vn-ho Trung-Hoa rt mnh. Vy m ngܩi ViŒt vn bo-tn tp-tc ring, Ci r dn-tc phi su, phi gi ‰n nm mܩi ngn nm trܧc mi c sinh-lc gi cho ci cy ViŒt sinh-tn ܮc ‰n ngy nay.

19 - Hy qun i š-ngh ngun gc t Tu phng Bc

ng Bnh-Nguyn-Lc vi‰t rng: "Cng chng-minh ܮc rng ViŒt khng l Trung-Hoa, th s chng-minh ViŒt l M Lai cng ܮc cng c hn ln (NGMLCDTVN, trang 213.) MŒnh-Š "ViŒt l M-Lai" m tc-gi "Ngun gc M Lai ca Dn tc M Lai" dng trong trܩng-hp ny, c th‹ hi‹u ܮc l ViŒt c ngun gc chung ng-Nam- hay ViŒt c ngun gc ti ch‡ (m khng phi l Tu!).

a - Ta khng phi l Tu

C mt ng Tu, b Tu chnh-cng no m li nhum rng en, n tru, bi tc, ng kh hay mc vy, i thuyŠn, tham-d hi nܧc, i p nam n vv... khng?

Th‰ m trܧc kia, mt s nh nh nho ViŒt-Nam say m nh-hܪng Trung-Hoa, cho rng nhng truyŠn-thuy‰t dn-tc ni ln ngun gc phng Bc ca ngܩi mnh. Qua chi‰c lng-knh Hn-h†c v ci mnh-lc kinh-khng ca s lܮng kinh sch khng-l Trung-quc, trܧc y t nhiŠu ngܩi c nhng ci nhn sai lc vŠ hnh-nh trung-thc ca nhng ngy u lp-quc. S din-dch ki‹u "bo-hong hn Vua", "Tu hn c Tu" nh vy khng th‹ no hp-lš ܮc.

Phi lm sao thc-hnh ܮc nh li ca Dr. Nyi Nyi, mt thi l Ph-t B-trܪng Gio-Dc Mi‰n-iŒn: "Ci g cng ni l ngun-gc ƒn-, ci g cng ni l ngun gc Trung-Hoa. Chng ti ang phi vt b tt c nhng iŠu v vn nh vy khi cc sch s ca chng ti".

C th‹ l chnh ng Nyi Nyi ny li ang mc vy longyi l mt danh-t ƒn-Ƕ v ang khoc trn mnh chi‰c o ba ti vi ci nt o ng ki‹u Trung-Hoa (National Geographic, Vol.139, No.3, March 1971, trang 304.) Tht bun n‰u s phn cc dn nhܮc-ti‹u l nh vy, nhng mun cho quc-gia ti‰n-b th ngun gc ca dn-tc phi hi‹u sao cho ܮc ng ǡn. Thi-i khoa-h†c ngy nay chng-minh Mi‰n i t Mi‰n, cng nh ViŒt ng l c ngun gc ViŒt, khng c t ƒn hay t Tu no trong c.

Ch cn b ra mt cht thi-gi ‹ suy-lun, chng ta nhn bi‰t r rng dn-tc ViŒt-Nam l thun-tuš. c-biŒt truyŠn-thng "nܧc" cho ngܩi ViŒt-Nam mt ch‡ ng Ƕc-lp ring r.

B - ViŒt l ViŒt

K‹ t mt vi th‰-k› trܧc Cng-nguyn, vn-ho Trung-hoa nh-hܪng nhiŠu ‰n dn-c vng ng-Nam- nhng khng phi v th‰ m ngh rng Tu l cha ca dn vng ny.

Dr. Paul K. Benedict khi bn vŠ vn-ho c-thi pht-bi‹u mt cu ch-lš "... there were many other cultural exchanges between the Chinese and the early inhabitants of Southeast Asia, -with the Chinese as the recipients rather than the donors" (cng bo National Geographic k‹ trn, trang 306.) -tܪng "Tu ch tha-hܪng, khng c ban-pht g h‰t" cng ng cho c vn-Š tranh-lun vŠ ngun-gc chng-tc. Ni nm na: "Tu qu tr ‹ lm cha ra cc chng-tc ng-Nam-."

Theo cc nh nhn-chng h†c, t-tin cc dn-tc ng-Nam- xut-hiŒn t lu. Trܧc y 60,000 nm, phng-tiŒn vܮt bi‹n ca h† kh nng ‹ a cc "thuyŠn-nhn" sang sinh sng ti c-Chu.

(East of Wallace's line: issue and Problems in the Colonisation of the Australians, Jones, R., in The Human Revolution: Behavioural and Biological Perspectives on the Origins of Modern Humans, ed. P. Mellars and C. B. Stringer, Edinburgh University Press, 1989, pp. 743-782.),

Trong khi nhng ngܩi bn-a nh ViŒt sinh sng vng ng-Nam -Chu ngay t thi Bng- th vng Hoa-Bc, mi sau ny ngܩi Tu mi xut-hiŒn. H† ‰n khng sm lm, ch chng 4,000 nm qua m thi. Cn S-kš ca Tu, ni cho xc-thc, chc phi mun hn na. S-gia Ray Huang xc-nhn thi-gian g†i l "hu-s" khi-s khong nm 1600 TTL. Nguyn-vn nh sau: "As things stand today, the first page of Chinese history that has archaeological backing bears the relatively late date of 1600 B.C. at the founding of the Shang dynasty..." (China: A Macrohistory, Ray Huang, New York, 1988, trang 6.)

Thi-gian li cng qu mun mng cho h† khi vܮt ܮc Dng-T-Giang ‹ ti‰n vŠ Hoa-Nam. Ging dn hi‰u-chi‰n ny ra sc tn-ph, gi‰t chc, tiu-diŒt vn-ho bn-x. C l h† thnh-cng mt s mu- xu xa. Th‰ nhng trong mc-tiu cht l diŒt-chng dn (Lc-)ViŒt th ngܩi Hn tht-bi v nܧc ViŒt vn cn tn ti ‰n by gi.

N‰u nh lch-s ǰi dng, chng c thin-tai "i-Hn", ngun vn-minh Ho-Bnh ng-Sn vn ti‰p-tc chy xui, khng c ngn nm b tr v ǩi sng dn ta mun phn tt p hn. Bn-nng bo-tn ni-ging ca dn ViŒt chng-minh gi-thuy‰t vŠ "r ci bn-a" vy!

20 - Chng-tch Kho-c

C l nhng chng-c quan-tr†ng nht vŠ sinh-hot ca dn trong thi hu Bng- ti vng duyn-hi pha ng -Chu b i-dng chn vi dܧi y nܧc su ca Bi‹n ng t hng chc ngn nm qua, (Vietnam, World Bibliographical Series, Vol 147 -- David G. Marr, CLIO Press, England, 1992, p xvi.) Tuy vy, nhng du-tch cn li ca tiŠn-nhn chng ta trn lnh-th hiŒn nay cng ‹ chng-minh rng ging ViŒt l mt chng-tc rt xa c, ng-thi cng l chng-tc tiŠn-ti‰n trong cc hot-Ƕng hng-hi. Thi-gian ny tnh ra nhiŠu ngn nm trܧc khi ngܩi dn Trung-Nguyn u tin pht-xut t Trung-, di-chuy‹n qua lp-nghiŒp cnh sng Hong-H.

Trong thp-nin 1920, Trung-tm Vn-Ho Ho-Bnh ܮc c Madeleine Colani, mt nh tho-mc-h†c, sau ny tr thnh nh kho-c ngܩi Php danh ti‰ng tm ra..(Wilhelm G. Solheim, 'New Light on a Forgotten Past," National Geographic Magazine, March 1971, trang 333.) Ti-liŒu bo-co ca c vŠ vn-minh Ho-Bnh cho ‰n nay vn ܮc coi l rt c gi-tr nh sau:

-1927, L' age de la pierre dans la province de Hoa Binh (Tonkin.) MSGi 14, fascicle I

-1928, Notice sur le prehistoire du Tonkin: station de Cho Ganh, atelier. BSGi 17, fascicle 23-37.

-1929, Quelques stations hoabinhiennes: note preliminaire. BEFEO 29:261-72.

-1930, Recherches sur le prehistorique Indochinoises. BEFEO 30: 299-422.

-1935, Megalithes du Haut-Laos. 2 volumes. Publications de l'cole francaise d'Extreme-Orient nos. 25, 26.

-1940, Emploi de la pierre en des temps reculs: Annam - Indonesie - Assam. Publication des Amis du Vieux Hue, Hanoi: imprimerie d'Extreme-Orient.

Trong khong ba chc nm tr li y, khoa Kho-c cung-cp thm nhiŠu ti-liŒu mi l. Nhng ki‰n-thc cn-i vŠ c-s c th‹ lm nhng ngܩi sng trܧc y mt vi th‰-hŒ git mnh, tܪng nh truyŒn gi-tܪng. Ngun gc dn-tc ViŒt ng ܮc k‹ l rt c v vn-ho ta pht-sinh ngay ti a-phng ni vng t qu-hng ca ta:

-Vn-minh Ho-Bnh khi-nguyn trn t nܧc ta hi mܩi lm, mܩi su ngn nm trܧc y

- ti‰n-tri‹n vn-minh ca dn ta ܮc gi lin-tc, khng ngng ngh; i t Bc-Sn, Ho-Bnh chuy‹n ti‰p qua ng Du, Phng-Nguyn, cui cng rc sng ng-Sn. C ch-du cho thy vn-minh Ngܫng-ThiŠu, Long-Sn Trung-Hoa v i-Loan do vn-minh MiŠn Nam khai sng.

-Tnh-cht vn-minh nng phn hng-hi v rung nܧc.

Solheim tm ra rng ngay t thi , nh-hܪng Ho-Bnh ti c. La go xut-hiŒn ng-Nam- tr nht l 3,500 nm TTL.K-thut ng khi-s trܧc Trung-Hoa c ngn nm, cng trܧc c ƒn- v Lܫng-h-a. ܩng bi‹n tr thnh hŒ-thng chuy‹n-vn vin-duyn, ngܩi ViŒt t ng-Sn i i li li khp vng ng-Nam- .

Carl Sauer cho rng dn bn-a ng-Nam- ng ghi (??) nhng cng-lao to ln. H† lm mt bܧc i quy‰t-nh cho loi ngܩi trn ܩng ti‰n-b. l viŒc thun-ho cy c u tin, mt pht-tri‹n sm sa nht ca nhn-loi trong nng-nghiŒp. (Agricultural Origins and Dispersals, New York, 1952, Chapter 2.)

Lea E. Williams lš-lun rng nh nhng hon-cnh chung quanh thun-li, cng nh khi c nng-Ƕng ca chnh h†, ngܩi ng-Nam- t ‰n mt trnh-Ƕ k-thut cao. Nhng kh-nng vŠ t-tn trn bi‹n v sn-xut nng-phm l k‰t-qu ca nhng pht-tri‰n ǥc-th ng-Nam-. Rt c th‹ l dn-c vng ny sm t ‰n nhng tnh-trng ti‰n-b tng-t nh vng Bn-nguyŒt ph-nhiu. (Southeast Asia: A History, Lea E. Williams, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976, trang 25.)

Khoa kho-c khm-ph rng ng-Nam- trng cy cy la 3,500 nm TTL. (National Geographic, Vol.139, No.3, March 1971, trang 335), gia-sc-ho sc-vt t 5,000 nm TTL, tc l hng ngn nm ti‰n-b hn nhng nŠn vn-minh c xa khc. LuyŒn-kim vng ng-Bc Thi-Lan/ Bc ViŒt-Nam ti‰n-b ngay thi 3,000 nm TTL, khong ngn nm trܧc k-thut c ng Trung-Hoa v ƒn-.

Nh trnh-by trn, Ho-Bnh l trung-tm vn-ho tin-khi ca ton vng ng-Nam -Chu. Theo ܩng hng-hi, nh-hܪng vn-ho ny truyŠn-b i khp cc hi-o, vng duyn-hi v t liŠn gn na vng tri t.

Trn nhng miŠn t xa cch vi Ho-Bnh nh ti ca sng Dng-T, nhng chi-tc ViŒt cng rt vn-minh Vng Thi-H ti‰n ‰n ch‰-Ƕ "i t-trܪng" ngay t thin-k› th 3 TTL. Trong thi-gian , vng Hoa-Bc sau ny l ci ni vn-minh Trung-Hoa cn chm ti‰n hn.

Gio-s Tsui-Mei Huang thuc phn-khoa M-thut viŒn i-h†c Pittsburgh c-k‰t v nhn-xt vŠ nhng khm-ph mi y vŠ kho-c trong tp-ch Antiquity 66 (1992): 75-83 nh sau:

- Hn mt trm a-i‹m kho-c c s tui t 3,310 ‰n 2250 nm TTL., trong vng Thi-H ܮc khm-ph. t ny sau xut-hiŒn nܧc ViŒt, hng trm nm liŠn xng b thi Chi‰n-quc. Cc di-tch tm thy c hn rt nhiŠu so vi cc di-tch tng-t tm thy Hoa-Bc v d-nhin trܧc triŠu-i nh Chu ti vi ngn nm.

- S khai-qut cc c-vt vng Liangzhu lm thay ǰi quan-niŒm trung-tm vn-ho nm Hoa-Bc v thc-y cc nh kho-c nn chp-nhn s hiŒn-hu ca mt nŠn vn-ho bn-a miŠn Nam; nŠn vn-ho ny ng gp mt vai tr rt c š-ngha trong sut thin-k› th 3 TTL. vo viŒc phong-ph-ho tnh-trng ǩi sng v x-hi nܧc Tu "

21 - Ch c hp-chng m khng c diŒt-chng

S tht hi‹n-nhin chng-minh rng khng c mt dn-tc no trn th‰-gii ngy nay l mt chng-tc thun-tuš. Chng ti khng bao gi ph nhn vŠ s hiŒn-hu ca nhng Ǯt di-dn t ngoi vo t nܧc ViŒt-Nam. Chng ti ch xin nu ra quan-i‹m l s cn-thi‰t phi suy xt cho ng mc tm quan-tr†ng ca nhng s "nhp ni" ny.

i sau nhng ngܩi dn nܧc ca Bi‹n ng, cc dn di-c ‰n x ta sau ny tuy c, nhng s lܮng m‡i Ǯt khng nhiŠu lm so vi dn-s a-phng. H† thuc nhng sc dn tng-cn, cng a thch vng duyn-hi v sinh-hot sng nܧc. Hu h‰t di-dn thuc nhm Bch-ViŒt, s rt nh l ngܩi Tu chnh gc v cc dn khc.

Bc-s Trn-i-S, thc li cc bn ng-nghiŒp ca ng, pht-bi‹u nhng š-tܪng vŠ ngun gc tc ViŒt, mt phn no tng-t nh nhng s di-dn trnh-by trn nh sau:

"Tc ViŒt bao gm trm ging ViŒt sng ri rc t pha nam sng Trܩng-giang: ng ti Bi‹n . Ty ti T-xuyn, Nam ti vnh Thi-Lan. Ngܩi ViŒt t Ng-ViŒt di-c xung phng Nam. Ngܩi Mn-ViŒt i xung Giao-Ch. Ngܩi ViŒt di-c t Nam sng Trܩng-Giang trnh lnh xung Bc-ViŒt Šu ng. l nhng cuc di-c ca tc ViŒt trong lnh-th ca h†, ch khng phi h† l tc khc di-c ti t ViŒt." (ViŒt-Nam Œ Ng Thin k›, USA, 1994, trang 223.)

Thy-th ǥc-biŒt x ta ngn cn nhiŠu chuy‰n di-c khi i t cc vng t c a-th‰ khc-biŒt. Ti-liŒu biŒn-lun cho quan-niŒm ny l cun sch "Ngun gc M-Lai ca Dn-tc ViŒt-Nam". Tc-gi sch ny, ng Bnh-Nguyn-Lc cho rng c hai (??) chuy‰n di-c v-i nht vo x ta. TiŠn-nhn ViŒt thuc ngun-gc M-lai, t Hoa-Bc thc-hiŒn viŒc di-c ‰n Bc-ViŒt bng ܩng bi‹n.

Cho d ng-š l dn ta c nhiŠu ǥc-i‹m ging Melanesian hay ging Indonesian chng na, chng ta cng khng th‹ vi vng k‰t-lun dn-tc ViŒt-Nam l con chu cc dn ‰n t Nam-o.

Ti nhiŠu ni khc trn th‰-gii, ngn-ng, tc lŒ c xa thܩng b chuy‹n-ho v nhiŠu Ǯt di-dn t ngoi ǰ vo. Tri li trn t nܧc chng ta, nhng truyŠn-thng xa c hng my ngn nm vn cn ܮc bo-tn. Nhng Ǯt di-dn vo t nܧc ta vŠ sau ny khng tiu-diŒt nhng dn-c bn-a sng t ny trܧc h†. Hu h‰t nhng y‰u-t cn-bn vŠ nhn-hnh nguyn-thy v vn-ho u tin cn tn-ti.

Ging dn u tin sng trn gii t ta l ging da n (Ngritos), Me-la-n-xi (Mlansiens) v ging c-Chu (Australiens) , (a-Lš ViŒt-Nam Lp MܩI Mt, Nguyn-Khc-Ng v Phm-nh-Ti‰u, C-S Xut-bn S-a, 1991(??), trang 120-121.)

S ng-Nam- ܮc nhiŠu h†c-gi thuc m†i mu da trng, vng, nu vi‰t li nhng khng ai ngh rng c nhng chuyŒn diŒt-chng ng k‹ no xy ra trn t nܧc chng ta. Ngܩi ‰n sau hi-nhp vi nhng ngܩi y trܧc ‹ cng ki‰n-to cuc sng chung. Nhng ngܩi Mܩng, ngܩi Mn, ngܩi Kinh, k Ch, ngܩi miŠn Cao, ܩng Ngܮc ... r rng vn ti‰p-tc sinh-sng ho-thun vui v ngay trong thi-i chng ta. Nhng v vua u thi t-ch nh cc nh inh, nh L sinh x Mܩng. Trܧc li c anh-hng Phng-Hng ng cha ǩi ǩi lm Quan Lang hay T-trܪng chu ܩng-Lm. C th‹ ni cc v ny gc-tch dn thi‹u-s cng ng. Tuy vy nhng iŠu ng hn h‰t: cc vua anh-hng ny chng phi l Vua ca nܧc ViŒt hay sao ? Tt c chng ta d ngܩi mang h† Nguyn (40% dn-s), ngܩi kia h† inh, h† L, h† Phng, h† H, h† V ... cng mt dng mu m mu dn bn-a chy trong huy‰t-qun m thi!

Trong khi nghin-cu, thu-lܮm thm ti-liŒu ng-Nam- c-thi, chng ti cng yn-tm ngh rng gc r bn-a l quan-tr†ng v rng khi i su vo c hng-hi chng ti thy sc n ViŒt-Nam "a-s" rt gn vi nhng sc dn "thi‹u-s" nh Mܩng, nh Mn, nh Rhad, nh Chm., nh B-Nai ... Mt thu xa xa no tiŠn-nhn ca h† cng tiŠn-nhn ViŒt sinh-hot hay hi-hnh qua li trn bi‹n ng, m thi Bng ch nh mt h nܧc chung quanh c t liŠn bao b†c gn nh khp kn.

C l s phn chia chng-loi mt cch khe kht nh ta thy ngy nay ch mi xy ra trong thi gn y m thi.

22 - Tng-hp: Nhng ch-du hܧng vŠ mt ngun gc

Lun-lš "r ci - bn-a" ca dn-tc ViŒt-Nam ܮc xy- dng trn chng-tch pht-sinh "ti ch‡" ca cc chng-tc ng-Nam-. Ti‰n-trnh sinh-hot vn-ho ca dn ViŒt chi sng nht trong vng v lin-tc ngay t thi c s. c-biŒt nhng pht-tri‹n hng-hi ng k‹ l vܮt bc. i t viŒc s-dng nhng vt-liŒu thng thܩng ti ch‡ nh tre na lm b, ngܩi ViŒt ti‰n ‰n s hon-thiŒn phng-cch vn-chuy‹n Tu thuyŠn t-Ƕng, khng cn ngܩi li.

Mun i tm mt khun mu"gc r ti ch‡" cho mt dn-tc, ngܩi ta khng th‹ tm ܮc mt s tiu-bi‹u no hon-b hn cho bng trܩng-hp dn-tc ViŒt-Nam.

Nhng gi-thuy‰t vŠ phn-tn nhn-chng, nh-hܪng vn-ho cng nhng sinh-hot hng-hi ta ra cc ni m tm-i‹m l ViŒt-Nam ܮc trnh-by trong hu h‰t tp ti-liŒu ny. Sau phng-cch phn-tch c tnh-cht "phn-k" ny, chng ti li xin dng mt phng-cch khc. Cch ny a ra mt tng-hp m lun-lš c tnh-cht "hi-t". i t nhng d-kiŒn vŠ sinh-hot rng ln, xa xi thu gp li, chng ta cng c th‹ tm ra tm-i‹m pht-nguyn hay ngun gc ngܩi ViŒt-Nam l ti ch‡.

Trn c mt vng khng-gian rng ln, hn na vng tri t t Madagascar ti Easter Island, loi ngܩi tuy s-dng nhiŠu loi sinh-ng khc nhau nhng xem ra chng c kh nhiŠu ǥc-i‹m tng-t. Mt s nh ng-h†c nhn thy nn x‰p chung hn mt ngn sinh-ng ny vo mt h† ln l Nam-phng-ng. VŠ hng-hi, a-bn ca cc ghe thuyŠn c thn ph v b mng chy bum gn nh trng-hp vi a-bn ngn-ng "Nam-phng". Hai a-bn ngn-ng v thuyŠn b ny khi-s t ng-Nam-.

Trong c-thi, ton vng ng-Nam-, lan qua c c-Chu, i-Loan v Nht-Bn, sinh-hot chung ca cc dn-c chu nh-hܪng nŠn vn-ho Ho-Bnh. Hai a-bn ca vn-ho Ho-Bnh ny v ngn-ng Nam-phng, xem ra gn nh trng-hp vi nhau.

Trn khu-vc duyn-hi ko di t ca sng Hoi i vŠ pha Nam ti M-Lai-, qua cc hi-o Nam-Dng, Phi-lut-Tn; cc nŠn vn-minh thc-vt v vn-minh "nܧc" bao trm nhiŠu sinh-hot, ghi du v‰t thi / ng n t cc trung-tm Ho-Bnh / ng-Sn. NŠn vn-ho ca ta, khng nh-hܪng "thch " nh ki‹u ki‰n-trc khi ti Nam-Dng, Khmer, Lo... Ch c ViŒt-Nam, ngܩi ta mi c th‹ tm thy mt nŠn vn-ho "nܧc" thun-ty nht, nh nhng v nhn-bn.

Vo cui thi Bng , khi nܧc Bi‹n ng dng ln cao, dn c vng ng-bng Sundaland ko nhau rt vo vng t liŠn theo cc dng sng. Khu vc pha Bc Sundaland, dn ng nht hi-t ti vng cc sng Hng, sng M. Sau ny, sinh-hot vn-ho ca ngܩi ViŒt pht-tri‹n mnh nht trong vng qua sut mt thi-gian di hng chc ngn nm.

Dn-c vng ng-Nam- rt c th‹ l mt chng-loi pht-tri‹n ti ch‡. Xng ho-thch ca ngܩi vܮn tm thy Trung-Hoa, cng thy ti ViŒt-Nam. NhiŠu chng-c cho ch du ti nܧc ta din ra ti‰n-trnh ngܩi vܮn ti‹n-ho thnh ngܩi hiŒn-i.

Ngay t thi Bng , do a-th‰ ni non chia ct, dn-c ng-Nam- b c-lp vi phn th‰-gii ngoi. Trong khi dn-c vng ny khng ng o cho bng ƒn- hay Trung-Hoa, ring t ViŒt t thi c vn lun lun c mt mt Ƕ dn-c cao nht trn th‰-gii.

Khng nhng ViŒt-Nam ch l a-bn pht-nguyn ca chng ViŒt, m theo H†c-gi Groslier, cn c nhiŠu Ǯt di-c t ng-Dng i ra cc hi-o Thi-Bnh-Dng. Di-dn gm c cc ging dn Austroloid, Melanesians, Indonesians Mongolians (The Art of Indochina, trang 39.) Nh vy tht r rng, h†c-gi khng c gi š hay pht-bi‹u š-tܪng cho rng ngܩi ng-Dng ‰n t Australia, t Melanesia, t Indonesia, t Mongolia v.v...

NhiŠu sc dn khc nhau sinh sng trn lnh-th ViŒt-Nam t c thi. Ngܩi ViŒt chi‰m a-s, c-ng ti nhng vng t thp. V l ging ngܩi ‰n trܧc, ngܩi ViŒt sinh sng trn nhng t ai thun-ho, trong khi cc di-dn ‰n sau nh phi canh-tc ni nhng ni ni cao, rng r.

ViŒt-tc ti khp ba miŠn Trung, Nam, Bc Šu bo-tn c-tc. Tinh-thn chng-minh tnh-cch bn-a ca chng-tc. Tuy vy, khng c miŠn no m ngܩi dn cn gi gn tp-tc lu di nh nhum rng en, n tru, ng kh... v nht l mc vy cho bng nhng dn miŠn Bc ViŒt-Nam. R ViŒt-tc chc n rt su nht vo nhng vng t khai-nguyn ny.

Tng-hp li, nhng tp-tc, cc hot-Ƕng vŠ hng-hi, ngn-ng v nhiŠu sinh-hot vn-ho khc Šu quy-t vŠ mt a-i‹m gc l vng ng-bng Sng Hng ca Bc ViŒt-Nam. Ci r ci bn-a ca dn-tc ta v th‰, khng nhng quan-tr†ng cho ring ViŒt-Nam chng ta m cn c nhiŠu lin-hŒ ‰n cc sc dn khc ti ng-Nam- v Thi-Bnh-Dng.

23 - Tm-lš v ǥc-tnh bn-a

Bn-cht dn ta rt hiŠn-ho. NhiŠu du-khch ‰n thm x ta ni nh vy:

My li sau y trch ra t tp sch "The Mandarin Road to Old Hu, Narrative of Anglo-Vietnamese Diplomacy from the 17th century to the eve of the French Conquest, Altair Lamb, London, 1970, trang 132 & 270):

-Dn ViŒt-Nam l mt ging dn lch-s (They are a courteous, affable, inoffensive race, rather inclined to Indolence- The Chapman Mission, 1778.)

- Ngܩi ViŒt bn-tnh tt t-nhin, t th-hn, khng gy nhiŠu ti c, rt hi‰u khch (... that docility and good nature ... that they were so little actuated by the spirit of revenge that murder and assassination were crimes little heard... they make no objections to give to foreignerrs their personal services... we found the Cochin Chinese ready to perform for us cheerfully every menial office... We went freely into the villages and were everywhere treated with hospitality, kindness and good nature - The Crawfurd Mission, 1822.)

Ngܩi ViŒt lch-s, n‹-tr†ng ngܩi ngoi-quc, nhng trong s giao-thiŒp i khi c mt s "bt thܩng": chng ta t kiu vŠ t nܧc, vŠ dn-tc ViŒt ca chng ta mt cch qu ng. Chnh Bc-s Crawfurd vi‰t trong bo-co k‹ trn, rng : They look upon themselves as one of the first people in the world and their King as one of the first of princes. (sch "The Mandarin Road to Old Hu, Narrative of Anglo Vietnamese Diplomacy from the 17th century to the eve of the French Conquest, Altair Lamb, London, 1970, trang 270.)

Cng vy, rt ng h†c-gi ngoi-quc khi nghin-cu tm-lš ngܩi -ng, thc mc khng hi‹u ti sao dn ViŒt li hay c tinh-thn dn-tc qu cao, cao hn cc dn-tc lng giŠng. Trong khi t nܧc ngho i, ng-bo chm ti‰n, xung c th-thm: ngܩi ViŒt vn t Š-cao h† ln. H† nghi-kœ cc chnh-quyŠn ngoi-bang, ǥc-biŒt chnh-quyŠn Trung-Hoa v nhiŠu khi c dn Trung-Hoa na. Vn-Š tm-lš ny rt su sc. Dng dp ngܩi ViŒt trng hi ging ngܩi Tu, nhng n‰u tܪng lm mt ngܩi ViŒt l mt ngܩi Tu, h† s gin ngay.

Ngܩi Thi-Lan c th‹ khng "cung-tn" nh vy, c l ch v dn h† mi di-c ‰n lp-quc trn ng-bng sng Mnam.

Dn-c sinh sng Hoa-Nam, i-Loan, Hoa-Bc, Tn-Cng cng ܮc g†i chung l dn Tu nhng h† c nhng v g khng ging nhau. H† khng c ci niŠm hnh-diŒn dn-tc qu khch nh ngܩi ViŒt-Nam. V th‰ m Hong-‰ Trung-Hoa c thi l nhng "ngܩi ngoi" xut-x t Mng-C, t Mn-Chu...

Ngܩi ViŒt-Nam khc hn, rt hnh-diŒn ܮc lm mt ngܩi ViŒt-Nam, chng ta c th‹ hy-sinh tt c ‹ bo-vŒ lnh-th. S d ngܩi ViŒt "cung-tn" nh vy v chng ta cm thy bn-thn gn liŠn vo t nܧc ViŒt-Nam. S gn liŠn khi-s t lu ǩi. N bi‹u-l tnh-cht thun-nht v ǥc-tnh "bn-a" ca gc r dn-tc. T mܩi my ngn nm trܧc lin-tc ‰n nay, ging ViŒt l ch-nhn-ng u tin ca vng t cnh Bi‹n ng ny.

T thm-tm ngܩi ViŒt-Nam ngh rng chng ta c gc r ti ch‡. L t-nhin chng ta khng thch b g†i l "con ca Tu" hay ging dn t ni rng cao-nguyn (nh Ty-Tng) i xung, cng khng a b gn cho l t hi o xa xi (nh Melanesia) i vo.